Land Water Ecosystems


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Maarten van Ginkel (ICARDA); Keith
Shepherd (ICRAF); Patrick Dugan
(WorldFish); Deborah Bossio (IWMI);
Nteranya Sanginga,(CIAT‐Nairobi
TSBF); Boru Douthwaite (CPWF);
Tony Simons (ICRAF); Paula Bramel
(IITA); Alain Vidal (CPWF)

Published in: Education
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Land Water Ecosystems

  1. 1. Land Water  Ecosystems Contributions: Maarten van Ginkel (ICARDA); Keith  Shepherd (ICRAF);  Patrick Dugan  (WorldFish); Deborah Bossio (IWMI);  Nteranya Sanginga,(CIAT‐Nairobi  TSBF); Boru TSBF); Boru Douthwaite (CPWF); (CPWF);  Tony Simons (ICRAF); Paula Bramel (IITA); Alain Vidal (CPWF) 
  2. 2. Drivers of Land & Water  Drivers of Land & Water Use Drivers of Land & Water Use Other Water Pressures Urbanization ‐ Cities are projected to use 150%  more water in 2025, encroach on ag land more water in 2025, encroach on ag Agriculture – I A i l Increased water use and land  d dl d expansion behind production increases Population & Diet food grain production  Population & Diet – food grain production projected to increase by 100% by 2050 Energy – Hydropower and biofuels compete for Hydropower and biofuels compete for  Hydropower and  water and land Climate Change  Shifting patterns of water  Climate Change – Shifting patterns of water availability – availability – potential yields decline in Africa
  3. 3. Limits – Reached or Breached Land degradation – li it L dd d ti limits productivity d ti it River basins closed – Colorado, Murray Darling, Yellow,  Indus, Amu Darya ……… no additional water left I d A D dditi l t l ft Groundwater overdraft – in agricultural breadbaskets Fisheries – ocean and freshwater at a limit, aquaculture  will become more prevalent will become more prevalent Livestock – limit on extent of grazing land, more will  come from mixed and industrialized production f d d d l d d
  4. 4. Water Scarcity 2000 1/3 of the world’s population live in basins that have to deal with water scarcity
  5. 5. Land Health Widespread degradation is reducing productivity,  impeding development, damaging the environment The capacity of land to sustain delivery of essential  The capacity of land to sustain delivery of essential ecosystem services (the benefits people obtain from  ecosystems)
  6. 6. Land degradation & Soil nutrient depletion Limit land and water productivity Li i l d d d i i Soils from northern Tanzania
  7. 7. MP Addresses Interrelated Global  Challenges h ll • Water Scarcity Water Scarcity • Land Degradation  Agricultural research has a central role in  delivering solutions delivering solutions
  8. 8. Global initiatives and accompanying investments are urgently needed for nine billion to be adequately nourished by 2050: Soil and Water: Restore and enhance soil fertility with organic compost and manure fertilizers; nitrogen fixing crop rotations; and reduced tillage practices; rainwater retention, groundwater recharge rates and water utilization through agro-ecological h t d t tili ti th h l i l farming practices and improved land rights for farmers. Biodiversity and ecosystem services: Promote the y y diversification and integration of crops and livestock under a Multi- Functional Agricultural System. Energy and people: Invest public funds in participatory agro-ecological research and extension to build scientific and traditional knowledge.
  9. 9. IPCC 2008 IPCC 2008 • "the relationship between climate change and  freshwater resources is of primary concern and  p y interest"; so far, "water resource issues have not been  adequately addressed in climate change analyses and  p y ; , g climate policy formulations"; and, according to many  y experts, "water and its availability and quality will be  the main pressures, and issues, on societies and the  g environment under climate change".  • CC Adaptation is about water
  10. 10. From GCARD 2010 White Paper p “… regions could either become self –sufficient and  meet their nutrition, health and food needs, or  , , become a potential hot spot for poverty because of:  () (i) shortage of irrigated land,  g g , (ii) shortage of water,  ( ) (iii) adverse effects of agro‐chemicals used on their land  g and the proportionate increased need of water each  year and contaminating of subsoil water, ……”
  11. 11. MP5 Objectives • Increasing and safeguarding access to water  and land resources for smallholder women  and men producers and men producers • Increased land and water productivity of  crops/livestock/fish/agro forestry crops/livestock/fish/agro forestry • Reverse trends of land and water  degradation to support poverty reduction  g pp p y and productivity gains • Do above in a way that contributes to  ecosystem resilience and ecosystem services
  12. 12. What s new? What’s new? • Integration to find new ways of producing Integration to find new ways of producing  more from less water and land resources • Integration across scales Integration across scales • Beyond crops – fish, livestock, agro‐forestry,  ecosystem services i
  13. 13. Livestock water productivity (Uganda “Cattle Corridor”) Termites destroy any  Community corralling  Local organizations  attempt to reseed   of cattle for 2 weeks  invest in up‐scaling of  degraded pasture   permits pasture  pasture regeneration  establishment
  14. 14. Land Health Surveillance A science‐based approach  •Identify and locate land health  problems bl •Quantify major risks to land health f k l dh l h • •Target land management interventions •Evaluate outcomes on ecosystem  services
  15. 15. Research Highlights: SLM Program African Digital Soil Map: AFSIS ~18.1 million km2 of  continental SSA  continental SSA Spatially stratified random  sampling approach  consisting of 60 sites  Soil fertility  recommendation trials  d ti t i l installed in 5 countries Eco‐Efficient Agriculture for the Poor
  16. 16. New capability for digital soil mapping al (site‐leve ref Loca el) C 10 km
  17. 17. What s new? What’s new? • Underexplored water and land  p governance opportunities – ie managing groundwater, and  revitalizing irrigation g g • Basin and landscape  implications of actions taken  at farm scale. • Policies outside of agriculture  and water – implications and  opportunities 
  18. 18. MP Components MP Components 1.1. Delivering greater water productivity 1.2. Enhancing and safeguarding water access for  h d f d f the poor 2.1. Improving Land Health, water quality and  ecosystem services 2.2. Improved Soil management 3. Water and Land management for ecosystem  3 Water and Land management for ecosystem services
  19. 19. Integrative Land, Water, Ecosystem  Topics • Tradeoff analysis • P Payment for environmental services  f i l i (PES) • E Ecosystem services and resilience i d ili • Drivers of change • Scaling out interventions • Multi‐functional and multiple use  systems • Political ecology and economy
  20. 20. Tradeoffs: Water for crops or water for fish or both? SURFACE FLOODED 16 Reduced numbers of fish  14 EVEL 12 produced 10 WATER LE 8 6 4 2 0 Reduced  growth period  for fish that remain 20
  21. 21. Opportunities
  22. 22. An Opportunity – Upgrade Rainfed Lands • Largest opportunities to reduce poverty and  improve land and water productivity  are in  rainfed landscapes (from the Comprehensive  Assessment) • Wh t? A What?  A range of practices f ti – Water harvesting, supplemental irrigation, water  lifting devices lifting devices – Soil and water conservation – Improved soil nutrition  • How?  The research question
  23. 23. Impact ‐200 million livelihoods improved in 20 years
  24. 24. Ag Water&Land Management Solutions The Target The Target 200M farmers livelihoods improved across Africa  and S. Asia from water harvesting, soil & water  conservation, water lifting, watershed  management, storage, water productivity The Output The Output Suitable AWM solutions identified tailored for Particular situation, women and men, communities The Outcome Investments in AWM, policy interventions,  improved business models and supply chains,  community empowerment Partnerships Producers, development community,  Producers development community researchers, policy makers, investors
  25. 25. Women, Water and Land Women, Water and Land • Women and men have Women and men have  different priorities about  water and land water and land • Need to involve women in  the planning, research,  the planning research implementation cycle
  26. 26. Partnerships • Must cross several scales: local, national, regional,  global ‐ changes at one system level are the key  global changes at one system level are the key that unlocks the other levels • Boundary spanning role goes well beyond  agriculture – broader water, climate change,  energy, trade and environment sectors • New capacity needed, new way of thinking and  g, p doing, a new cadre of land and water specialists