Joseph OLOUKOI "Degradation of vegetation formations in the centre of Benin Republic: socio-economic factors and implications"


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Joseph OLOUKOI "Degradation of vegetation formations in the centre of Benin Republic: socio-economic factors and implications"

  1. 1. Rethinking vulnerability to water scarcity in the subhumid environment: the example of the WaterVulnerability Index in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria Grace Oloukoi1, Urmilla Bob2 and Funsho Afolabi3 1 Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria 2 University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, South Africa 3 University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria Economic assessment of desertification, sustainable land management and resilience of arid, semi-arid and dry sub- humid areas 9-12 April 2013 - Bonn, Germany 1
  2. 2. BackgroundClimate change impacts water systems with its variability and vulnerabilityWater supply shortages impact livelihoods in the sub-Sahara Africa in particular where most population are already vulnerable to other climate stress (Adger, 2006; Boko,et al. 2007).Usage of indicators and index to analyse vulnerability trends at regional and national levels, (e g. Water poverty index, climate vulnerability index, human development index) is ideal to communicate dimensions of water scarcity with significance for policy at macro levels (Adejuwon, 2008; Sullivan, 2001; Sullivan et al. 2002; Sullivan and Meigh, 2005) Research Question: What is the spatial trends and dimension of water scarcity at micro levels (community, neighbourhoods and households) when components of Water Vulnerability Index are summed up? 2
  3. 3. Study objectives To present Water Vulnerability Index (WVI) as aggregate of social and biophysical factors (access, resource, capacity, environment and use) that contribute to micro spatial vulnerability as relates to water shortages in local communities of Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria.Justification: Needs to incorporate all factors that may be affected or influence local adaptation to water scarcity in communities that are not connected with water infrastructure systems. 3
  4. 4. Located within the Nigerian savannahMethods:  Annual mean rainfall ranges 1. The study area between 1600 mm and 1200 mm; mean temperature is 29oC Double peak rainfall periods with interlude of a little dryness in June, July, August (JJA) The main source of water is well which serves 64.6% households of the population. Livelihoods activities of the people are agro-based such as farming, forestry and charcoal productionFig 1: Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria Water stress as a result of population pressure, lack of water infrastructure. 4
  5. 5. Methods contd: Data sources and analysisHousehold survey: of 397 respondents which were selected through a multistage systematic sampling technique Three local communities (i.e. Iseyin, Okehoand Shaki) of Oke-Ogun. Participating households were selected from informal formal neighbourhoods. Derivative equation for Water Vulnerability Index: 5
  6. 6. WVI Components: Resources (R), Access (A), Capacity (C),Use (U), and Environment (E). The analysis is based on the “acceptable or desirable”responses from frequency. Values represent the percentiles of thefrequency (f/100) of each sub components which were derivedfrom the variables in the questionnaire. Each of the components is first standardized so that it falls inthe range 0 to 100. The highest value, 100, is taken to be the best situation (or thelowest possible level of water poverty), while 0 is the worst. 6
  7. 7. Results  It is observed that type of neighbourhood has a significant contribution to the vulnerability of the selected communities the spatial dimension of teh WVI shows that communities and neighbourhoods with access to other social services indicate a more resilience capacity for water vulnerability Localities with other environmental and social stressors have lover WVI, indicating higher vulnerability and need critical policy intervention Fig 2: Water Vulnerability Index (CVI) in the selected communities based on equality of rankingthe highest WVI value indicates that the area is less 7
  8. 8. Result contd...  Component with less contribution value are use and access The dominant components with the highest contribution are in this order: environment, resource, and capacity  Water access and use are the critical contributors to WVI (quantity LPCPD, quality, distance of water points to residence )Fig 3: Contributions of WVI sub-components values for the case study communities Higher value indicates less contribution to vulnerability index 8
  9. 9. Implications of the results 1. From scientific perspective (needs, opportunities ...) Water vulnerability is not directly as a result of physical absence of water resource and other environmental capitals but that of inability of the communities to translate the available water resources into real access and use. Needs to identify local water resources and to strengthen adaptive capacity . From an implementation’s perspective (resilience, SLM): Provision of mini water schemes aiming at improving water access and water use of the population in the informal neighbourhoods who are already more vulnerable to water scarcity and at higher risks of other socio-environmental stressors is critical. Investment to improve water access will reduce the vulnerability risks. From a policy’s perspective Downscaling national water policy in order to integrate local specifications and water stress dimensions. 9
  10. 10. ConclusionPopulation vulnerability in relation to water supply shortages varies in relation to localities: depending on demographic composition, access to water, capacity to cope and other socio-economic and biophysical factors.In the context of the changing climate and desertification in the sub humid environment in Nigeria, addressing social deprivations and other environmental stressors of local communities to improve water access and use therefore, is a key determinant in reducing water-related vulnerability. 10
  11. 11. Acknowledgement This study is part of a project on coping strategies with watervariability in Oyo North region, Nigeria. The project was carriedout under the START - African Climate Change FellowshipProgramme (ACCFP), funded by the IDRC and DFID. Thank you for your attention! 11