Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Chapter 1 Adjusting to Modern Life
Psychology <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science  that studies behavior and the physiological and mental proces...
Psychology as a Science <ul><li>Study  Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Study  Animal Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Study  Me...
Psychology as a Practice <ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>So...
Study of Behavior <ul><li>Why am I so anxious? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does she cheat on her husband? </li></ul><ul><li>Why ...
Study of Behavior <ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge should be acquired through observation </li></ul></ul...
Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul>
Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.)  </li></u...
Research Methods <ul><li>2 Primary forms of Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2....
Research Methods - Experimental <ul><ul><li>Independent Variable (I.V.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable which is m...
Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects who receive some special treatme...
Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Experiment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment was done to see if listening to mu...
Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can infer  Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disad...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists when two variables are related to each o...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Correlational Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical index which tells us: <...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>1.)  Strength of the Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range: { - 1.0 to 1.0...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>2.) Direction of the Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Correlation ...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>2.) Direction of the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Correlation Negative...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Types of Correlational Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation <...
Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadens the scope of what Psychologists can st...
Adjustment <ul><li>Adjustment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the ...
Adjustment <ul><li>Look at how…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></u...
Happiness <ul><li>Subjective Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals’ personal assessments of their overall happiness...
Happiness <ul><li>Are the majority of the people in the US relatively unhappy with their life? </li></ul>
Happiness <ul><li>No!  Evidence shows the opposite! </li></ul>
Happiness <ul><li>What’s NOT Important? </li></ul><ul><li>What IS Important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><u...
Happiness <ul><li>Why are some things not important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People often  adapt  to their circumstances </l...
Questions <ul><li>What caused Psychology to leave the academia world and begin to apply it as a profession? </li></ul><ul>...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 1

375 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Adjusting to Modern Life
  2. 2. Psychology <ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science that studies behavior and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profession which applies accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Psychology as a Science <ul><li>Study Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Study Animal Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Study Mental Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study Physiological Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic coding </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Psychology as a Practice <ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risky Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul>
  5. 5. Study of Behavior <ul><li>Why am I so anxious? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does she cheat on her husband? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did he cut me off in traffic? </li></ul><ul><li>Is depression more common during the holidays? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study of Behavior <ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge should be acquired through observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not on speculation, beliefs or common sense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal, systematic & objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the scientific method </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.) </li></ul></ul>Formulate a testable hypothesis Gather data Use statistics to analyze these data Report findings to public / other scientists This allows for the process to continue
  8. 8. Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul>
  9. 9. Study of Behavior <ul><li>Scientific Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity & Precision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased amount of Error </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Research Methods <ul><li>2 Primary forms of Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Experimental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Correlational </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Research Methods - Experimental <ul><ul><li>Independent Variable (I.V.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable which is manipulated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly cause a different in the D.V. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable (D.V.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable which is measured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly affected by the I.V. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Experimental Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the I.V. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Experiment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An experiment was done to see if listening to music while studying would increase memory for that information. Two groups of people were asked to study and memorize a long list of words. One group did this is a silent room. The other group did this while listening to music. In the end, both groups were asked to recall as many of the words as possible. The average number of words recalled for each group was recorded. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research Methods - Experimental <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can infer Causation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to only those variable we can manipulate </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Correlation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exists when two variables are related to each other </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Correlational Coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerical index which tells us: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) The strength of the relationship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.) The direction of the relationship </li></ul></ul></ul>r = - 1.0 r = - .5 r = 0 r = .5 r = 1.0
  17. 17. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>1.) Strength of the Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range: { - 1.0 to 1.0 } </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong – anything closer to -/+ 1.0 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak – closer to zero from either direction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>- 1.0 0.0 1.0
  18. 18. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>2.) Direction of the Relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in the same direction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High scores in one = high scores in the other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Correlation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in opposite direction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High scores in one = low scores in the other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>2.) Direction of the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Correlation Negative Correlation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Types of Correlational Research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalistic Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Research Methods - Correlational <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadens the scope of what Psychologists can study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot infer causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does X cause Y? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does Y cause X? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a third variable? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Adjustment <ul><li>Adjustment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Adjustment <ul><li>Look at how…. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coping Strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Roles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… affects one’s pattern of adjustment </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Happiness <ul><li>Subjective Well-Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals’ personal assessments of their overall happiness or life satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What factors influence SWB? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Happiness <ul><li>Are the majority of the people in the US relatively unhappy with their life? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Happiness <ul><li>No! Evidence shows the opposite! </li></ul>
  27. 27. Happiness <ul><li>What’s NOT Important? </li></ul><ul><li>What IS Important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Attractiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love / Marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Happiness <ul><li>Why are some things not important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People often adapt to their circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hedonic Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs when the mental scale that people use to judge the pleasantness / unpleasantness of their experiences shifts so that their neutral point or baseline for comparison is changed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Questions <ul><li>What caused Psychology to leave the academia world and begin to apply it as a profession? </li></ul><ul><li>What does empiricism do for the study of psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Placebo Effect . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII – Pulled academics to the military to screen new recruits for mental stability & treat those coming home with sever trauma. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism makes the study of psychology formal, systematic & objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The placebo effect is the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health not attributable to treatment </li></ul></ul>

×