EQUIVALENCE ABOVE WORD LEVEL: COLLOCATIONI. Definition of collocationII. Five collocation related pitfalls and problems in translation1. The engrossing effect of source text patterning.2. Misinterpreting the meaning of a source language collocation .3. The tension between accuracy and naturalness4. Culture-specific collocations5. Marked collocations in the source text.
DEFINITION OF COLLOCATION Word collocation consists of the association a word acquires on account of the meaning of words which tend to occur in its environment.Eg: In Vietnamese: Làm ( bài tập, bánh,nghiên cứu, ồn…) Rửa mặt , đánh răng, gội đầu… In English: Do ( homework,research, house work…) Make (a noise, a cake…) Clean the face, brush the teeth,clean the hair…
NOTES: When two words collocate,the relationship can hold between all or several of their various forms, combined in any grammatically acceptable order. Eg: In English: The girl is cute / the cute girl The patterns of collocation are largely arbitrary and independent of meaning. Eg: In English: Wear ( glass, hat, shoses…) In Vietnamese: Đeo kính Đội mũ Đi giày
COLLOCATION RELATED PITFALLS AND PROBLEMS IN TRANSLATION1. The engrossing effect of source text patterning Collocation in the target language may convey the same or a similar meaning to that of source collocation. It is easily to translate .Eg: In English : “Wash clothes” In Vietnamese: “Giặt quần áo” However, sometimes translators will waste much time to produce the oddest collocations in the target language for no justifiable reason. The translator should avoid carrying over source language collocational patterns which are untypical of the target language, unless there is a good reason for doing so.Eg: In English: “He is writing on the ground in excruciating pain” In Vietnamese: “Anh ta đang viết trên nền đất có vẻ rất chi là khổ sở”
2. MISINTERPRETING THE MEANING OF A SOURCELANGUAGE COLLOCATION Reason: due to interference from his/her native language. This problem happens when a source language collocation appears to be familiar because it corresponds in form to a common collocation in the target language. The translator should work from a foreign language into his/her native language or language of habitual use. Eg: InE nglish: “She looks sexy” Translate into Vietnmese: “Cô ấy trông hở hang “ F “ Cô ấy trông rất quyến rũ” T
3. THE TENSION BETWEEN ACCURACY ANDNATURALNESS When rendering unmarked source language collocation into his/her target language, the translator produces a collocation which is typical in the target language; at the same time, he try to keep the meaning associated with the source collocation. The translator has a difficult choice between what is typical and what is accurate. The nearest acceptable collocation in the target language often has some change in meaning. This change may be minimal,or not particularly significiant in a given context.Eg: In English: “ He put his arm around my shoulder” Translate into Vietnamese: “ Anh ấy khoác vai tôi”
4. CULTURE-SPECIFIC COLLOCATIONS If the culture setting of the source and target languages are significantly different, the source text will contain collocations which convey what to the target reader would be unfamiliar associations of ideas. When translating culture specific collocations ,the translator should has a partial increase in information by giving the reader some hints as to how to interpret them. Eg: In Vietnamese: “Rượu Cần là đặc sản của vùng đất Tây Nguyên” In English: “Cần Drink is very famous in Highlands inViet Nam” “Rượu Cần is a kind of alcoholic drink which is very famous in Highlands inViet Nam”
5. MARKED COLLOCATIONS IN THESOURCE TEXT They are used in the source text to create new images. The translation of a marked collocation will be similarly marked in the target language. However , this is always subject to the constraints of the target language and to the purpose of the translation in question. Eg: In Vietnamese: Cô ta đã đánh cắp trái tim của anh ấy In English: She stole his heart.