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Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11


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Teach chap. 1 - intro - w 11

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Psychology and Research Methods
  2. 2. Psychology <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior: can be directly observed (crying) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Processes: cannot be directly observed (remembering) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What Are the Goals of Psychology? <ul><li>Description of Behaviors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the nature of this behavior? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What conditions affect it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does this occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The causes of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prediction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we forecast when this will occur? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Psychology – A “Social” Science <ul><li>Through scientific observation and research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology TODAY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a systematic way of answering questions about the world and the people who live in it </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Critical Thinking <ul><li>Critical thinkers are willing to ask the hard questions and challenge conventional wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to analyze, evaluate, critique, and synthesize information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is making this claim? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has it been tested? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How reliable are the tests? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Scientific Method <ul><li>Form of critical thinking based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful collection of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate description and measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precise definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatable results </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Scientific Theory <ul><li>What can I expect? </li></ul><ul><li>A system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts, summarizes existing data, and predicts future observations </li></ul>
  8. 9. A Good Theory <ul><li>Must be falsifiable! </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments are conducted to prove a theory to be “untrue” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>operationally defined so that it can be disconfirmed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Hypothesis <ul><li>A testable prediction </li></ul>
  10. 11. Review <ul><li>What is the definition of Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the four goals of Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the steps in Scientific Method? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a theory? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a hypothesis? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Types of Research <ul><li>Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Method </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul>
  12. 13. Experiments <ul><li>A formal trial taken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis </li></ul>
  13. 14. In Psychology … <ul><li>Investigating the causes of behavior through a “controlled environment” - the experiment! </li></ul>
  14. 15. Cause and Effect <ul><ul><li>Through use of : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… .. we can experimentally measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSE and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFECT </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Variables <ul><li>Independent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition(s) altered by the experimenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspected CAUSE for behavioral differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates EFFECT that independent variables have on behavior </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Groups <ul><li>Experimental Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group of participants that gets the independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Group: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group of participants that does NOT get the independent variable </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Placebo <ul><li>Placebo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fake pill (sugar), injection (saline), or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Placebo Effect <ul><ul><li>Changes in behavior that result from expectations that a drug or other treatment will have some effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These expectancies then influence bodily activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Types of Experiments <ul><li>Single Blind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Double Blind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best type of experiment if properly set up </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Review <ul><li>What is an experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>What does cause and effect mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a dependent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an independent variable? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a placebo? </li></ul><ul><li>What is placebo effect? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the meaning of single blind vs. double blind? </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Other Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>“ Non- Experimental” </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Clinical Method <ul><li>Studying psychological problems in clinical settings </li></ul>
  23. 25. Naturalistic Observation <ul><li>Observing behavior as it unfolds </li></ul><ul><li>“ 911” </li></ul>
  24. 26. Survey Method <ul><li>Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions </li></ul><ul><li>Question a random sample of people </li></ul><ul><li>Self reported data </li></ul><ul><li>“ Courtesy” replies </li></ul>
  25. 27. Populations <ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Sectional study </li></ul>
  26. 28. Case Study <ul><li>Observation technique </li></ul><ul><li>One person is studied in depth </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is for one person to reveal universal principles </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you think one person can meet this scientific goal? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Longitudinal Study <ul><li>Study the same group of people </li></ul><ul><li>Over a course of many years </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reveal universal principles </li></ul>
  28. 30. Cross Sectional <ul><li>Study multiple ages </li></ul><ul><li>At one time </li></ul><ul><li>Study a certain task, trait, behavior, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: reveal universal principles </li></ul>
  29. 31. Review <ul><li>Describe other research methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Describe different populations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross sectional </li></ul></ul>