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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Objectives
At the end of this course, students will be able to do
the following:









Definition of Computer ·...
Introduction to computer
A computer is an electronic machine that manipulates data
according to a list of instructions.

A...
A primitive computer
A basic computer (primitive) consists of three major components:
o CPU (Central Processing Unit)
o IO...
Types of computers
Computer types can be divided into 3 categories
according to electronic nature.
Types of computers are ...
ANALOGUE COMPUTER (ANALOG)
Analogue computer uses analogue signals that
are represented by a continuous set of varying
vol...
Image of analogue computers

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Image of analogue computers

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Image of analogue computers

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Digital computer
With these types of computers operation are on
electrical input that can attain two inputs, states of
ON=...
Image of a digital computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Image of a digital computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
HYBRID COMPUTER
Hybrid computer types are very unique, in the
sense that they combined both analogue and
digital features ...
IMAGES OF HYBRID COMPUTER

HYBRID COMPUTER HYBRID COMPUTER

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Classification of Computers
The classification of computers according to size /
appearance relates to the grouping of comp...
Supercomputers:
Super computer are the fastest high capacity
computers and very expensive.
Used for calculating speed and ...
An example of a supper computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Mainframe computers
Mainframe computers are powerful computers
used mainly by large organizations for critical
application...
An example of a mainframe computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
An example of a mainframe computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
MINI COMPUTER
. Minicomputer are mid-range called
refrigerator machine with less storage capacity
and processing speed.
Us...
An example of a mini computer

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
MICRO COMPUTER
Personal Computer is the smallest with low
storage capacity and processing speed.
It support only one monit...
EXAMPLE OF MICRO COMPUTERS

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Basic parts of a computer
There are four (4) basic parts of a computer:
 Mouse
 Keyboard

 Monitor
 System Unit

Insti...
Mouse
A mouse is a hand-held or an input device that
controls the movement of pointer on the screen.
Position the pointer ...
Types of Mouse
There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are namely:

Base on their ports
1)

P...
Types of Mouse
There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are
namely:

Base on their designed
st...
Parts of a mouse

Plastic case (body)

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
HOW TO HOLD A MOUSE
Thumb finger
Little finger

Ring finger
Middle finger

Index finger

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL...
Actions of a mouse
This section explain the actions of the mouse



Pointing



Mouse Pointer



Clicking



Mouse Pad...
Pointing
To direct the tip of the mouse pointer on an item.

CLICKING
Press and release the left mouse button once.

DOUBL...
Dragging
pressing and holding down the left mouse button on an object or
selected text and moving it to a different positi...
keyboard
The keyboard is the primary input device for entering
data and executing commands.

The keyboard is laid out like...
TYPES OF COMPUTER KEYBOARD
There are two (2) types of computer keyboard
namely:


Standard Keyboard

Multimedia

Keyboar...
Standard keyboard (qwerty)
It is named after the first six leftmost letters on the top alphabetical line
of the keyboard.
...
Multimedia keyboard
Designed for the user to access often-used programs such as
Internet, music, and email.
It contains bu...
Parts of a keyboard
The computer keyboard is divided into five main parts as showed below
Home Keys

Calculator Keys

Func...
Special key
The standard keyboard contains special key such as:
Keys
Esc
Tab
Caps Lock
Shift
Ctrl
Alt
Space Bar
Enter
Back...
Special keys
Escape key used to get out of troubles.
Tab key used to advance the cursor some distances away from the margi...
Monitor
Is a display unit used to view the content of the system unit. The screen is made up of red,
green and blue dots.
...
TYPES OF MONITOR
There are two (2) types of monitor as follows:



Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)



Liquid crystal Display (LCD...
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
The LCD (Liquid Crystal
Display).
This is also called Flat
screen.

It has the following
adva...
SYSTEM UNIT
It is also known as a base unit, is the main body of a desktop computer.

System Unit

It consisting of a plas...
TYPES OF SYSTEM UNIT
They are two (2) types of system unit

Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT
Hard
Disk

Power
Pack

Cmon Battery

CD-ROM
Drive

Cooling
Fan
Floppy Disk
Drive

Heat
Sink
...
MOTHERBOARD
The motherboard is the main circuit board in which all component
communicate through in the PC.
Every componen...
RIBBON CABLES
These are cables (wires) used internally in a PC to connect hard disk, CD and
floppy.
For external connectio...
CMOS BATTERY
A tiny device on the motherboard that create a
computer system to run smoothly.
Its function is to keep the c...
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
A CPU is the brain that runs a computer. CPU
(Central Processing Unit) is the core chip to a...
HEAT SINK
It is a device that absorbs the excess heat
generated by a processor (CPU).

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BY ABDUL-R...
COOLING FAN
The cooling fan produce air to cool the heat sink so it
can absorb more heat from the processor (CPU)
The CPU ...
HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD)
The hard disk drive is the main primarily storage device for the computer
system that stores all dat...
Parts of a Hard Disk Drive

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BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
CD-ROM DRIVE
A CD drive is connected to a computer and on which a
CD-ROM can be ‘played’ (computer science) a device
that ...
FLOPPY DISK DRIVE(FDD)
It is a small drive that takes a little plastic square shaped disks.
Is a place where a floppy disk...
FLOPPY DISKETTE
It is a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable
of storing information depending on the density.
They a...
TYPE OF FLOPPY DISKETTE
There are two (2) types of floppy diskettes as
follow:


3½ floppy diskette

5¼

floppy diskette...
3½ FLOPPY DISKETTE
It is a magnetic disc with a
microfilm and capable of
storing information
depending on the density,
slo...
5¼ FLOPPY DISKETTE
This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing
information depending on the densi...
MEMORY
The computer memory is a temporary storage device which holds the data and
instructions that (CPU) needs to process...
TYPES OF MEMORY
There are two (2) main types of computer memory as
follow:
 Read Only Memory (ROM)

 Random Access Memor...
READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)
The Read-Only Memory (ROM) stores the BIOS
that runs when the computer is powered on.
Or otherwise ...
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
RAM is the working memory of a computer system that stores input data,
intermediate results, pr...
POWER SUPPLY (POWER PACK)
A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to
low-voltage direct...
VIDEO CARD (VGA)
The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor.
The main function of the video card is to ...
TYPE OF VIDEO CARDS (VGA)

AGP Video Card

PCI Express Video Card

PCI Video Card
Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMA...
PERIPHERAL DEVICES
Peripheral device are optional device connected to the computer externally such as
printer, scanner, ta...
PRINTER
This device is used to print a report or hardcopy, after data or information has been processes.
Printers are desi...
SCANNER
A scanner is a device that is able to transfer images or pictures in to the
computer to be store.
Such images or p...
INPUT DEVICE
Input devices are devices used to feed information or provide the control
signals to the computer.
Keyboard a...
OUTPUT DEVICES
Output devices are devices used to display results.
Printer, speaker and the monitor are the examples of th...
Plotter
Plotters were the first type of printer that could print with
colour and render graphics and full-size engineering...
Projector
A Projector is an output device that project and
display video, images or computer data on a screen
or other fla...
Sound Speakers
Sound Speakers enable the computer user (liveware)
to hear sound from the computer.

Sound speakers
BY ABDU...
INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICE
Referred to as a IO device, an input/output device is a hardware device that accepts
inputted informat...
SOUND CARD
Also known as an audio card, is an internal computer expansion card that
facilitates the input and output of au...
STORAGE DEVICES
A storage device is a device that is used to store the information such as hard
disk drive, flash drive, f...
BLU-RAY DVD
Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium
designed to supersede the DVD format...
THE ZIP DISK
A zip disk is a computer hardware device that stores data.

A zip disk drive is somewhat like floppy disk dri...
USER INTERFACE
User interface is the space where interaction between the user and the
computer occurs.

TYPES OF USER INTE...
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
Allows users to interact with the computer, using icons, windows and menus, with
the help o...
Character User Interface (CUI)
An interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using codes (text), with the
...
BOOT
Boot is the process of turning on the computer.
To do this, press the power switch that is used to put the unit on.
N...
Types of booting
There are two types of booting namely:
o Cool Booting

o Warm Booting
• Cool booting is the process of pu...
process of booting
In computing, booting (also known as booting up) is a process that starts
operating systems when the us...
Desktop
The Desktop is a graphical user interface which serves as a communication
link between the computer and the user (...
Icons

Wallpaper

Parts of the desktop

Taskbar
Notification area

Start button
Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
Parts of the desktop
Start button -Provides access to Windows XP programs, documents, and
information on the Internet. (Ge...
Window
A window is a rectangular area of the screen in which you view
program folders, files, or icons.
The window is made...
PARTS OF A WINDOW

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BY ABDULRAHAMAN
PARTS OF A WINDOW
Menu bar -Contains the titles of menus, such as File, Edit, and Help. (Located
along the top of the wind...
PARTS OF A WINDOW
Minimize button a small minus button at the top right window which is used
to reduce the window on to th...
COMPUTER WARES
Computer wares refers to the physical, internal and living parts
that makes a computer to work.
There are t...
Hardware
Hardware – the physical parts of a computer you can see, torch and
feel. e.g. system unit, monitor, keyboard, mou...
SOFTWARE
Software is a collection of computer programs and related
data that provide instructions for telling a computer w...
TYPES OF SOFTWARE
There are two (2) types of computer software
namely:
I. System Software

II.

Application Software

Inst...
System software

System software

also known as operating system(o s)

the soul of a computer.
This program controls the a...
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Application Software is a computer software designed to
help the user to perform specific tasks.
Exam...
TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE
There are three (3) types of application software
namely:
1. End-user software ( can be down...
operating system
An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer
hardware resources and provide common ...
THE END!!!
THANK YOU
Institute of Technology

BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
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  • BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
  • Transcript of "Introduction to computers by abdul rahaman"

    1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    2. 2. Objectives At the end of this course, students will be able to do the following:         Definition of Computer · Types of computers . Peripheral Device Input & output devices · Memory and processing Device · Storage Devices · GUI AND CUI Introduction to Operating System Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    3. 3. Introduction to computer A computer is an electronic machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions. A computer is an electronic machine(device) that accepts input (data), processes it and gives (output)results (information)and save as an electronic file. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    4. 4. A primitive computer A basic computer (primitive) consists of three major components: o CPU (Central Processing Unit) o IO (Input/Output) o Memory Input CPU Output Memory Data comes through input and the CPU process it based on a program in memory. And the (result) output returned to memory or presented to the user. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    5. 5. Types of computers Computer types can be divided into 3 categories according to electronic nature. Types of computers are classified according to how a particular Computer functions. These computer types are: · Analogue Computers · Digital Computers · Hybrid Computers Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    6. 6. ANALOGUE COMPUTER (ANALOG) Analogue computer uses analogue signals that are represented by a continuous set of varying voltages in scientific research centers ,hospitals and flight centers. Analogue computer types program arithmetic and logical operations by measuring physical changes i.e. temperatures or pressure. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    7. 7. Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    8. 8. Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    9. 9. Image of analogue computers Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    10. 10. Digital computer With these types of computers operation are on electrical input that can attain two inputs, states of ON=1 and state of OFF = 0. With digital type of computers data is represented by digital of 0 and 1 or off state and on state. Digital computer type recognizes data by counting discrete signal of (0 0r 1), they are high speed programmable; they compute values and stores results. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    11. 11. Image of a digital computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    12. 12. Image of a digital computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    13. 13. HYBRID COMPUTER Hybrid computer types are very unique, in the sense that they combined both analogue and digital features and operations. Hybrid computers operate by using digital to analogue convertor and analogue to digital convertor. E.g. personal computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    14. 14. IMAGES OF HYBRID COMPUTER HYBRID COMPUTER HYBRID COMPUTER Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    15. 15. Classification of Computers The classification of computers according to size / appearance relates to the grouping of computers according to their physical structure. The computer classification from the largest to the smallest single unit is as follows: Supercomputers, Mainframe Computers, Mini Computers, and Micro Computers Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    16. 16. Supercomputers: Super computer are the fastest high capacity computers and very expensive. Used for calculating speed and volumes in weather forecasting, oil exploitation, aircraft designing and handle about 1000 user at a time. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    17. 17. An example of a supper computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    18. 18. Mainframe computers Mainframe computers are powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications. Typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    19. 19. An example of a mainframe computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    20. 20. An example of a mainframe computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    21. 21. MINI COMPUTER . Minicomputer are mid-range called refrigerator machine with less storage capacity and processing speed. Used by small companies for accounting and finance, and handle about 4 to 100 users at a time. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    22. 22. An example of a mini computer Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    23. 23. MICRO COMPUTER Personal Computer is the smallest with low storage capacity and processing speed. It support only one monitor, key board and a user at a time. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    24. 24. EXAMPLE OF MICRO COMPUTERS Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    25. 25. Basic parts of a computer There are four (4) basic parts of a computer:  Mouse  Keyboard  Monitor  System Unit Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    26. 26. Mouse A mouse is a hand-held or an input device that controls the movement of pointer on the screen. Position the pointer on an object is known as pointing. Mouse Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    27. 27. Types of Mouse There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are namely: Base on their ports 1) PS/2 mouse 2) USB mouse 3) Serial mouse Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    28. 28. Types of Mouse There are many types of computer mice, but the three (3)common types are namely: Base on their designed standard mouse optical mouse wireless mouse Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    29. 29. Parts of a mouse Plastic case (body) Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    30. 30. HOW TO HOLD A MOUSE Thumb finger Little finger Ring finger Middle finger Index finger Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    31. 31. Actions of a mouse This section explain the actions of the mouse  Pointing  Mouse Pointer  Clicking  Mouse Pad  Double Clicking  Right Clicking  Dragging  Right Dragging Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    32. 32. Pointing To direct the tip of the mouse pointer on an item. CLICKING Press and release the left mouse button once. DOUBLE CLICKING Quickly press and release the left mouse button twice. RIGHT CLICKING Press and release the right mouse button once. A shortcut menu appears. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    33. 33. Dragging pressing and holding down the left mouse button on an object or selected text and moving it to a different position and release the left button. RIGHT DRAGGING Right-drag is to press and hold down the right mouse button on an object, move to different position and release the button to drop the item. MOUSE POINTER Mouse pointer is an arrow that appears on the screen and is controlled by the movement of the ball. Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    34. 34. keyboard The keyboard is the primary input device for entering data and executing commands. The keyboard is laid out like the keys on a typewriter. It has 102 to 110 keys and with 256 to 260 characters. BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN Institute of Technology
    35. 35. TYPES OF COMPUTER KEYBOARD There are two (2) types of computer keyboard namely:  Standard Keyboard Multimedia Keyboard BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN Institute of Technology
    36. 36. Standard keyboard (qwerty) It is named after the first six leftmost letters on the top alphabetical line of the keyboard. Also called a QWERTY keyboard because of the layout on its typing area. It has about 103 keys and about 257 characters. Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    37. 37. Multimedia keyboard Designed for the user to access often-used programs such as Internet, music, and email. It contains buttons that control various computer processes, such as turning on the computer's power, putting the CPU to sleep, and waking it up again. It comes in various connection formats, including PS/2, USB, and wireless. Depending on the manufacturer. BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN Institute of Technology
    38. 38. Parts of a keyboard The computer keyboard is divided into five main parts as showed below Home Keys Calculator Keys Function Keys Arrow Keys Typing Standard Key Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    39. 39. Special key The standard keyboard contains special key such as: Keys Esc Tab Caps Lock Shift Ctrl Alt Space Bar Enter Backspace Meaning Escape Tab Caps Lock Shift Control Altertive Space Bar Enter Backspace Institute of Technology Symbol BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    40. 40. Special keys Escape key used to get out of troubles. Tab key used to advance the cursor some distances away from the margin. Caps Lock key used to change upper case to lower case (capital to small letters)and vise visa. Shift, Ctrl and Alt key used to combine with other keys to perform a task. Space bar key used to give space between words. Enter Key used to start a new line or end a paragraph. Backspace key used to advance the cursor one step backwards. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    41. 41. Monitor Is a display unit used to view the content of the system unit. The screen is made up of red, green and blue dots. The video card send signals out to the monitor. The information video card sends control which dots are light up and how bright they are determines the picture you see. Another name for a monitor is video display terminal (VDT) or Visual display unit (VDU). Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    42. 42. TYPES OF MONITOR There are two (2) types of monitor as follows:  Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)  Liquid crystal Display (LCD) Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    43. 43. LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) The LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). This is also called Flat screen. It has the following advantages over the CRT: Takes up less space Lighter in weight Uses less power Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    44. 44. SYSTEM UNIT It is also known as a base unit, is the main body of a desktop computer. System Unit It consisting of a plastic case containing the motherboard, power supply, cooling fans, memory models and expansion cards that are plugged into the motherboard, such as video and network card. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    45. 45. TYPES OF SYSTEM UNIT They are two (2) types of system unit Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    46. 46. COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT Hard Disk Power Pack Cmon Battery CD-ROM Drive Cooling Fan Floppy Disk Drive Heat Sink CPU Video Card (VGA) Mother Board Memory Ribbon Cables Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    47. 47. MOTHERBOARD The motherboard is the main circuit board in which all component communicate through in the PC. Every components either directly plugging into it or communicating through the motherboards ports. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    48. 48. RIBBON CABLES These are cables (wires) used internally in a PC to connect hard disk, CD and floppy. For external connections, round-shaped cables are preferred over ribbon ones. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    49. 49. CMOS BATTERY A tiny device on the motherboard that create a computer system to run smoothly. Its function is to keep the computer date and time up till date. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    50. 50. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) A CPU is the brain that runs a computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the core chip to a computer. It process data to information which is then outputted to the user. Another name for a CPU is Processor Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    51. 51. HEAT SINK It is a device that absorbs the excess heat generated by a processor (CPU). Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    52. 52. COOLING FAN The cooling fan produce air to cool the heat sink so it can absorb more heat from the processor (CPU) The CPU - produce a ton of heat and cause overheating to the machine if not check will crash the computer. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    53. 53. HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD) The hard disk drive is the main primarily storage device for the computer system that stores all data and files. Also known as the "C drive" because Microsoft assigns the "C" drive letter to the primary partition(division) by default on the primary hard drive. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    54. 54. Parts of a Hard Disk Drive Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    55. 55. CD-ROM DRIVE A CD drive is connected to a computer and on which a CD-ROM can be ‘played’ (computer science) a device that writes data onto or reads data from a storage medium. CD-ROM Drive Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    56. 56. FLOPPY DISK DRIVE(FDD) It is a small drive that takes a little plastic square shaped disks. Is a place where a floppy disk(a diskette) is inserted (removable storage device). They are out of date, pen drives can take much data/information than diskette. Today new computers are sold without a floppy disk drive. Floppy Disk Drive Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    57. 57. FLOPPY DISKETTE It is a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD). It is slotted into the floppy disk drive (Drive A: B: ) computer to access the information stored on it. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    58. 58. TYPE OF FLOPPY DISKETTE There are two (2) types of floppy diskettes as follow:  3½ floppy diskette 5¼ floppy diskette Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    59. 59. 3½ FLOPPY DISKETTE It is a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density, slotted into the floppy disk drive (Drive A:) 3½ Floppy Diskette Capable of storing from 400K to 1.4MB of data. The common once are 720K (double-density) and 1.44MB (high-density). Macintoshes support disks of 400K, 800K, and 1.2MB. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    60. 60. 5¼ FLOPPY DISKETTE This is also a magnetic disc with a microfilm and capable of storing information depending on the density, slotted into the diskette drive (Drive B:) 5¼ Floppy Diskette It is capable of storing between 100K and 1.2MB (megabytes) of data. The most common sizes are 360K and 1.2MB. BY ABDULRAHAMAN Institute of Technology
    61. 61. MEMORY The computer memory is a temporary storage device which holds the data and instructions that (CPU) needs to process. Before a program can be run, it must be loaded from a storage medium (hard disk) into the memory for CPU to have direct access to it. Memory is a necessity to every computer. It is primary storage device, it can be either ROM or RAM Institute of Technology BY ABDUL- RAHAMAN
    62. 62. TYPES OF MEMORY There are two (2) main types of computer memory as follow:  Read Only Memory (ROM)  Random Access Memory (RAM) Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    63. 63. READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM) The Read-Only Memory (ROM) stores the BIOS that runs when the computer is powered on. Or otherwise begins execution, a process known as Bootstrapping, or "booting" or "booting up". Institute of Technology
    64. 64. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) RAM is the working memory of a computer system that stores input data, intermediate results, programs, and other information temporarily. It can be read and written. It is volatile, that is all data will be erased when the power is turned off. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    65. 65. POWER SUPPLY (POWER PACK) A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage direct current (DC) power for the internal components of the computer. Is mostly found in the system unit. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    66. 66. VIDEO CARD (VGA) The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor. The main function of the video card is to generate and output images to the computer screen. Better graphics card equals better performance when playing games or working on a high resolution monitor. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    67. 67. TYPE OF VIDEO CARDS (VGA) AGP Video Card PCI Express Video Card PCI Video Card Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    68. 68. PERIPHERAL DEVICES Peripheral device are optional device connected to the computer externally such as printer, scanner, tape device, microphone and external modem. And internal such as CD-ROM or internal modem and CPU, expansion cards. Peripheral devices are classified base on their functions. Scanner Microphone Printer Projector Web Cam Light Pen Speakers Plotter Wireless Router Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMA
    69. 69. PRINTER This device is used to print a report or hardcopy, after data or information has been processes. Printers are designed to print in any colour, but some, just one colour i.e. Black. A print out from the printer is term as hardcopy. Canon SELPHY DS810 Prints any colour Institute of Technology HP Laser Jet 2055 Prints only black BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    70. 70. SCANNER A scanner is a device that is able to transfer images or pictures in to the computer to be store. Such images or pictures are usually not found in the computer; thus the need to be scan. HP Scanjet 3670 HP ScanJet 4370 Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    71. 71. INPUT DEVICE Input devices are devices used to feed information or provide the control signals to the computer. Keyboard and the Mouse are the examples of the input devices. Microphone Keyboard Mouse Light Pen Web Cam Scanner Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    72. 72. OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices are devices used to display results. Printer, speaker and the monitor are the examples of the output devices. Projector Monitor Plotter Printer Speaker Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    73. 73. Plotter Plotters were the first type of printer that could print with colour and render graphics and full-size engineering drawing. But plotter are much more expensive than printers. Plotter Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    74. 74. Projector A Projector is an output device that project and display video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat form. Projector Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    75. 75. Sound Speakers Sound Speakers enable the computer user (liveware) to hear sound from the computer. Sound speakers BY ABDULRAHAMAN Institute of Technology
    76. 76. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICE Referred to as a IO device, an input/output device is a hardware device that accepts inputted information and also has the capability of outputting that information. Network Card Touch Screen Photocopier Wireless Card Wireless Router Sound Card Modem Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    77. 77. SOUND CARD Also known as an audio card, is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer TOUCH SCREEN It is display screen that allows commands to be entered by touching the screen. Touch screens are generally used in the locations such as airports and hotels to display certain type of menu. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    78. 78. STORAGE DEVICES A storage device is a device that is used to store the information such as hard disk drive, flash drive, floppy disk and the tape drive. Secure Digital Card Hard Disk Pen Drive Floppy Diskette Compact Disc Secure Digital Card Blu-ray DVD Zip Disk Digital Versatile Disc Or Digital Video Disc PC Card Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    79. 79. BLU-RAY DVD Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The plastic disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB (23.31 GB) per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BDXL Blu-ray re-writer drives . Philips Double Layer 50GB Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    80. 80. THE ZIP DISK A zip disk is a computer hardware device that stores data. A zip disk drive is somewhat like floppy disk drive, only that the size of disks inserted into the devices are different. Where a normal floppy disk can hold about 1.44 megabytes of data, a zip disk can hold around 100 megabytes of data Zip Disk Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    81. 81. USER INTERFACE User interface is the space where interaction between the user and the computer occurs. TYPES OF USER INTERFACE There are two types of user interfaces between a computer application and the user. They are:  Graphical User Interface (GUI)  Character User Interface (CUI) or Command Line Interface (CLI) Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    82. 82. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI) Allows users to interact with the computer, using icons, windows and menus, with the help of a pointing device, such as a mouse. In GUI more task can run simultaneously and user friendly interface. Application : Windows (Operating System) Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    83. 83. Character User Interface (CUI) An interface that allows users to interact with the computer, using codes (text), with the help of a keyboard. In CUI one task run at a time. Anther name for Character user interface is Command Line Interface (CLI) Application : MS Dos (Operating System) Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    84. 84. BOOT Boot is the process of turning on the computer. To do this, press the power switch that is used to put the unit on. Nowadays, it is located in front of the computer. Pushing it would start the computer. System Unit Power Monitor Power Institute of Technology BY ABDUL- RAHAMAN
    85. 85. Types of booting There are two types of booting namely: o Cool Booting o Warm Booting • Cool booting is the process of putting the switch of the system unit and the monitor on. • Warm booting is the process of restarting the computer. Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    86. 86. process of booting In computing, booting (also known as booting up) is a process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. A boot sequence is the initial set of operations that the computer performs when power is switched on. The boot loader typically loads the main operating system for the computer. Information about computer Welcome screen Checking components Desktop Institute of Technology Type of Operating system BY ABDULRAHAMA N
    87. 87. Desktop The Desktop is a graphical user interface which serves as a communication link between the computer and the user (live ware) Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMA
    88. 88. Icons Wallpaper Parts of the desktop Taskbar Notification area Start button Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    89. 89. Parts of the desktop Start button -Provides access to Windows XP programs, documents, and information on the Internet. (Generally located in the bottom left corner of the desktop and the far left of the Task bar.) Taskbar -Contains buttons that give you quick access to common tools and the programs currently running. (Located across the bottom of the desktop.) Icons are small pictures used to represent programs. Notification Area located at the bottom right corner of the taskbar tell the user what ever is happening in the computer. Taskbar Pointer -A small object, such as an arrow, that moves on the screen when you move the mouse. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    90. 90. Window A window is a rectangular area of the screen in which you view program folders, files, or icons. The window is made up of several components that are the same for all windows in Windows XP and Windows applications and make it easy for you to manage your work. Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    91. 91. PARTS OF A WINDOW Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    92. 92. PARTS OF A WINDOW Menu bar -Contains the titles of menus, such as File, Edit, and Help. (Located along the top of the window under the Title bar.) Control Menu Icon-Drop-down menu on the Title bar with the Minimize, Maximize/Restore, Close, Move and Size functions. (Located on the left side of the Title bar) Title bar -Contains the window title and basic window control buttons. (Located at the top of the window.) Control Menu Icon in every window, a little icon in the upper-left corner that can be used to control the window. Clicking the icon opens the window’s control menu while double clicking the icon is a shortcut for closing the window. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    93. 93. PARTS OF A WINDOW Minimize button a small minus button at the top right window which is used to reduce the window on to the taskbar as an icon ( ) Maximize button two small ( ) rectangular boxes overlap together which is used to increase the size of your windows to fill the screen Close button a small ( x )button located at the top right corner of the window used to exit out off the window Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    94. 94. COMPUTER WARES Computer wares refers to the physical, internal and living parts that makes a computer to work. There are three(3) types of computer wares. (i) hardware (ii) software (iii) live ware Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    95. 95. Hardware Hardware – the physical parts of a computer you can see, torch and feel. e.g. system unit, monitor, keyboard, mouse. etc. Software – the internal programs that tell a computer what to do and how to do it, or runs on hardware. E.g. operating system (windows xp, Linux, ubuntu, zubuntu, window 7. etc.) live ware – human beings ( man ,woman, children) that create and use computers. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    96. 96. SOFTWARE Software is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a general name given to all computer program. Institute of Technology BY ABDULRAHAMAN
    97. 97. TYPES OF SOFTWARE There are two (2) types of computer software namely: I. System Software II. Application Software Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    98. 98. System software System software also known as operating system(o s) the soul of a computer. This program controls the affairs of the computer and manage the hardware resources. E.g. MS DOS, Windows, Linux, Apple, Macintosh, OS/2 etc. Without this program one can not use the computer. Means the operating system have to be installed before the computer can be use, even before the applications. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    99. 99. APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application Software is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include: a) Enterprise software, b) Accounting software, c) Office suites, d) Graphics software e) And media player. etc. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    100. 100. TYPES OF APPLICATION SOFTWARE There are three (3) types of application software namely: 1. End-user software ( can be downloaded from internet freely) 2. Packaged software (created for selling) 3. Custom-made software (designed purposely for a particular organization) 4. Utility software for protecting your pc. E.g. Antivirus. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    101. 101. operating system An operating system (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. The operating system is the most important type of system software in a computer system. A user cannot run an application program on the computer without an operating system, unless the application program is self booting. Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
    102. 102. THE END!!! THANK YOU Institute of Technology BY ABDUL-RAHAMAN
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