First stage ‘study of the soul’
*philosophy dominated stage.
? Raised; what is soul? How can it be studied?
Second stage ‘study of the mind’
*philosopher come psychologist period.
Mind mysterious then soul.
? Raised; what is mindl? How can it be studied?
Third stage (1890-1894)
‘psychology as the study of consciousness’
*said by William James, Wilhelm Wundt
& Edward Bradford Titchner.
then what about sub-conscious,
Fourth stage (1905) William Mcdougall
‘Psychology is a science which aims to give us
better understanding & control of the
behaviour of the organisms as a whole’
‘Science of human behaviour’
“Psychology is considered a
science of behavior or a scientific
study of the behavioral activities &
Behavior wide meaning and its too vast.
In this way, where there is some life & we
have living organisms as well as their life
activities are countless & consequently no
limits can be imposed upon the field of
operation & application of the subject
In this way it is quite appropriate to conclude
the scope of the subject psychology cannot
be adjusted as narrow & confined to certain
It has width & depth of an ocean.
However, for the sake of convenience,
“It can be divided into certain branches &
*study unusual pattern of behavior.
*study human development, emotions,
motivation, learning, senses, perception,
thinking, memory, intelligence and processing.
*study the behaviors of living
Behavioral neuroscience, also
known as biological psychology,
biopsychology, or psychobiology is the
application of the principles of biology (in
particular neurobiology), to the study of
physiological, genetic, and developmental
mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human
Cognitive psychology is the
study of mental processes such as "attention,
language use, memory, perception, problem
solving, creativity, and thinking."
Comparative psychology refers to
the scientific study of the behavior and
mental processes of non-human animals,
especially as these relate to the phylogenetic
history, adaptive significance, and
development of behavior.
Cross- Cultural Psychology:
Cross-cultural psychology is the
scientific study of human behavior and
mental processes, including both their
variability and invariance, under
diverse cultural conditions.
Developmental psychology is the
scientific study of changes that occur in human
beings over the course of their life span.
Educational psychology is the branch
of psychology concerned with the scientific study
of human learning.
the branch of psychology concerned
with the scientific investigation of the responses
of individuals to stimuli in controlled situations.
Forensic psychology is the intersection
between psychology and the justice system.
Health psychology is the study
of psychological and behavioral processes
in health, illness, and healthcare.
Personality psychology is a branch
of psychology that studies personality and
individual differences. Its areas of focus include:
Constructing a coherent picture of a person and
his or her major psychological processes.
Investigating individual differences, that is, how
people can differ from one another.
the branch of psychology that deals
with social interactions, including their origins
and their effects on the individual.
Case Study Method
examination of one's own conscious
thoughts and feelings. In psychology the
process of introspection relies exclusively on
observation of one's mental state, while in a
spiritual context it may refer to the
examination of one's soul.
the observation and description of a
subject's behavior. Researchers utilizing
the observational method can exert varying
amounts of control over the environment in
which the observation takes place.
Method based on personal
recollections of a case, as opposed to
specific, empirically derived investigation.
Can provide ideas to fuel further research.
The experimental method
involves manipulating one variable to
determine if changes in one variable cause
changes in another variable. This method
relies on controlled methods, random
assignment and the manipulation of variables
to test a hypothesis.
Case study method:
In order to prepare a case
history of data are taken from many sources
for example his or her family history,
educational life, medical history and social
This method is very popular in clinical
psychology and life span developmental
A questionnaire consists of a set
of questions to which the individual is required
The items (questions) of the
questionnaire can be either in closed-ended form
or in open-ended form.
In the case of closed-ended item
the individual is provided with limited alternative
and he or she has to choose only one alternative
which reflects his or her view on the item.
In open-ended items the individual
is free to give his or her response the way he or
Reena Esther. B