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Psychology-Meaning, Scope, Branches and Methods

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This PPT deals about the meaning, scope,branches and methods in psychology.


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Psychology-Meaning, Scope, Branches and Methods

  1. 1. GREEK WORD First stage ‘study of the soul’ *philosophy dominated stage. ? Raised; what is soul? How can it be studied?  Second stage ‘study of the mind’ *philosopher come psychologist period. Mind mysterious then soul. ? Raised; what is mindl? How can it be studied?
  2. 2. Third stage (1890-1894)  ‘psychology as the study of consciousness’ *said by William James, Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Bradford Titchner.  then what about sub-conscious, unconscious….?  Fourth stage (1905) William Mcdougall ‘Psychology is a science which aims to give us better understanding & control of the behaviour of the organisms as a whole’  ‘Science of human behaviour’
  3. 3.  “Psychology is considered a science of behavior or a scientific study of the behavioral activities & experiences”.
  4. 4. Behavior wide meaning and its too vast.  In this way, where there is some life & we have living organisms as well as their life activities are countless & consequently no limits can be imposed upon the field of operation & application of the subject psychology.
  5. 5. In this way it is quite appropriate to conclude the scope of the subject psychology cannot be adjusted as narrow & confined to certain boundaries. It has width & depth of an ocean. However, for the sake of convenience, “It can be divided into certain branches & fields”.
  6. 6.  Abnormal Psychology General Psychology Behavioral Psychology Biological Psychology Cognitive Psychology Comparative Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology
  7. 7. Developmental Psychology Educational Psychology Experimental Psychology Forensic Psychology Health Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology
  8. 8. Abnormal Psychology: *study unusual pattern of behavior.  General Psychology: *study human development, emotions, motivation, learning, senses, perception, thinking, memory, intelligence and processing.  Behavioral Psychology: *study the behaviors of living organisms.
  9. 9.  Biological Psychology: Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology is the application of the principles of biology (in particular neurobiology), to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and non-human animals.  Cognitive Psychology: Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking."
  10. 10. Comparative Psychology: Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.  Cross- Cultural Psychology: Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions.
  11. 11. Developmental Psychology: Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span.  Educational Psychology: Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.  Experimental Psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific investigation of the responses of individuals to stimuli in controlled situations.
  12. 12. Forensic Psychology: Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.  Health Psychology: Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
  13. 13.  Personality Psychology: Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and individual differences. Its areas of focus include: Constructing a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes. Investigating individual differences, that is, how people can differ from one another.  Social Psychology: the branch of psychology that deals with social interactions, including their origins and their effects on the individual.
  14. 14. Introspection Method Observation Method Anecdotal Method Experimental Method Case Study Method Questionnaire Method
  15. 15. Introspection Method: examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings. In psychology the process of introspection relies exclusively on observation of one's mental state, while in a spiritual context it may refer to the examination of one's soul.  Observation Method: the observation and description of a subject's behavior. Researchers utilizing the observational method can exert varying amounts of control over the environment in which the observation takes place.
  16. 16. Anecdotal Method: Method based on personal recollections of a case, as opposed to specific, empirically derived investigation. Can provide ideas to fuel further research.  Experimental Method: The experimental method involves manipulating one variable to determine if changes in one variable cause changes in another variable. This method relies on controlled methods, random assignment and the manipulation of variables to test a hypothesis.
  17. 17. Case study method: In order to prepare a case history of data are taken from many sources for example his or her family history, educational life, medical history and social life. This method is very popular in clinical psychology and life span developmental psychology.
  18. 18.  Questionnaire Method: A questionnaire consists of a set of questions to which the individual is required to respond. The items (questions) of the questionnaire can be either in closed-ended form or in open-ended form. In the case of closed-ended item the individual is provided with limited alternative and he or she has to choose only one alternative which reflects his or her view on the item. In open-ended items the individual is free to give his or her response the way he or she likes.
  19. 19. Thank you By Reena Esther. B 14MBT109 M.Phill (Biotechnology) St.Josephs’ College Trichy.

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