• Paradigmatic relation are those into which a linguistic
unit enters through being contrasted or substitutable,
in a partical environment, with other similar units.
• e.g : i write on the blackboard.
• We can change “i” with another subject. It can be you,
we, they, she, etc.
• We can change “write” with another predicate.
• Syntagmatic relations are those that a unit contrast
by virtue of its co-occurrence with similar units.
• E.G : i write on the blackboard
• We define “i” as a subject, “write” as a predicate,
“on” as a preposition, etc.
• In linguistics, a semantic field is a set of words
grouped by meaning referring to a specific subject.
• E.g : animal
lion, cat, fish, bird, etc
blue, red, white, black, etc.
there are two kinds of semantic field
E.g : the name of month. Begin from january until
desember. And the name of the days.
E.g : animal. So, it can be arrange by alphabetic.
• Admittedly, the scientist will have a frame work for
the classification of metals or mamals.
Hjelmsleve proposed a simple one-dimensional
field that is said to be divided up differently by
English and literary Welsh. He was thus able to
place the colours in order.
We have no adjective to say the
Red is more ------- than orange and
Orange is more ------- than yellow.
The odering is not reflected in English as is that of
the days of the week or the months of the years.
Colour is not to be accounted for in terms of a
It involves three variables:
1. Hue (corak)
2. Luminosity or brightness (kilauan)
3. Saturation (kandungan warna)
• Berlin and Kay claim that there are eleven
basic categories of colour universally
(white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown,
purple, pink, orange and grey),
• moreover these categories are ordered in
a strict way and that colors are first
formed from (white, black)
Jale (New Guinea)
White, black, red
White, black, red, green
White, black, red, yellow
White, black, red, yellow, green
White, black, red, yellow, green, blue
White, black, red, yellow, green, blue,
White, black, red, yellow, green, blue,
brown, purple , pink, orange, grey
This is concerned more with syntagmatic
relation. A collocation is two or more words that
often go together.
Porzig (1934) the importance of syntagmatic
relation. E.g : bite and teeth, bark and dog, etc.
Firth the importance of knowing a word by
the company it keeps ( collocation).
There are about six main types of
collocations: adjective+noun, noun+noun (such as
collective nouns), verb+noun, adverb+adjective,
verbs+prepositional phrase (phrasal verbs), and
There are two kinds of collocation :
Lexical collocation ( open class + open class)
Grammatical collocation ( open class + closed
Collocation is not simply a matter of association
E.G : white milk ( seems not correct
colocation) in compare to white paint.
Every lexeme has collocations, but some are
much more predictable than others.
There are three kinds of collocation:
1. Restricted collocation : e.g: blond with hair
2. Semi-restricted collocation : e.g: spick with span
3. Unrestricted collocation : e.g: letter with
alphabet, spelling, box, post, and write.
The words may have more specific meanings in
particular collocation. For instance : the case in
the collocation abnormal or exceptional weather
and abnormal and exceptional children.
It seems difficult to decide whether the
collocation is or is not semantically determined,
because the meaning of one of the collocated
terms seem depend on collocation.
Another difficulty is that a word will often
collocate with a number of other words having
something in common semantically. Individual
words or sequence of the words will not
collocate with certain groups of words.
There is a restriction on its use with a group of
words that are semantically related. The
restriction is a matter of range. There are three
kinds of collocational restriction :
1. Some are based on the meaning of the items.
2. A word may be used with a whole set of words
that have semantic features in common.
3. Some are collocational in the strictest sense,
involving neither meaning nor range.
Idioms involve collocation of a special kind. It
contains the combinations which is opaque.
Threre are several things related to idioms :
Although an idiom is semantically like a single
words it does not function like one.
Kick the bucket kicked the bucket.
There are also plenty of syntactic restriction.
Some idioms have passives, but others do not.
A very common type of idiom in english is
what is usually called the “phrasal verb”. It can
( Verb+adverb) = make up
(Verb+preposition) = go for
(verb+adverb+prep) = put up with
There are a partial idioms, where one of the
words has its usual meaning, the other has a
meaning which is peculiar to the particular
sequence. E.g : “make a bed”
It’s difficult to decide whether the word or the
suquence of the words is opaque.
The problem of idioms is involved with the wider
issue of words formation.
Compound e.g : blackboard – black board
Derivation : suffix –able