I. Definition• The term “Implicature” accounts for what a speaker can imply, suggest or mean, as distinct from what the speaker literally says. (Grice,1975)• Implicature is one of the ways that one proposition can be conveyed by a speaker uttering or under appropriate.
II. Types of implicature1. Conversational implicature:=> derives from the cooperativeprinciple of conversation and a numberof maxims expected to be followed byparticipants in a speech event. Example:A: Would you prefer coffee or tea?B:I like coffee.
1.1.The cooperative principle• Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged (Yule, 1966)• In other words, the listener presumes that the speaker is being cooperative and is speaking truthfully, informatively, relevantly, exactly, and appropriately.
1.1.1. The maxims of Quantitya. Make your contribution asinformative as is required (for thecurrent purposes of the exchange)b. Do not make your contribution onethat is true. Example:A: are you at the office?B: yes, I am. You will see me at room 12 of Halleybuilding.
1.1.2. The maxims of Qualitya. Do not say what you believe tobe false.b. Do not say that for which youlack evidence. Example:A: Do you think that smoking is good forhealth?B: No, I think it’s not good for our health.
1.1.3. The maxim of Relationa. Be relevant example:A: why do you learn English?B; Yes, I learn it because of my hobby.
1.1.4. The maxims of mannera. Avoid obscurity of expression.b. Avoid ambiguity.c. Be briefd. Be orderly example:A: what do you think about Ha Long Bay?B: I like Ha Long Bay, it has a lot ofbeautiful caves.
1.2. Generalized implicature• Definition:- is a conversational implicature that is inferable without reference to a special context.( no special knowledge is required to figure out the additional meaning)=> It means that a generalized conversational implicature is one which does not depend on particular features of the context, but is instead typically associated with the proposition expressed.
Generalized implicature Example 1:A: Did you send a message to Tu and Thu?B: I sent a message to Tu. Example 2:The leader asked a staff:- How do you feel about Nam these days?- He usually goes out late at night with someonewho has a husband.- That’s so bad ... Do you know who that womanis?- Yes. She is his wife.
1.3. Scalar implicature• Certain information is always communicated by choosing a word which expressed one value from a scale of value => The basic of scalar implicature is that when any form in a scale is asserted, the negative of all forms higher on the scale is implicated• This is particularly obvious in terms for expressing quantity
Scalar implicature Example:•The teacher, all of us have flu, so we are absentfrom school. Um, actually, some of us has flu, theother takes care of the illness person•Bill has got some of Chomsky’s papers=> Bill hasn’t got all of Chomsky’s papers•There will be five of us for dinner tonight•I like Mary. She is intelligent and good-hearted
1.4. Particularized implicaturesDefinition: A particularized conversationalimplicature occurs when a conversationtakes place in a very specific context inwhich locally recognized inferences areassumed.
Particularized implicaturesExample:- Where is my book?- Your young sister is drawing something. =>The action “draw” of young sisterwould ordinarily not convey anything abouther book, so implicature in this casedepends on the context as well as theutterance itself.
2.Conventional implicature:- not based on the cooperative principle orthe maxims.- not have to occur in conversation- not depend on special contexts for theirinterpretation.- associated with specific words and result inadditional conveyed meanings when thosewords are used.
*Some words are expressions for conventional implicature:-“but”: “A but B” will be based on therelationship between A and B and animplicature of contrast between theinformation in A and B. Example: Mary is crying but she ishappy. =>”Mary is crying” is contrast to “she ishappy”
-“even”: implicature of contrast of “contraryto expectation” Example: David even helped the oldwoman to go home.=>David is not expected to help the oldwoman but he did.
-“yet”: the present situation is expected tobe different, perhaps the opposite, at a latertime. Example: Mum has not gone homeyet.=>negation of this sentence is “Mum wenthome”. So “mum went home” is expectedto be true later.
III. Generalized vs. particularized implicatures• A particularized • A generalized conversational conversational implicature is one implicature is one which depends on which does not particular features depend on particular of the context. features of the context, but is instead typically associated with the proposition expressed.
Some examples• A: What has • A: Do you invite happened to my Minh? bread? B: Yes, I do. B: Your cat seems to be happy.• I’m condemned • He sometime goes unfairly like Thi to the market with Mau. his wife
Conclusion• In two implicatures, the particularized conversational implicature is used widely, because it can provide with more contents, more aspects of speech than generalized conversational implicature.• Accidentally or intentionally, the statement can create many implicatures and impacts on many people. At the same time, the troubles in conversation and the cases "one pulls one way, the other pulls the other way” occur.