Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. GRAMMAR BOOKBy: Carla Shockey
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS1. Nationalities2. Stem Changers3. Para4. Indirect Object Pronoun5. Object Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmative and Negative Words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative tú Commands/Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement11. Negative tú Commands/Irregulars/ Pronoun Placement12. Sequencing Events13. Pretérito14. Trigger Words15. -car, -gar, -zar16. Deber + Infinitive17. MODAL verbs18. Present Progressive19. Adverbs
  3. 3. STEM CHANGINGPensar (to think) e>ie Pienso Pensamos Piensas Pensáis Piensa Piesan Almorzar (to eat lunch) o>ue Almuerzo Almorzamos Almuerzas Almorzáis Almuerza AlmuerzanPedir (to ask) e>iPido PedemosPides PedeísPide Piden Jugar (to play) u>ue Juego Jugamos Juegas Jugáis Juega Juegan
  4. 4. PARAUse para (for, in order to)to indicate……The recipient Implied Purpose of an item Purpose• Example: El • Example: • Example: regalo para Vamos al Tengo tú mama. restaurante dinero para para comer. (comprar) algo.
  5. 5. INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUN Indirect Objects are nouns that tell to whom/what or for whom/what. Indirect Object Pronouns replace or accompany indirect objects.Singular Plural The pronouns le and les can refer to different indirect objects. To clarify me nos what they mean, they are often (me) (us) accompanied by….   te os a+ name, noun, or pronoun (you (you ex: Rosa le comprar una olla a su madre.familiar) familiar) To add emphasis use…. le les (you (you, a+ pronounformal, them) ex: A mi me compro unos aretes.him, her
  6. 6. OBJECT PRONOUN PLACEMENT • Attach the pronoun to an infinitive. 1. • Attach the pronoun to a progressive 2. tense • Attach the pronoun to an affirmative 3. command • Place the pronoun before a conjugated 4. verb. 4. •When the pronoun accompanies a conjugated verb, the pronoun comes before the verb. •When the pronoun accompanies a sentence with an infinitive, it can either go before the conjugated verb or be attached to the end of the infinitive.
  7. 7. GUSTAR Negative Phrase No goes before conjugated verb Gustar means to like No______ gusta mi= me gusta me Ti= te gusta Usted/el/ella=le gusta les te Nosotros= nos gusta Ustedes/ellas/ellos= les gusta Gusta Vosotros= os gusta Gusto Gustamos os le nos Gustas Gustáis *Form of gusta depends on Gusta Gustan object liked* Ex: Me gustan los perros.
  8. 8. AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE WORDS Affirmative Words Negative Words Algo Something Nada Nothing Nadie Nobody Alguien Someone Ningun/Ninguno/a None Algún/Alguno/a Some Nunca Never Siempre Always Tampoco Neither, También Also either•Alguno and ninguno must match the gender of the noun they replaceor modify. Alguno and niguno have different forms when used beforemasculine singular nouns.•If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must be negative. Adouble negative is required in Spanish when no proceeds the verb.•However, if a negative word, such as nunca or nadie, comes beforethe verb, a second negative is not needed.
  9. 9. SUPERLATIVE To express extremes with adjectives amd adverbs superlatives are used. The suffix –ísimo, -ísimos, -ísima, -ísimas are added to adjectives and adverbs. Its equivalent to extremely or very. Malo> malísimo Muchas> muchisímas Difícil> difilísmo Adjectives and adverbs ending in c, g, or z change spelling to qu, gu, and c respectively Rico> riquísimo Larga> larguísima Feliz> felicísmo Adjectives that end in –n or –r form by adding –císimo/a joven > jovencísimo trabajador > trabajadorcísimo
  10. 10. REFLEXIVES Reflexives are used to describe people doing things for themselves. In the reflexive construction, the subject is also the object. The subject, the pronoun and the verb are all in the same form.Ex: Yo me levanto a las ocho de la mañana.Form the verb Reflexives can be…… Levantarse 1. In front of a conjugated verb 2. Attached to a gerundConjugate the verb… 3. Attached to an infinitve 4. Attached to an affirmative commandme levanto nos levantamoste levantas es levantáisse levanta se levantan
  11. 11. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT  Affirmative tú Commands  Give instructions or commands to someone by using the affirmative tú commands of regular verbs. Caminar ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el parque! It is a tú command, but end in third person.
  12. 12. AFFIRMATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT CONTINUEDIrregular Affirmative Tú Commands Infinitive Affirmative tú Commadns decir di *When you use a pronoun hacer haz with an affirmative ir ve command, the pronoun poner pon attaches to the command.* salir Sal ser sé tener ten Pronoun Placement When using an object venir ven pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the command.
  13. 13. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT Negative tú Commands When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative command. Negative tú commands are formed by taking you form of the present tense, dropping the o, and adding the appropriate ending. Hablo -es for –ar verbs Vuelvo -as for –er and ir verbsInfinitive Yo Form Negative tú CommandHablar Hablo ¡No hablas!Volver Vuelvo ¡No Vuelvas!
  14. 14. NEGATIVE TÚ COMMANDS/IRREGULARS/PRONOUN PLACEMENT CONTINUEDIrregular NegativeTú Commands•A few verbs have irregular tú commands. The noun of the yo forms ofthese verbs end in –o. Infinitive (yo form) Negative tú Command Dar (doy) No le des mi dirreccion a nadie. Estar (estoy) No estes triste Ir (voy) No vayas a la tienda. Ser (soy) No seas mala.Pronoun PlacementObject Pronouns precede theverbs in negative commands, justas with other conjugated verbs.Ex: ¡ No lo uses!
  15. 15. SEQUENCING EVENTS Luego/First Primero Then Entonces Later después Finally Por Fin Antes de/ después de Por la manana/ Los lunes, los tarde/noche martes, los miercoles,…etc. Before/ after In/ during the Monday, Tuesday, (no specific time Wednesday given) Words used to tell when and in what order certain events occur.
  16. 16. PRETÉRITE ar: er/ir: hablar Comer/escribir -é -amos -í -imos hablé hablamos comí comimos escribí escibimos -aste -asteís -íste -isteís hablaste hablasteís comíste comisteís escribíste escribisteís -ó -aron -ió -ieron habló hablaron comió comieron escribió escribieron •A pretérite is a perfected action in the past. •“snapshot” •Beginning and/or ending
  17. 17. Trigger WordsTRIGGER WORDS
  18. 18. -CAR, -GAR, -ZAR -car -gar -zar tocar -toqué -jugué -comencé -tocaste -jugaste -comenzaste -tocó -jugó - comenzó -tocamos -jugamos -comenzamos -tocaron -jugaron -comenzaron•* -car ending preterite verbs in the yo form will change to –que in orderto keep the hard „c‟ sound.*•Ex: Yo saque (sacar) la basura.
  19. 19. DEBER + INFINITIVE •The verb deber means should or ought to. To say what people should do, use a conjugated form of deber with the infinitive of another verb. Deber should, ought toEx: debo debemos Debo barrer el suelo. I should sweep the floor. debes debéisDeben sacar la basura.They should take out the trash. debe deben*Remember you can put a pronoun in frontof a conjugated verb or attach it to aninfinitive.*
  20. 20. MODAL VERBS When verbs are used in modal verb combinations…. • The second verb is not conjugated but rather left in the infinitive form. •You would never say “no puedo nado”.Deber- shouldDesear- desireNecesitar- to needPoder- can, could, mightQuerer- want, would like toSaber- know, know how toSoler- usually, used to
  21. 21. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE estoy estamos esperando esperando estás estáis esperando esperando está esperando están esperando•When you use pronouns with the present progressive, you can putthem in two places.•Put pronouns before the conjugated form of estar…or attach to the end of the present participle.Ex: Estoy sacándolas para algo muy importante.
  22. 22. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE CONTINUED Irregulars Irregular•When the stem of an –er or –ir Verb Presentverb ends in a vowel, change the Participle–iendo to –yendo to form thepresent participle. Leer Leyendo Oir Oyendo•e>i stemchanging verbs have a traer Trayendovowel change in the stem. Pedir Pidiendo Servir Sirviendo•Some other verbs also have avowel change in the stem. Decir Diciendo Dormir Durmiendo Venir Viniendo
  23. 23. Adjectives Adverb Reciente Recientemente recently recently ADVERBS Frecuente Frecuentemente frequently frequently •When an adjective ends in Fácil Fácilmente e,I, or z, simply add -mente easy easily to the end.*When two adverbs modify the same Normal Normalmenteverb, only the second one uses the normal normally–mente ending.* Especial Especialmente special speciallyFor adjectives with –o or–a endings, add –mente Feliz Felizmenteto the feminine form. happy happily Irregular Verbs-Adjective Adverb Mucho- alot Muy-veryCuidadoso(a) cuidadosamente Mal-badRápido(a) rápidamente Bastante- quiet/enough Bien-good/ wellLento(a) lentamente Ya- alreadyTranquillo(a) tranquillamente Tan- so Demasiado- too