Spanish grammar book 2


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Spanish grammar book 2

  1. 1. Grammar Concepts Pablo Packer
  2. 2. Conditional Tense <ul><li>Hablaría The endings are hablarías ía hablaría ías hablaríamos ía hablaríais íamos hablarían comería íais comerías ían comería comeríamos comeríais comerían viviría vivirías viviría viviríamos viviríais vivirían </li></ul><ul><li>Used to express wonder, probability, or conjecture. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Irregular Conditionals <ul><li>caber yo cabr ía </li></ul><ul><li>poner yo pondr ía </li></ul><ul><li>decir yo dir ía </li></ul><ul><li>haber yo habr ía </li></ul><ul><li>salir yo saldr ía </li></ul><ul><li>hacer yo har ía </li></ul><ul><li>poder yo podr ía </li></ul><ul><li>tener yo tendr ía </li></ul><ul><li>querer yo querr ía </li></ul><ul><li>valer yo valdr ía </li></ul><ul><li>saber yo sabr ía </li></ul><ul><li>venir yo vendr ía </li></ul>
  4. 4. Present Perfect <ul><li>Present perfect is a compound tense </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a main verb and an auxiliary verb </li></ul><ul><li>*I HAVE ___ He DID___ WE HAVE DONE____ </li></ul><ul><li>Use the following endings for present perfect. </li></ul><ul><li>he has ha hemos habéis han </li></ul>
  5. 5. Present Perfect Irregulars <ul><li>Sometimes a verb will change in the present perfect irregular. </li></ul><ul><li>Abrir goes to Abierto </li></ul><ul><li>Decir goes to Dicho </li></ul><ul><li>Descubrir to Descubierto </li></ul><ul><li>Escribir to Escrito </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer to Hecho </li></ul><ul><li>Now remember, not all verbs are listed here. These are just examples. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Past Perfect
  7. 7. Subjunctive Imperfect Tense Subjunctive is used as the set up: If this, then that. Noun + past tense + correct ending = Subjunctive Imperfect Tense
  8. 8. Tan vs Tanto <ul><li>Tan and tanto are used to compare things in spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto is used to say AS __ as. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Diego es tan alto de Pablo. </li></ul><ul><li>Tan is used to say AS MUCH AS </li></ul><ul><li>Nadie había hecho tanto como mi padre. </li></ul><ul><li>( No one has done as much as my father has ) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Spanish has a slightly different format for expressing this Impersonal voice. Spanish adds the pronoun se in front of verbs to make general statements. Impersonal voice using se will use a singular verb since the se can be replaced by uno . <ul><li>Examples: How does one say &quot;icecream&quot; in Italian? ¿Cómo se dice &quot;helado&quot; en italiano? </li></ul><ul><li>You say &quot;gelato&quot;. Se dice &quot;gelato&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>It could also be used to say he sees himself.. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pable se ve por el espejo.” </li></ul>Impersonal Se
  10. 10. Sabér vs Conocer <ul><li>Saber and conocer are both used in spanish to say something is known. But they are used for different things. </li></ul><ul><li>Saber is used to say “To express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something, use saber.” </li></ul><ul><li>To say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object, use “conocer.” </li></ul>Yo sé donde el aeropueta. Yo conozco ella!
  11. 11. Tu Informal Commands <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the IMPERITIVE FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the informal command form in Spanish, use the noun “TU”. </li></ul><ul><li>Just conjugate the verb in UDS. form and drop the last letter. </li></ul>Comprar  Compran  Compra
  12. 12. Mandatos Formal <ul><li>Verbs in Spanish are often used to command somone to do something. It’s called the IMPERITIVE FORM. </li></ul><ul><li>To use the informal command form in Spanish use the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugate the verb in present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Drop the O </li></ul><ul><li>Add the present tense opposite vowel. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Affirmative and Negative Commands <ul><li>In all affirmative commands, object pronouns are attached to the end of the verb; they are placed immediately before the verb in negative commands: </li></ul><ul><li>Damelo! - Affirmative </li></ul><ul><li>No lo des! - Negative </li></ul>
  14. 14. Irregular Commands <ul><li>Some verbs in Spanish are irregular in the command tense: </li></ul><ul><li>decir – di </li></ul><ul><li>salir – sal </li></ul><ul><li>hacer – haz </li></ul><ul><li>ser – sé </li></ul><ul><li>ir – ve </li></ul><ul><li>tener – ten </li></ul><ul><li>poner – pon </li></ul><ul><li>venir - ven </li></ul>
  15. 15. DOP and IOP <ul><li>Direct object pronouns and indirect object pronouns are used in Spanish to identify who or what a sentence is talking about. </li></ul><ul><li>Pablo no _____ espera en el centro. (Pablo) </li></ul><ul><li>In this sentence, we use the DOP “lo” </li></ul><ul><li>He gives María the book. In this sentence, MARIA is the IOP. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea &quot;let's + verb.&quot; To form these commands, use the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Comamos ati! </li></ul><ul><li>In order to form the no form, just put a no in front of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: No comamos ati! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Trigger Words for subjunctive Certain words in Spanish relate that the subjunctive tense should be used. These words are listed to the left. dudar que --  to doubt that es dudoso que --  it is doubtful that es improbable que -- it's unlikely that es incierto que -- it's uncertain that es posible que -- it's possible that no creer que -- not to believe that es increíble que --  it's incredible that no es cierto que -- it's not certain that no es verdad que --  it's not true that es incierto que --  it's untrue that es mentira que --  it's a lie that
  18. 18. Impersonal expressions allow you to express many ideas while using just a few words. The English equivalent is the word “it”. Below are a common list of impersonal expressions.
  19. 19. Monos Verbs <ul><li>If object pronouns are used in nosotros commands, they must be placed at the end of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Habla monos </li></ul><ul><li>However, the S before the M is lost so it’s monos not smonos. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregulars are v ámonos </li></ul>
  20. 20. Subjuctive Tense <ul><li>The subjuctive tense is used when the certainty of the thing being done isn’t known. </li></ul><ul><li>AR goes to E </li></ul><ul><li>ER goes to A </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Hable </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Coma </li></ul><ul><li>I want John to go to the store. (The clause &quot;I want&quot; tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Irregular Subjunctives Verbs <ul><li>Some verbs are conjugated differently in the subjunctive than in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>These are known as irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>Sentir E>Ie </li></ul><ul><li>Pedir E>I </li></ul><ul><li>Dormie O>UE </li></ul>