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Semantic Fild and collocation

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Semantic Fild and collocation

  1. 1. FIELDS AND COLLOCATION • Class : 5B • Ayi Yulianty • Alifya Nurul Fauziah • Rizki Aryanti 112122058 112122076 112122079
  2. 2. Paradigmatic • Paradigmatic relation are those into which a linguistic unit enters through being contrasted or substitutable, in a partical environment, with other similar units. (vertical relation) • e.g : i write on the blackboard. • We can change “i” with another subject. It can be you, we, they, she, etc. • We can change “write” with another predicate. I write on the blackboard you Read in the library we go to the concert she studies in the classroom
  3. 3. Syntagmatic • Syntagmatic relations are those that a unit contrast by virtue of its co-occurrence with similar units. (Horizontal) • E.G : i write on the blackboard • We define “i” as a subject, “write” as a predicate, “on” as a preposition, etc. I write on the blackboard you Read in the library we go to the concert she studies in the classroom
  4. 4. Semantic field • In linguistics, a semantic field is a set of words grouped by meaning referring to a specific subject. • E.g : animal lion, cat, fish, bird, etc • colour blue, red, white, black, etc. there are two kinds of semantic field 1. Ordered 2. Unordered
  5. 5. • Ordered E.g : the name of month. Begin from january until desember. And the name of the days. • Unordered E.g : animal. So, it can be arrange by alphabetic. • Admittedly, the scientist will have a frame work for the classification of metals or mamals.
  6. 6. Colour systems  Hjelmsleve proposed a simple one-dimensional field that is said to be divided up differently by English and literary Welsh. He was thus able to place the colours in order.  We have no adjective to say the Red is more ------- than orange and Orange is more ------- than yellow.  The odering is not reflected in English as is that of the days of the week or the months of the years.
  7. 7.  Colour is not to be accounted for in terms of a singel dimension.  It involves three variables: 1. Hue (corak) 2. Luminosity or brightness (kilauan) 3. Saturation (kandungan warna)
  8. 8. • Berlin and Kay claim that there are eleven basic categories of colour universally (white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and grey), • moreover these categories are ordered in a strict way and that colors are first formed from (white, black)
  9. 9. Two terms White, black Jale (New Guinea) Three = White, black, red Tiv (Nigeria) four White, black, red, green Hanuanoo (Philippines) four White, black, red, yellow Ibo (Nigeria) five White, black, red, yellow, green Tzeltal (Mexico) six White, black, red, yellow, green, blue Tamil (India) seven White, black, red, yellow, green, blue, brown Nez Perce Eight, nine, ten or eleven White, black, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, purple , pink, orange, grey English
  10. 10. Collocation This is concerned more with syntagmatic relation. A collocation is two or more words that often go together.  Porzig (1934)  the importance of syntagmatic relation. E.g : bite and teeth, bark and dog, etc.  Firth  the importance of knowing a word by the company it keeps ( collocation).
  11. 11. There are about six main types of collocations: adjective+noun, noun+noun (such as collective nouns), verb+noun, adverb+adjective, verbs+prepositional phrase (phrasal verbs), and verb+adverb. There are two kinds of collocation :  Lexical collocation ( open class + open class)  Grammatical collocation ( open class + closed class)
  12. 12.  Collocation is not simply a matter of association of ideas. E.G : white milk ( seems not correct colocation) in compare to white paint.
  13. 13. Every lexeme has collocations, but some are much more predictable than others. There are three kinds of collocation: 1. Restricted collocation : e.g: blond with hair 2. Semi-restricted collocation : e.g: spick with span 3. Unrestricted collocation : e.g: letter with alphabet, spelling, box, post, and write.
  14. 14.  The words may have more specific meanings in particular collocation. For instance : the case in the collocation abnormal or exceptional weather and abnormal and exceptional children.  It seems difficult to decide whether the collocation is or is not semantically determined, because the meaning of one of the collocated terms seem depend on collocation.
  15. 15. Another difficulty is that a word will often collocate with a number of other words having something in common semantically. Individual words or sequence of the words will not collocate with certain groups of words.
  16. 16.  There is a restriction on its use with a group of words that are semantically related. The restriction is a matter of range. There are three kinds of collocational restriction : 1. Some are based on the meaning of the items. 2. A word may be used with a whole set of words that have semantic features in common. 3. Some are collocational in the strictest sense, involving neither meaning nor range.
  17. 17. Idioms involve collocation of a special kind. It contains the combinations which is opaque. Threre are several things related to idioms :  Although an idiom is semantically like a single words it does not function like one. E.G : Kick the bucket  kicked the bucket. Red herring  red herrings.
  18. 18. There are also plenty of syntactic restriction. Some idioms have passives, but others do not.  A very common type of idiom in english is what is usually called the “phrasal verb”. It can be : ( Verb+adverb) = make up (Verb+preposition) = go for (verb+adverb+prep) = put up with
  19. 19. There are a partial idioms, where one of the words has its usual meaning, the other has a meaning which is peculiar to the particular sequence. E.g : “make a bed”  It’s difficult to decide whether the word or the suquence of the words is opaque.  The problem of idioms is involved with the wider issue of words formation.  Compound e.g : blackboard – black board  Derivation : suffix –able

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