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Module 1 the history and scope of psychology


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Intro to Psych Module 1

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Module 1 the history and scope of psychology

  1. 1. The History and Scope of Psychology Module 1
  2. 2. The History and Scope of Psychology <ul><li>What is Psychology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology’s Roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tips for Studying Psychology </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why do people turn to psychology?
  4. 4. <ul><li>A general interest </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity about people </li></ul><ul><li>Self help </li></ul>
  5. 5. How do they go about doing this?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Self help books and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Talk radio </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine articles </li></ul><ul><li>Surf the world wide web </li></ul><ul><li>Talk shows (Dr. Phil) </li></ul>
  7. 7. The word psychology is of Greek origin. Psych = mind ology = the study of
  8. 8. How did psychology come to be? <ul><li>Psychology began with philosophers theorizing about memory, motivation, emotion, perception and personality… </li></ul><ul><li>… until the actual time that psychology became existent in December of 1879. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wilhelm Wundt <ul><li>This was at the time that Wilhelm Wundt was experimenting and trying to measure the atoms of the mind  basically the timing of our mental processes. </li></ul><ul><li>(the time it takes to hear the bounce of a ball. Ball bounces, participant pushes button  what is the time between the two?) </li></ul><ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt was both a philosopher and physiologist, therefore, psychology was born out of these two disciplines. As time passed, philosophy and biology also took their part in influencing psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Other individuals who hold an important historical place in psychology are: </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Charles Darwin (English naturalist) – proposed evolutionary psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov (Russian physiologist) – pioneer of the study of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud (Austrian physician) – personality theorist </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget (Swedish biologist) – observer of children </li></ul>
  11. 11. The evolution of psychology <ul><li>Up to the 1920’s psychology was defined as the psychology of mental life. </li></ul><ul><li>From the 1920’s – 1960’s behaviorists such as John Watson and B.F. Skinner redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior.” Behaviorists explained that sensation, feelings and thought were not observable, however, behavior is. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Humanistic psychology made its appearance around the 1960’s. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are famous humanists. Humanists leaned more towards environmental influences and also to our need for love and acceptance. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly thereafter follows other branches of psychology such as cognitive psychology (perception, thought and memory) and cognitive neuroscience (brain activity involved with thought). </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Today, psychology in general is defined as “the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Behavior is defined as anything observable; an action that can be observed and recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes are internal and subjective. They are sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs and feelings.) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The BIG issue <ul><li>Throughout the history of psychology the biggest issue that has prevailed is the nature – nurture controversy. This basically boils down to biology vs. experiences (or genetics vs. environment). </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying question within this issue is: Which of these (nature or nurture) impact us more? </li></ul>
  15. 15. What do you think? Nature or Nurture?
  16. 16. Questions that explore this issue of nature vs. nurture <ul><li>Are children’s grammar mostly innate or formed by experience? </li></ul><ul><li>Are sexual behaviors more driven by inner biology or captured by external incentives? </li></ul><ul><li>What causes us to stay away from potentially dangerous situations? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Although this issue is continuously debated, it is found that “nurture works on what nature endows.” </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, we are biologically endowed with the capacity to learn and adapt. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological events can also be biological events. For example, depression can be both a thought disorder and a brain disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>What process is used to integrate varying perspectives such as nature and nurture? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Three main levels of analysis <ul><li>Psychology uses 3 perspectives (levels of analysis) with which to analyze our surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of analysis – the differing complementary views from biological to psychological to social cultural for analyzing any given phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>This integrated approach is called the biopsychosocial approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsychosocial approach – an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological and social cultural levels of analysis. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis: Biopsychosocial Approach
  20. 20. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain enables emotions? How are messages transmitted in the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? Evolutionary How the natural selection of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes? How does evolution influence behavior tendencies? Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments influence our individual differences? To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence, personality, sexual orientation, and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes? To our environment?
  21. 21. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Psychodynamic How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts? How can someone’s personality traits and disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas? Behavioral How we learn observable responses? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter our behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?
  22. 22. Psychology’s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Cognitive How we encode, process, store and retrieve information? How do we use information in remembering? Reasoning? Problem solving? Social-cultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures? How are we — as Africans, Asians, Australians or North Americans – alike as members of human family? As products of different environmental contexts, how do we differ?
  23. 23. Psychology’s subfields <ul><li>There are many subfields of psychology. For example: clinical, cognitive, community, developmental, educational, experimental/research, health, forensic, I/O (industrial/organizational), and many more listed in appendix C of your textbook. </li></ul><ul><li>Biological, developmental, cognitive, personality and social psychologists are those that conduct basic research which contributes to and builds psychology’s knowledge base. </li></ul><ul><li>These same psychologists (along with others in differing subfields) can also conduct applied research which helps to solve problems. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Psychology’s Subfields: Research Psychologist What she does Biological Explore the links between brain and mind. Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb. Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Personality Investigate our persistent traits. Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
  25. 25. Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Psychologist What she does Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges. Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
  26. 26. <ul><li>A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients. </li></ul>Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  27. 27. <ul><li>Psychology is a very broad and colorful field. Psychologists can be found in medical schools, junior colleges, universities, corporations, law schools, hospitals, factories and many other places. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Survey: What you are about to read, including chapter outlines and section heads. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Ask questions. Make notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Read: Look for the answer to your questions by reading a manageable amount at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse: Recall what you’ve read in your own words. Test yourself with quizzes. </li></ul><ul><li>Review: What you learn. Read over notes and quickly review the whole chapter. </li></ul>Tips for Studying Psychology Psychology can teach you how to ask and answer important questions. S urvey, Q uestion, R ead, R ehearse and R eview (SQ3R)
  29. 29. <ul><li>Distribute your time. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to think critically. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen actively in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearn. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a smart test-taker. </li></ul>Tips for Studying Psychology Additional Study Hints