Editing verbphrases1

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Editing verbphrases1

  1. 1. Editing Sentences E. Siler
  2. 2. Before you begin • The definition of “verb phrase” we use in this exercise is fully conjugated verb phrases. • Open the grammar editing worksheet that we use in this class: • https://sites.google.com/site/esllinksandmate rials/Home/learning-resources/the-grammar- page
  3. 3. Examples • Fully conjugated verb phrases are in green. Notice they show tense and, in present tensecases (and some past tenses), s-v agreement! • He argues that a huge evolution of birds had been going on and that they evolved from four-legged forest reptiles that were living millions of years ago.
  4. 4. Verbals • For purposes of this first lesson, do not consider “verbals” as verb phrases. Infinitives (to do), and stand-alone –ing forms (doing) that are either gerunds or participles are verbals. So are past participle forms of the verb used alone. These are all examples of verbals: • I told the dog to sit. • I saw the dog sitting. • I fed the dog left on the road by his owner.
  5. 5. Step 1: Isolate VPs • Underline the complete verb phrases as you understand them. • Draw [____] marks around the verb phrases. • Overstress [will causes] memory problems.
  6. 6. Step 2: Check form (VPP1) • Check the verb phrases forbasic form errors. • Remember that every verb has these basic forms: • Infinitive (to + simple): to clean • Simple (dictionary form): clean • -ing participle: cleaning • Past tense form: cleaned • Past participle form: cleaned • -s form: cleans • NOTE: The verb “be” also has THREE present tense forms!
  7. 7. Verb Forms: The Building Blocks of Verb Phrases and Verbals • We combine these verb forms in many ways to create verb phrases and verbals. In verb phrases, we use forms of the verbs “be” “have” and “do” to create auxiliary verbs that come before the main verb of the verb phrase. • The intense heat was taking a heavy economic toll requiring immediate action (verb phrase: past tense form of “be” followed by –ing participle of “take”; verbal – ing participle of “require”). • Half the world’s people live in countries where aquifers are being depleted (present tense form of “be” followed by –ing participle of “be” followed by past participle form of “deplete). • The US coal industry has suffered one setback after another (-s form of “have” followed by past participle of “suffer”). • China has enough wind energy to raise its energy consumption 16 fold (verb phrase: - s form of “have”; verbal: --- infinitive “to raise”).
  8. 8. VERB PHRASE FORM ERRORS: The AFTER Rules 1. After a modal (can, will, etc.): use only a SIMPLE FORM. She willgo crazy. 2. After a form of “to have”: use only a PAST PARTICIPLE FORM. She musthavegone crazy. 3. After a form of “to be”: use only an –ING FORM if the verb is intransitive; an –ING FORM or the PAST PARTICIPLE FORM if the verb is transitive (depending on whether it is active or passive). She musthavebeengoing crazy (active) . She must have been told the truth (passive).
  9. 9. Example 1: AFTER RULE 1 • MISTAKE: Use of tense and agreement-marked verbs as well as verbals after modals: Can, could, might, may, must, should, will, would and shall. • MARKED WITH: VPP1 • EX:could happened; will goes; might to see. • RULE: Only SIMPLE VERB FORMS can follow modals! This rule is NOT negotiable. • FIX:could happen/ will go/ might see
  10. 10. Example 2: AFTER RULE 2 • MISTAKE: Use of –ing forms or past tense forms after forms of “to have.” • EX: have being; hassinging; had went • MARKED WITH: VPP1 • RULE: ONLY PAST PARTICIPLE FORMS can happen after forms of “to have.” Again --- not negotiable. • FIX: have been; has sung; had gone.
  11. 11. Example 3: AFTER RULE 3 • MISTAKE: Use of forms OTHER than the –ing form (in the active) or the past participle form (in the passive) after a form of “to be.” • EX: Was came; has been went; is cooks. • MARKED WITH: VPP7 (because it’s often related to the passive) • RULE: • IF THE MAIN VERB IS INTRANSITIVE: ONLY –ing forms • IF THE MAIN VERB IS TRANSITIVE: USE –ING forms (in the active) or past participle forms (in the passive) after a form of “to be.” • EX: INTRANSITIVES: was coming/came; has been going/ goes; TRANSITIVES: is cooking (active) or is cooked (passive)
  12. 12. Transitivity • This is an important concept. All meanings of all verbs in English fall into three groups: • Transitive (requiring an object) • Intransitive (those with no object) • Linking (requiring a complement) • The dictionary marks all meanings of a verb for transitivity.
  13. 13. ANOTHER FORM ERROR: (NOT AN AFTER RULE) • MISTAKE: Use of a stand-alone –ing form in a clause. This often occurs in clauses that start with the word “who” or “which.” • MARKED WITH: VPP8 • EX: The man who cleaning the dishes is my husband. The dishes which needing to be cleaned are on the table. • RULE: Clauses that start with “who” need a fully conjugated verb phrase. These verbs generally need to be made into fully formed progressive verb phrases or maybe a simple present tense formwith a form of “be” in front of them. • FIX: The man who is cleaning the dishes is my husband. The dishes which need to be cleaned are on the table.
  14. 14. Fix Form First! • Overstress [will causes] memory problems. • Result: There is a verb form error --- an–s form of the verb after a modal. The simple form is needed: will cause.
  15. 15. Step 3: Check Subjects • Try to find a clear subject for each verb phrase. • Remember: • A subject cannot be the object of a prepositional phrase. • A subject cannot be the object or complement of another verb phrase.
  16. 16. Check! • There [are] a lot of animals [live] in the forest. • Results: • The subject of “are” is “there” but the subject of “live” cannot be “a lot of animals” because “a lot of animals” is the complement of “there are.” • This is a fuse (you have fused two clauses together and they are sharing the subject). There are two different markings for this: SLP3 OR VPP2. • I use VPP2 when the specific fuse is formed with “there is/ there are” --- and for all other forms of fuses I used SLP3.
  17. 17. Fix Subjects Second! • Rewrite/reconsider the sentence so that every verb phrase has a clear subject: • There [are] a lot of animals that [live] in the forest.
  18. 18. Step 4: SV AGR • Now check the s-v agreement of all the verb phrases!
  19. 19. Check! • The information about heat waves [make] me scared for the future.
  20. 20. Fix S-V agreement Third! • Remember --- if you can replace the subject with “it” --- the verb is singular. If you can replace the subject with “they” --- it’s plural. • It make me. . > it makes me. • Thus: The information about heat waves [makes] me scared for the future.
  21. 21. Review • Four steps • Isolate and clearly mark each verb phrase. • Check the form. • Check the subject. • Check the subject-verb agreement.

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