Foresight and Innovation Culture Alicante 4.dec. 2009Presentation Transcript
“Change is the other name of time.” (Aristotle) Anita Rubin University of Alicante December 4, 2009
2.12.2009 2 The changing nature of change As a phenomenon, contemporary change cannot be analyzed by merely following a fixed, unidirectional development path of some specific phenomenon or event; cannot be explained by a mere reference to social, political, economic or even natural laws or some inner logic. Instead, it can only be explained by systemic processes with a reference to a number of controversies, non-linear development and antagonisms which may end up in unintended or non-foreseeable consequences.
2.12.2009 3 In the form of technology, change… does not take a linear path from theory to application to social utilisation; and is influenced by social choices at every point of its development. Consequently, technologies bear the imprint of the social processes that have brought them forth. All this also means that when we talk about “ubiquous society” or “information society”, we cannot separate information into a separate aspect from that society where it is being used and utilised. In the end they are the same.
Spiralshapedevelopment Social factors shape technology, and because technologies are socially shaped, their properties and effects can in large be seen as social properties and social effects.
Technological change cannot be objectively understood by merely studying technological innovations or existing trends. Instead, it can be understood by studying its effects on social groups, behaviour, decision-making, values and choices.
Spiral shape effect: Social factors form technology, and because technology is socially shaped, its characteristics and effects can be seen as parts of social reality.
2.12.2009 5 Need for new tools… When more and more information is available on a real-time basis, the understanding of the logic of cause and effect tends to blur.
rapid and unexpected movements in the global market economy;
constant new innovations in information technology; the growth of information on an exponential speed. Need for the creation of new tools, means, and even language and concepts for coping, empowerment, creativity, and active participation.
2.12.2009 6 …and new institutions The limits of “the plausible” are continuously redrawn at an accelerating pace and then, after a while, overridden afresh, when new information are gained or created. This gradually affects socially-shared rationality, starting thus to change the processes of choice making both on the personal and social level. Need for totally new models and institutions for choice-making both from the social, economic, cultural and educational point-of-view. the culture of self-actualisation
2.12.2009 7 Rob Gonsalves: High Park Pickets
2.12.2009 8 From industrial to ubiquous society Whereindustrialsocietyemphasises ”the middle of the road” thinking and aims at balance, convergence and stability, ubiquoussocietytearsapart, divides, exacerbates, emphasisesdiversity and developsthroughcontroversy. New sense of communitywhich is highlysensitive -- emotionality of culture common emotionsthorough the media/social media create an iterativephenomenon (actor’sexperience and feelingstrengthen just becausehe/sheknowsthattherearethousands of othersfeeling the same at the verysamemoment.)
Communication is just one of the aspects in the experience of meaning:
emergence of lines and borders,
the formation of realitythroughthat,
immediateexperience and feedback.
2.12.2009 10 The dilemma of Ubiquitous Network Society Emotionalisation of the culture Emotions are experienced via and with the media, in the public gaze Public intimacy Danger: emotional numbing; commercialization of emotions Potential: neo-solidarity: new social responsibility, sense of community
2.12.2009 11 Rob Gonsalves (Uskallatkokiivetäpuuhunjakatsoatoisin?)
The paradox of identity building HAVING, LOVING, BEING INDIVIDUALISTIC LOGICS, PRIVATISATION SOCIAL MEDIA, NEO-SOLIDARITY Self-actualisationbecomesvisible in humanrelationshipsthrough the differenceswhich a person cansee in them.
Differentiation and self-sufficiency of identity
Ethics, morals and socialityaremore and moredependent on personalchoice.
TENSION: Traditionalcommunality and caring spirit of ”workparty”, talkoot Explainingone’sself to oneself (and to the others) Facebook
The paradox of society of emotional experience OSTINACY, PATIENCE, ABILITY TO TOLERATE BOREDOM EXPERIENCE, FEELING Decisionshave to be made fast, effectively and shortsightedly, while the swelling and expanding ”present” is conqueringspacefrom the past and the future. Wecanexperienceglobalemotionstogetherwithotherpeople. However, the stimulus has to continuouslystrenghten in ordet to reach the samefeelingagain and again. VISONARITY, FUTURES ORIENTATION JÄNNITE: Kokonaisuuksien logiikka hämärtyy lyhytnäköisyys Tulevaisuusajattelu: monet mahdolliset ja vaihtoehtoiset tulevaisuudet
2.12.2009 14 The dialogue of rationality and culture People aim at rational behaviour (= rationally-oriented action towards one or several goals). However, what is regarded as rational is culture-specific and becomes re-defined by the needs and conditions given by culture.
There is a constant, systemic interaction guiding cultural development: individuals search rational explanation to their behaviour from their society and culture, while their choices and decisions then reinforce and also gradually change the culture.
2.12.2009 15 The dialogue of rationality and culture cont. In addition to rationality, people are morally responsible beings. 1. Behaviour, choices and decisions are determined by past individual experiences; social environment
Similar situations are interpreted differently by different people.
People have free will and freedom of choice in the situations of decision-making.
Dilemma: If responsibility both requires and is based on free will, then, if there is no free will, what happens to responsibility? Rationality in the choices for the future?
2.12.2009 16 Ubiikki sekä laajentaa että rajoittaa… …yksilöllisiä mahdollisuuksia ajatella, tuntea ja toteuttaa itseään luovuutta. Rohkeus kokeilla vs. mediakritiikki, lähdekritiikki; Tieteen vapaus ja tiedonnälkä vs. katastrofialttius vs. katastrofien laajuus; Individualisaatio vs. globalisaatio; Henkilökohtainen turvallisuus vs. henkilökohtainen vapaus; Poliittisen päätöksenteon ja median läpinäkyvyys vs. yhteiskuntien turvallisuus; Kulttuurin luova potentiaali (joka vaatii sekä historian tuntemusta että kykyä omaksua, sisäistää ja kopioida), opensource jne. vs. tekijänoikeudet, piratismilait, immateriaalioikeudet jne.;
Seurauksena uusien kulttuurien ja alakulttuurien muodostuminen näiden jännitteiden ja rajapintojen kohtaamisesta.
2.12.2009 17 Creativity as a challenge There is a danger that creativity and innovativity will empty their contents as the guiding principles of education and economic policy, if (or when) it becomes evident that they do not fulfill the promise of rapid success, international prosperity and a lot of money. What would a society be like where each and everyone is a success story, innovative and active performer, whose limit of progress is only heaven? Would you like to live in society like that? Would there be place there for someone like me, the way I am now? What would I be afraid of? Would I be enough? Would I feel up to it? Would I manage, day after day? …/…
2.12.2009 18 Creativity as a challenge (cont.) Creativeworkclaims for hard labour and longtimeprocessing. In order to begenuinelyuseful and successful, innovativityrequiresprofoundknowledge and know-how, properbasicstudy and deepunderstanding of the background (=tacitknowledge).
To makecreativitybloom, hardwork and toughstaminaareneeded.
At the sametime, to bepossible, creativity and innovativityrequirealso
a promise to consider, wonder, degust, and taste
placid and cosy life (the discourse of slow life)
2.12.2009 19 Ubiikkiyhteiskunnanristiriitaisiavaateita Jokakerta kun surffaammenetissä, voimmetietääliitävämmevaltavantietomääränseassa. Tieto on vapaatajaavointa, odottamassakäyttöäjahyödyntämistä. Vaionko? Kontrollinteemoja: Tekijänoikeusasiat, tietoturvallisuus, läpinäkyvyys ja tietosuoja, yksilön oikeudet, vapaa informaatiovirta, vastuukysymykset, tiedon oikeellisuus… Luonnollinensosiaalisenvuorovaikutuksenfoorumi: Osallistuminen, osallistaminen ja voimauttaminen, aloite- kyky, luovuus, ongelmanratkaisutaidot, kriittisyys… Inhimillinen tekijä:
Ubiikkiyhteiskunnan osaamistaitojen pitäisi sisältää myös mm. valmiuden ajatella ihan itse, tuntea, olla laiska ja rakentaa identiteettiä … uskaltaa olla ei-valmis ja epä- täydellinen.
2.12.2009 20 Values and decision-making In addition to personal experiences, human choice derives from both the knowledge base and from the value base – i.e., from instrumental and intrinsic values.
Values play a role first in the selection of the idealised outcome, and then the selection of the means to achieve that outcome.
Choice of behaviour (based on available information, which is defined as relevant to the issue at hand and understood as reliable.)
2.12.2009 21 Values and decision-making cont. As long as most of our everyday choices could still be made on a routine basis, it was not necessary to consider the values behind every decision. People could rest assured that the values of human society were in-built in the ways of acceptable action – the responsibility of a human being was to conduct his/her behaviour according to the guidelines on which social consensus prevailed. Therefore it was not necessary to actively evaluate or even think about values each time a new situation was confronted.
2.12.2009 22 Values and decision-making cont. However, now we are in trouble every time when we face a situation where routine methods and the traditional way of conduct do not work (= bring about the expected outcome) anymore.
The social endorsement on which we could lean for so long and thus know that our choices and decisions were acceptable and good, is not self-evident anymore.
Instead, there are various different social groups, cultures, ways of actions, traditions, practices etc. which we have to take into consideration, evaluate and perhaps choose from.
2.12.2009 23 Free will – or, frankly, is there any? Ethical responsibility presupposes a broader perspective than just the consideration of wishes and expectations of individuals at the moment at hand. Structures and social institutions of modernity that used to support identity-construction and decision-making, are rapidly disintegrating or moving onto a more abstract – i.e. global – level
in general, ethical considerations have been delegated to increasingly abstract social actors;
the consideration of grounds behind personal choice have become a private matter;
people are losing touch with "larger-than-life" moral questions and consequently set aside ethical ideals.
2.12.2009 24 Obstacles to free will Living with constantly developing technology dependency on technology (esp. social media and networking) growing social vulnerability to disturbances and breakdowns. Living within constant change need to be continuously open to new influence and things constant re-learning and constant alert. Living with social pressures responsibility of individual success the modes of which are repeatedly re-stated by the culture hardening of values. Vanishing meaningfulness (Spranger, Krohn)?
2.12.2009 25 Education as/and civilization Knowledge: to be gained through learning lifelong & life-wide learning (24/7) Proper behaviour, manners, models of action: Cultural change poses a challenge to what is included in proper behaviour non-adherent habits, manners, models of choice and behaviour Culture: socially-defined conscious intention to develop, to choose valid goals and create commonly acceptable means to reach those goals Which culture should / will be chosen as the one the goals of which one can struggle for? value change, value conflicts Comprehensive life management: proactivity, independence of immediate reactions, ability to choose one’s reaction futures orientation?
2.12.2009 26 Life management can be understood as the ability of an individual to successfully cope in different life situations; the ability to build personal goals on a realistic level and then to mould strategies in order to reach them. External life management unfolds in behaviour visible to the others. Internal life managementunfolds in individual abilities and readiness to face difficulties in life now and in the future.
2.12.2009 27 Paradox of post-modern identity Individualistic logic is
based on belief of identity’s self-sufficiency and autonomy.
One can only develop as a human being in personal relationship with the others by acknowledging the differences and dissimilarities which become visible in them.
A human being has a strong need to belong.
Yet morals and sociality depend more and more on one’s own choices.
2.12.2009 28 Identity building Identity is a representation, a product which is born through the determination of differences and exclusion. It presumes constant interaction with the others. This interaction draws the lines on what we are, who we are and where we belong. It also builds the society on which we can reflect our hopes, expectations and personal nature as meaningful. …/…
2.12.2009 29 Identity building cont. The individuals of our time are developing hybrid identities, which appear as flexible and changeable in front of the demands of each new situation or person. While a person has a strong need to belong, at the same time morals and sociality are dependent on his/her own value choices and other preferences. Human beings face a danger to change from active subjects into an object of their own lives. They become ”a part of the event, a character in the play of experiences where nobody knows the author, there is no director, thescene is world-wide, the thread is blurred, and theme unclear.” (Ulrich Beck)
2.12.2009 30 Productizion of identity Interaction becomes an increasingly absolute value at the same time when social solidarity is forming into a new kind of loyalty and devotion to the given micro group (or tribe): Adherence to personal life style and freedom to trend choice and implementation; Tendency to utilise the community as the stage of one’s self-actualisation; Life style is used to signal one’s personal competitivity; Productisation of identity and branding of one’s personal life.
2.12.2009 31 Antagonisms of ubiquous information society Each time we surf in the Internet, we can feel that we glide on a vast ocean of information, all open, available and free for us to utilize and enjoy. Topics of control: Copyright issues, information security, transparency, personal freedom, civil liberties, free information flow, responsibility… An easy forum for social dealings: Participation, empowerment, initiative, creativity, problem- solving, criticality… The human aspect:
The skills in the ubiquous information society include the readiness to think, feel, be idle and build one’s identity…
2.12.2009 32 Antagonisms of … cont. Technology both enables and limits human possibilities to think, feel and self-actualize: Courage to experiment vs. media criticism, source criticism; The freedom of science and hunger for knowledge vs. vulnerability to catastrophies vs. catastrophy proportions; Individualisation vs. globalisation Personal security vs. personal freedom; Transparency in political decision-making and the media vs. security; The creative potential of culture (requiring knowledge of history as well as ability to adopt, absorb and copy); open source, etc. vs. copyrights, laws against piratism, immaterial rights, etc. the forming of a (or many) new cultures from tensions and interface.
2.12.2009 33 Emphasised individuality The experience of individuality and one’s own uniqueness is the most important source of meaning in contemporary society. At the same time, the burden of responsibility on one’s shoulders is getting heavier and heavier: When the requirement of individuality is taken to its extreme, it leads to selfishness and hedonism, but also to increasing loneliness, stress and the feeling of insecurity. Together with the processes of
social values emphasising individualisation more and more;
social systems becoming increasingly complex and abstract;
what will happen to people’s will and ability to take care of each other and to make a difference?
2.12.2009 34 The consequenses of social transition The control of one’s world and life management is constantly becoming more and more difficult and complicated. The constant inflow of new and real-time information brings about
parallel world views;
multitude of comparable value systems and values;
different ideas and estimations.
Information per se is losing its meaning, while the characteristics of how to benefit financially about knowledge is regarded as its most important aspect.
knowledge as a commodity;
ubiquitous information society
2.12.2009 35 Emotional universality We share collective emotions through and with the help of (social) media. Privately experienced human feelings and emotions become acceptable and desirable just because we know that thousands and perhaps millions of other people experience the very same same feelings at this very same moment. Shared experiences are no more based on any common set of values or history, but their strenght lays precisely in the fact that they are so universal.
2.12.2009 36 Cultural emotionalisation The differentiation between “real” and “illusory” loses its functionality:
New, fictional images of reality start to replace the real reality;
The importance of entertaining, circumstantial and experience-accentuating information grows as the basis of decision-making edutainment, infotainment;
Choices and solutions are more and more often made on emotional reasons and grounds.
Emphasized individualism Personal responsibility as the challenge
2.12.2009 37 Questions of cultural emotionalisation How does the emotionalisation of culture affect social experience? How does the legitimation of emotional rationality change our understanding of the nature of reality? What does it mean in the light of strengthening individualization? How does the increasing collective experience of emotions through and by the media and social media – public intimacy -- affect us? How does this affect our ability to act and choose tangible ways of action?
2.12.2009 38 Neo-solidarity vs. individualism Egoistic individualism which is based on
is getting the ideal of community and joint liability, likewise based on our European heritage, as its counterforce. The sense of community grows in the form of expanding the limits of individual responsibility.
2.12.2009 39 Neo-solidarity Alongside the Western culture(s), solidarity and human responsibility on the well-being of one’s neighbours have also developed.
a tension between the individual and the idea of the community/society where this responsibility is to be extended.
Throughout the centuries the borders of community /society have widened from our immediate family, tribe and nation further and further.
Western ethics and the concept of social justice;
The growth of solidarity as the extension of the limits of personal responsibility.