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    Gr Gr Presentation Transcript

    • Grammar book II
      Dylan Morgan
      • Infinitive + ending
      • Used for what might happen, what could happen
      • Can also express past tense and future tense of what could have happened or what should happen.
    • Conditional irregulars
    • Perfect tenses
      Conjugating Haber before a participle.
      Used to express has or have.
    • Perfect participles irregulars
      abrir (to open) - abierto (open)
      cubrir (to cover) - cubierto (covered)
      decir (to say) - dicho (said)
      escribir (to write) - escrito (written)
      freír (to fry) - frito (fried)
      hacer (to do) - hecho (done)
      morir (to die) - muerto (dead)
      poner (to put) - puesto (put)
      resolver (to resolve) - resuelto (resolved)
      romper (to break) - roto (broken)
      ver (to see) - visto (seen)
      volver (to return) - vuelto (returned)
    • Subjunctive perfect
      Haber + past participle
      Expresses opinion, like normal subjunctive tense.
      Applies to present, present perfect, or future tenses.
    • Tan vs. Tanto
      English meaning: as…as.
      Tan is used when you are comparing adjectives, as in as tall as.
      Tanto is used when your comparison involves a noun, ie as many dollars as.
      The only exception is, “as much as,” which can be stated as tantocomo.
    • Impersonal se
      Se is used when you’re not referring to a specific subject.
      Takes the form of almost any tense, save yo and ustedes tenses.
      Se goes before the verb who has the impersonal subject.
      Verb with impersonal se will always be in Usted tense.
    • Saber vs. Conocer
      Both are the spanish verbs, “to know.”
      Facts are always stated in saber, but not opinions due to the subjunctive tense.
      Conocer involves talking about a person, place, or thing that you are familiar with and know something about.
    • Los Mandatos
      Commands in Spanish used for other peoples or objects being told to do something.
      Can be informal or formal, depending on the setting and the object.
      Only available in the usted/usedes and tu tenses
    • Informal commands vs. Formal
      Two types of mandatos: formal and informal.
      Formal is when you want to show respect to somebody or something, and is used more commonly than informal and represented by the usted/ustedescomands
      Informal is when you know someone or something personally, and is a more friendly term towards them.
    • Affirmitivemandatos
      Used for commanding someone to do something.
      If the command is informal, you go to the usted form and then take the opposite ending.
      If the command is formal, you go to the yo form and then use the usted form instead of the o, keeping any irregularities.
      If it was normally in the ustedes tense, you do the same for formal except using the opposite ustedes tense.
    • Negative mandatos
      When you want to command someone NOT to do something.
      For formal commands you proceed as before, but simply add a no in front of the command, not attached to the command in any way
      The informal commands you do the same as before except you take the opposite ending of the usted tense, (iear become ir and er/ir become ar), and you add an s to the end, along with adding a no.
    • Irregular commands
      Formal commands:
      dardéUd.den Uds.
      estarestéUd.esténUds.
      irvayaUd.vayanUds.
      sersea Ud.seanUds.
      sabersepaUd.sepanUds.
    • Irregular informal commands
      Informal commands: the affirmitive has the following:

      Negative uses TV DISHES for irregulars.
    • Pronouns and commands
      Affirmitive pronouns attach to the end of commands, usually possibly with accents in their proper places.
      Negative commands have an unattached no before the verb itself.
    • Nosotros commands
      Used to express commands for yourself or a group of people including yourself, ie let’s.
      Affirmitive commands just have the yo form of the verb with the opposite verb ending in the nosotros tense.
      Negative commands do the same as affirmitive except with the addition of a no in front of the verb.
      Only exception in Ir: Vamos in affirmitive, no vayamos in negative
    • Mono verbs
      Reflexive verbs add their pronoun to the ending, but with the dropping of the s to become “_monos”.
      Ir also behaves this way; there are no irregulars.
    • Subjunctive tense
      Represents moody, subjective things.
      Has a special tense in the present tense.
      Yo form of the verbwith irregular endings listed below: –ar verbs are on the left, all others on the right.
    • Subjunctive trigger words:
      dudarque --  to doubt thatesdudosoque --  it is doubtful that es improbable que -- it's unlikely that esinciertoque -- it's uncertain that esposibleque -- it's possible that no creerque-- not to believe that esincreíbleque --  it's incredible thatno esciertoque -- it's not certain thatno esverdadque --  it's not true thatesinciertoque --  it's untrue thatesmentiraque --  it's a lie thatno estarconvencido de que -- to not be convinced that no estarseguro de que -- to not be sure that no parecerque -- to not seem thatno pensarque -- to not think that no suponerque -- to not suppose that puede ser que -- it may be thatnegarque -- to deny that no imaginarseque -- to not imagine thattemerque -- to suspect that
    • Impersonal expressions.
      convieneque .
      it is advisable that .
      esaconsejableque .
      it is advisable that .
      esbuenoque .
      it's good that .
      esdifícilque .
      it's unlikely that .
      esdudosoque .
      it's doubtful that .
      esfácilque .
      it's likely that .
      esfantásticoque .
      it's fantastic that .
      esimportanteque .
      it's important that .
      esimposibleque .
      it's impossible that .
      es improbable que .
      it's unlikely that .
      esinciertoque .
      it's uncertain that .
      esincreíbleque .
      it's incredible that .
      es (una) lástimaque .
      it's a shame that .
      esmaloque .
      it's bad that .
      esmejorque .
      it's better that .
      esmenesterque .
      it's necessary that .
      esnecesarioque .
      it's necessary that .
      esposibleque .
      it's possible that .
    • Expressions of emotion
      esevidenteque .
      it is certain that .
      esobvioque .
      it is obvious that .
      esverdadque .
      it's true that .
      no esdudosoque .
      it is not doubtful that .
      no hay dudaque .
      there is no doubt that .
    • Conjunctions of Time
    • Demonstratives
      When you refer to this, use este or esta, depending on the last letter of the noun,
      When you want to use that, use estas or estes, again depending on the last letters of the noun
      When you are using that thing over there, you uses aquel or aquella, with an s if there are multiple things.