Internal Componentsof the Computer By Daniel Atkinson
CPUA CPU (Central Processing Unit), or processor as it is sometimescalled, is the main chip in the computer and is located on theMotherboard.The CPU processes the computer’s data and exchanges it withthe other components and peripherals.CPU’s come in different speeds, the most of common of whichare between 500MHz - 800MHz. The speeds are measured inMega Hertz (MHz) and even Giga Hertz (GHz). Most moderncomputers have two processors (Intel Dual Core Processor).The CPU is often referred to as the brain of the computer.
MotherboardThe Motherboard, or logic board as it is known in Macintoshcomputers, is the main circuit board in the computer. TheMotherboard contains many components like the RAM, CPU,expansion slots and the heat sink. The motherboard connectsall these peripherals together.
RAMRAM or Random Accessing Memory is the main memory thatstores data on the computer.RAM is a type of volatile memory which means it requireselectricity to store data, so when the computer is powered downall the memory is wiped.There are many types of RAM including SRAM (Static RandomAccessing Memory), DRAM (Dynamic Random AccessingMemory) and SO-DIMM RAM. All these do similar jobs to the RAM.
Power SupplyThe Power Supply Unit supplies all the computer componentswhich power (electricity). The Power Supply Unit changes AC(Alternating Current) from the mains supply into DC ( DirectCurrent) which is used by the components.
FansOne of the main problems with computers, especially laptops, arethat they can overheat easily. To stop this problem fans are addedto cool the computer down.The main fan is positioned on the CPU because the CPU is prone tooverheating. Firstly a thermal compound is put on top of the CPUfollowed by the heat sink, and the fan is placed on top of this.
Adapter CardsOn the motherboard there are a couple of expansion slots. Inthese expansion slots go several printed circuit boards, oradapter cards as they are more commonly known. The sound card is an adapter card that allows the computer to have extended sound capabilities, and for sound components to be used, for example, headphones. The Video or Graphics card is an adapter card that allows the computer to show graphics on the monitor.
NIC CardThe NIC, or Network Interface Card, is an adapter card thatallows the computer to connect to a network.The Wireless Network Interface Card allows the computer toaccess the network wirelessly. It uses radio signals to do so.
FDDA FDD (Floppy Disk Drive) is a drive that can read and write on aremovable magnetically coated floppy disk. The rectangulardisk is quite flexible so it has been give the name ‘floppy’.The Floppy Disk is a type of storage medium and back updevice.
HDDThe HDD (Hard disk Drive) is a drive that can read and write ona magnetically coated platter, that spins at a high speed.There can be more than one patter (disk) in the hard drive.While the platter is rotating the magnetic head reads the datastored on it.A computer can have more than one hard drive. In thesecircumstances the main hard drive is called the ‘master’ whilethe others are called ‘slaves’ these can be alternated by the aswitch know as a ‘jumper’.
Optical DrivesThere are two types of optical drives.The DVD drive is a DVD player built in to the base unit. The DVDdrive allows the computer to run DVD’s.The other optical drive is the CD-ROM drive, which allows thecomputer to run CD-ROMs . These have, however, mostlybeen replaced by DVD drives.
ConnectorsA connector is a cable that connects a peripheral device to ahardware component. There are many types of connectors butthe main ones used today are USB, Firewire, and PS/2. USB (Universal Serial Bus) is hot swappable, meaning that it can be put in or pulled out without the system having to be rebooted, it can support 127 devices. There are 3 standards of USB, USB 3.0 is the latest and has transfer speeds of up to 625MBs per second. Firewire or IEEE 1394 is another high speed connector that is used predominantly by Apple. IEEE 1394 can support up to 63 devices and has speeds of up to 800MBs per second An older, and less common connector, is PS/2. PS/2 is used to connect keyboards and mice to the computer. These have mostly been replaced by USB.Other Connectors include Ethernet, SCSI, Parallel and Serial.
Computer CaseHere is alabelleddiagram ofthe inside ofacomputer….