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When will Christ return?
Can we know the time? No Yes Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13
Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son but the Father only.”
Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ If you will not awake, I will come like a thief, and you will not know at what hour I will come upon you.”
Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ But the day of the Lord will come like a thief.”
Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13
Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13 For the lord God does nothing without revealing his secret to his servants the prophets.
Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13 But you are not in darkness, brothers, for that day to surprise you like a thief. For you are all children of light, children of the day.... So then let us not sleep, as others do.
Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 24:32-33 “ From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near. So also when you see these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates.”
Can we know the time? Those who are ‘awake’, or prepared, will recognise the time as having arrived: I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams... Acts 2:17
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Can we know the time?
= Accomplishment of Restoration 5 % Human Responsibility + 95 % God’s Responsibility
Our Portion of Responsibility Fulfilment God’s Plan Realised Restoration Completed
Our Portion of Responsibility Failure God’s Plan Not Realised Restoration Prolonged
Central Person Fulfils Responsibility God’s will accomplished Fails Responsibility ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Pattern of Restoration Adam Abraham Noah Jacob Jacob to Haran Jacob  Returns Jacob to Egypt Isaac 1600 400 120 40 21 40
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400   Slavery in Egypt Jewish   History Gen. 15:13
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400   Slavery in Egypt Judges Jewish   History
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],120   Slavery in Egypt Judges United Israelite Monarchy Jewish   History 1040 - 922 BC Saul, David & Solomon, 3 x 40
400   Slavery in Egypt Judges United Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Jewish   History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],922 - 597 BC Kingdom divided into Israel (North) and Judah (South)
210   Slavery in Egypt Judges United Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Exile and Return Jewish   History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Captivity 70 years: 597- 527 BC Return 140 years: 527- 400 BC
400   Slavery in Egypt Judges United Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah Jewish   History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400 BC – Birth of Christ
Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah 400  210  400  120 400  400   Jewish   History Jesus
Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah 400  210  400  120 400  400   Jewish   History Jesus Killed
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400 400   Slavery in Egypt Jewish   History Christian History Suffering under Rome Genesis  15:13 6 BC – 392 AD
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400 400   Judges Church Patriarchs Jewish   History Christian History 392 – 800 CE
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],120   United Israelite Monarchy 120 Christian Empire Jewish   History Christian History 1040 – 922 BCE 800 – 919 CE
400   Divided   Kingdoms 400 Divided Empire Jewish   History Christian History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],922 – 597 BCE 919 - 1309 CE
210   Exile and Return 210 Papal Captivity & Return Jewish   History Christian History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],70 years: 597- 527 BC 140 years: 527- 400 BC 70 years: 1309 -1377 140 years: 1378 -1517
400   Prep. for the Messiah 400 Prep. for Second Advent Jewish   History Christian History ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],400 BC – Birth of Christ 1517 (Martin Luther) to 1917 (400 years)
Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided   Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah Suffering under Rome Church Patriarchs Christian Empire Divided Empire Papal Captivity & Return Prep. for 2nd Advent Malachi Luther 1517 Jewish   History Christian History 400  210  400  120 400  400
 

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102 The Human Fall 2 day
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101 The principles of creation 2 day
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207 Restoration in Adam's family WH
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218 World Wars in God's providence WH
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105 When will Christ return 2 day

  • 1.  
  • 3. Can we know the time? No Yes Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13
  • 4. Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ But concerning that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son but the Father only.”
  • 5. Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ If you will not awake, I will come like a thief, and you will not know at what hour I will come upon you.”
  • 6. Can we know the time? No Matthew 24:36 Revelation 3:3 II Peter 3:10 “ But the day of the Lord will come like a thief.”
  • 7. Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13
  • 8. Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13 For the lord God does nothing without revealing his secret to his servants the prophets.
  • 9. Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 25:1-13 But you are not in darkness, brothers, for that day to surprise you like a thief. For you are all children of light, children of the day.... So then let us not sleep, as others do.
  • 10. Can we know the time? Yes Amos 3:7 I Thessalonians 5:4 Matthew 24:32-33 “ From the fig tree learn its lesson: as soon as its branch becomes tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near. So also when you see these things, you know that he is near, at the very gates.”
  • 11. Can we know the time? Those who are ‘awake’, or prepared, will recognise the time as having arrived: I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams... Acts 2:17
  • 12.
  • 13. = Accomplishment of Restoration 5 % Human Responsibility + 95 % God’s Responsibility
  • 14. Our Portion of Responsibility Fulfilment God’s Plan Realised Restoration Completed
  • 15. Our Portion of Responsibility Failure God’s Plan Not Realised Restoration Prolonged
  • 16.
  • 17. Pattern of Restoration Adam Abraham Noah Jacob Jacob to Haran Jacob Returns Jacob to Egypt Isaac 1600 400 120 40 21 40
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah 400 210 400 120 400 400 Jewish History Jesus
  • 25. Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah 400 210 400 120 400 400 Jewish History Jesus Killed
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32. Slavery in Egypt Judges Israelite Monarchy Divided Kingdoms Exile and Return Prep. for the Messiah Suffering under Rome Church Patriarchs Christian Empire Divided Empire Papal Captivity & Return Prep. for 2nd Advent Malachi Luther 1517 Jewish History Christian History 400 210 400 120 400 400
  • 33.  

Editor's Notes

  1. Amos- God warned people about flood, warned Abraham about Sodom and Gomorrah, warns tsunami, 9/11 etc. Why God warn - enable people to prepare and respond
  2. [these things] wars, tribulations etc.
  3. Abraham 1812 -1637 BC by Biblical dating Maintained ID through circumcision, sabbath Exodus date 1440 - Biblical 1 Kings 6. 480 years before Solomon began Temple in 4th year of reign Late 1200 BC William Albright Early 1500 BC Hyskos Xns established ID through baptism and cedo “I believe that Jesus is Lord” Constahntine converted 312 Xty became dominated by the Roman state. Arm of government. Cain dominated Abel? Loss of freedom of faith Emperor Theodocius made Xty state religion
  4. In Canaan should have maintained faith in God, kept the law and be united with judge and each other. Usually supported Judge but after judge fell into faithlessness. Judges 2:16-19 People not bound together by central govt but common devotion to God, common religious festivals and law. Tribal independence. People followed conscience not king. Authority of judges non-hereditary and charismatic. God rules, not king like other people. Theocracy. Valued freedom and independence after slavery in egypt. Abimelech with support of priests of Baal tried to become king and create Canaanite type of government but people rebelled at the idea of human king. Benjamin didn’t come to support so decimated by other tribes. Later wanted a king so they could become as other nations. Rejected freedom and responsibility and uncertainties of divine rule and leadership.
  5. OT Prophet, priest and king NT Saint, pope, king Saul 1020 BC. 3 times 40 for kings Saul was king, should have listened to prophet but prophet obey king. Separation of functions. Samuel failed to respect position of king. Killed Saul David listened to prophet and repented. Nathan spoke to power. David reign - rebbellion of Absolom Solomon other foreign wives and their gods - I Kings 11 - 700 wives, 300 concubines, When he was old his heart went after other gods. Ashteroth, Milcom Charlemagne (742 - 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. Grandson of Charles Martel who defeated Muslims at Battle Tours. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe . During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church and guided by Alcuin of York. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire . Established common currency based on pound of silver, shilling and 240 pence. Donation of Constantine - Papacy dominates kings. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin , Donatio Constantini ) [1] is a forged Roman imperial decree in which the emperor Constantine transfers authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the pope. It was devised probably between 750 and 775 , In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him. Charlemagne, advised by Alcuin of York , agreed to travel to Rome, doing so in November 800 and holding a council on December 1. On December 23 Leo swore an oath of innocence. Charlemagne sat in judgement on the Pope. At Mass , on Christmas Day (December 25), when Charlemagne knelt the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter's Basilica . In so doing, the pope was effectively attempting to transfer the office from Constantinople to Charles. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the pope's intent and did not want any such coronation: “[ H]e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they [the imperial titles] were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope .” Many modern scholars suggest that Charlemagne was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly he cannot have missed the bejeweled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray. In any event, he would now use these circumstances to claim that he was the renewer of the Roman Empire, which had apparently fallen into degradation under the Byzantines . However, Charles would after 806 style himself, not Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans", a title reserved for the Byzantine emperor), but rather Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium ("Emperor ruling the Roman Empire").The Iconoclasm of the Isaurian Dynasty and resulting religious conflicts with the Empress Irene , sitting on the throne in Constantinople in 800, were probably the chief causes of the pope's desire to formally acclaim Charles as Roman Emperor. He also most certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, honour his saviour Charlemagne, and solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome was not in the hands of an emperor. Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the imperial title was not an usurpation in the eyes of the Franks or Italians. In Constaninople Irene was Empress. Charlemagne proposed to her but she was then overthrown when she showed some interest. Charles backed tracked on title but Church kept it and power that went with pretended authority to bestow it. Loius the Pious - suceeded Charlemagne. As emperor he included his adult sons - Lothair , Pepin , and Louis - in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm between them. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. [parallel David] 3 civil wars. Empire split between and inherited by Lothair I, Louis II and Charles II (the Bald) who also constantly warred with each other
  6. Rehaboam - Solomon’s son. Jeroboam - capable leader in charge of forced labour. 1 Kings 12:4 “Your father made our yoke heavy. Now therefore ligten the hard service of your father and his heavy yoke upon us, and we will serve you.” R - “My little finger is thicker than my father’s loins. And now, whereas my father laid upon you a heavy yoke, I will ad to your yoke. My father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.” Israel - 19 unrighteous kings in 260 years Judah - many good kings 394 years. 1 lineage. Also fell into coruption and idol worship
  7. Ezra was a Jewish priestly scribe who led about 5,000 Israelite exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem in 459 BC. Ezra reconstituted the dispersed Jewish community on the basis of the Torah and with an emphasis on the law. Ezra resolved the identity threat which arose by the intermarriage between Jews and foreigners and provided a definite reading of the Torah. Ezra is highly respected in the Jewish tradition. His knowledge of the Torah is considered to have been equal with Moses. Like Moses , Enoch , and David , Ezra is given the honorific title of "scribe". Son of exciled HP. Eunoch Malachi is often thought to have been Ezra Nehemiah - cup-bearer of Artaxerxes. Allowed to go to Jerusalem as governor. Rebuilt walls and restored administration. D. 413 BC
  8. Xns established ID through baptism and cedo “I believe that Jesus is Lord” Constahntine converted 312 Xty became dominated by the Roman state. Arm of government. Cain dominated Abel? Loss of freedom of faith Emperor Theodocius made Xty state religion
  9. Church influenced by gentile society. Abandoned the law - circumcumcision, sabbath etc. Gentiles brought in their ideas. Gnostic ideas entered church - predestination, etc. Council of Nicaea recognised auhtority of metropolitan bishops as archbishops Council of constantinople recognised special place of bishops of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople and Jerusalem Chalcedon Leo I claimed Rome supreme Problem with doctrinal controversies was became extreme. Conflcts racked society. Each group thought absolutley right and wanted to impose its beliefs on everyone and squeeze out competitors. Groups tried to mobilise emperor and state to be on their side. Should have allowed for broad religious freedom. Free market in doctrine. Trinitarian, Christological, Donatist, Pelagian -> christianity was pluralist and very diverse but politically wanted uniformity of belief. Winners at council used state to enforce belief on others Islam a reforming movement to restore monotheism
  10. Charlemagne (742 - 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. Grandson of Charles Martel who defeated Muslims at Battle Tours. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe . During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church and guided by Alcuin of York. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages. He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire . Established common currency based on pound of silver, shilling and 240 pence. Donation of Constantine - Papacy dominates kings. The Donation of Constantine ( Latin , Donatio Constantini ) [1] is a forged Roman imperial decree in which the emperor Constantine transfers authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the pope. It was devised probably between 750 and 775 , In 799, Pope Leo III had been mistreated by the Romans, who tried to put out his eyes and tear out his tongue. Leo escaped, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him. Charlemagne, advised by Alcuin of York , agreed to travel to Rome, doing so in November 800 and holding a council on December 1. On December 23 Leo swore an oath of innocence. Charlemagne sat in judgement on the Pope. At Mass , on Christmas Day (December 25), when Charlemagne knelt the altar to pray, the pope crowned him Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans") in Saint Peter's Basilica . In so doing, the pope was effectively attempting to transfer the office from Constantinople to Charles. Einhard says that Charlemagne was ignorant of the pope's intent and did not want any such coronation: “[ H]e at first had such an aversion that he declared that he would not have set foot in the Church the day that they [the imperial titles] were conferred, although it was a great feast-day, if he could have foreseen the design of the Pope .” Many modern scholars suggest that Charlemagne was indeed aware of the coronation; certainly he cannot have missed the bejeweled crown waiting on the altar when he came to pray. In any event, he would now use these circumstances to claim that he was the renewer of the Roman Empire, which had apparently fallen into degradation under the Byzantines . However, Charles would after 806 style himself, not Imperator Romanorum ("Emperor of the Romans", a title reserved for the Byzantine emperor), but rather Imperator Romanum gubernans Imperium ("Emperor ruling the Roman Empire").The Iconoclasm of the Isaurian Dynasty and resulting religious conflicts with the Empress Irene , sitting on the throne in Constantinople in 800, were probably the chief causes of the pope's desire to formally acclaim Charles as Roman Emperor. He also most certainly desired to increase the influence of the papacy, honour his saviour Charlemagne, and solve the constitutional issues then most troubling to European jurists in an era when Rome was not in the hands of an emperor. Thus, Charlemagne's assumption of the imperial title was not an usurpation in the eyes of the Franks or Italians. In Constaninople Irene was Empress. Charlemagne proposed to her but she was then overthrown when she showed some interest. Charles backed tracked on title but Church kept it and power that went with pretended authority to bestow it. Loius the Pious - suceeded Charlemagne. As emperor he included his adult sons - Lothair , Pepin , and Louis - in the government and sought to establish a suitable division of the realm between them. In the 830s his empire was torn by civil war between his sons, only exacerbated by Louis's attempts to include his son Charles by his second wife in the succession plans. [parallel David] 3 civil wars. Empire split between and inherited by Lothair I, Louis II and Charles II (the Bald) who also constantly warred with each other
  11. Monastic orders Cluny - ~William of Aquitaine (919) source of most reform movements. Reformed Benedictines (Benedictines founded Benedict of Nursia in 529) at Monte Cassino Cistercians (1098), Augustinians, Carthusians (1082), Carmelites (1156), Dominicans (1216) St Dominic, Spaniard (1170-1221) - Dominicans - Order of Preachers. Inquisition Franciscans (1223) St Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) Minor Brethren Others called heretics; Lollards - followers John Wycliffe Hussites - John Huss Scholars: St Aquinas (1225-74) John Scotus (1266-1308) William Ockham (1280-1349) Exommunication and interdict powerful papal weapons Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (1021-1085) enhanced power of papacy. The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was an 11th century dispute between Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Pope Gregory VII over who would control appointments of church officials ( investiture ). The medieval feudal church owned vast amounts of land and so was very powerful. The king wanted to appoint bishops ect. That would support him. It was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe . By undercutting the Imperial power established by the Salian emperors, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany , the triumph of the great dukes and abbots , and the disintegration of the Holy Roman Empire from which Germany would not recover until the unification of Germany in the 19th century. To achieve his political goals the pope excommunicated the king. After the decline of the Roman Empire , and prior to the Investiture Controversy, the appointment of church officials, while theoretically a task of the Roman Catholic Church was in practice performed by secular authorities. Since a substantial amount of wealth and land was usually associated with the office of bishop or abbot, the sale of Church offices (a practice known as simony ) was an important source of income for secular leaders. Since bishops and abbots were themselves usually part of the secular governments, due to their literate administrative resources, it was beneficial for a secular ruler to appoint (or sell the office to) someone who would be loyal. In addition, the Holy Roman Emperor had the special ability to appoint the pope, and the pope in turn would appoint and crown the next Emperor. Thus a top-down cycle of secular investiture of Church offices was perpetuated.The crisis began when a group within the church, members of the Gregorian Reform , decided to address the sin of simony by restoring the power of investiture to the Church. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to liberate the papacy from the control of the emperor. An opportunity came in 1056 when Henry IV became German king at six years of age. The reformers seized the opportunity to free the papacy while he was still a child and could not react. In 1059 a church council in Rome declared secular leaders would play no part in the selection of popes and created the College of Cardinals as a body of electors made up entirely of church officials. To this day the College of Cardinals selects the pope.Once Rome gained control of the election of the pope, it was now ready to attack the practice of secular investiture on a broad front Innocent III (1161-1216) claimed absolute spiritual and temporal authority Failure of crusades -> loss papal authority and dignity and power -> fell under French control East/West division political rivalry Byzantine empire and Holy Roman Empire Papal claims Filioque controversy Different languages Difference in clerical celibacy Mutual excommunicaton Crusades - 1096-1099. Urban II, Peter Hermit. Captured Nicea, Antioch, Jerusalem. Est. Crusader kingdoms 4th crusade sacked Constantinople 1200-1204 Childrens crusade 1212 drowned and enslaved The Crusades were a series of religion-driven military campaigns waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents. Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims , though campaigns were also directed against pagan Slavs , Jews , Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians , Mongols , Cathars , Hussites , Waldensians , Old Prussians , and political enemies of the popes . [1] Crusaders took vows and were granted an indulgence for past sins . [1] The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Seljuk Turks into Anatolia . The immediate cause of the First Crusade was the Byzantine emperor Alexios I 's appeal to Pope Urban II for mercenaries to help him resist Muslim advances into territory of the Byzantine Empire. In 1071, at the Battle of Manzikert , the Byzantine Empire was defeated, which led to the loss of all of Asia Minor (modern Turkey ) save the coastlands. Although attempts at reconciliation after the East-West Schism between the Catholic Western Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church had failed, Alexius I hoped for a positive response from Urban II and got it, although it turned out to be more expansive and less helpful than he had expected. Another factor that contributed to the change in Western attitudes towards the East came in the year 1009, when the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre . In 1039 his successor, after requiring large sums be paid for the right, permitted the Byzantine Empire to rebuild it. Pilgrimages were allowed to the Holy Lands before and after the Sepulchre was rebuilt, but for a time pilgrims were captured and some of the clergy were killed. The Muslim conquerors eventually realized that the wealth of Jerusalem came from the pilgrims; with this realization the persecution of pilgrims stopped. However, the damage was already done, and the violence of the Seljuk Turks became part of the concern that spread the passion for the Crusades.
  12. Pope Cement V 1305 -1 314 Pope Gregory XI 1370 -1 378 moved back to Rome then died. Urban VI elected in Rome. Behaved badly. Cardinals elected Clement VII -> Avignon 2 popes Continued Council Pisa 1409 elected another -> 3 popes Constance elected Martin V The Great Schism of Western Christianity or Papal Schism (also known as the Western Schism ) was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417. After Gregory XI died, the Romans rioted to ensure the election of a Roman for pope. The cardinals , fearing the crowds, elected a Neapolitan when no viable Roman candidates presented themselves. Pope Urban VI , born Bartolomeo Prignano, the Archbishop of Bari , was elected in 1378. Urban had been a respected administrator in the papal chancery at Avignon, but as pope he proved suspicious, overbearing, and prone to violent outbursts of temper. The cardinals who had elected him soon regretted their decision: the majority removed themselves from Rome to Anagni , where they elected Robert of Geneva as a rival pope on September 20 of the same year. Robert took the name Pope Clement VII and reestablished a papal court in Avignon. The second election threw the Church into turmoil. There had been antipopes --rival claimants to the papacy--before, but most of them had been appointed by various rival factions; in this case, a single group of leaders of the Church had created both the pope and the antipope. By its end, three men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope . Driven by politics rather than any real theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414 ミ 1 418). The simultaneous claims to the papal chair of four different men hurt the reputation of the office. Finally, the Council of Constance in 1414, advised by the theologian Jean Gerson , secured the resignations of John XXIII and the successor in Rome of Urban VI, Pope Gregory XII (who had abdicated in 1415, but not before formally empowering the Council of Constance to elect the new pope, thus ensuring the legitimacy of the Roman line), and excommunicated the claimant who refused to step down, Avignon Pope Benedict XIII . The Council then elected Pope Martin V , essentially ending the schism. Nonetheless, the Kingdom of Aragon did not recognize Martin V and continued to recognize Benedict XIII. A follower of Benedict XIII subsequently elected Antipope Benedict XIV (Bernard Garnier) and three followers simultaneously elected Antipope Clement VIII , but the Western Schism was by then practically over. (Clement VIII resigned in 1429 and apparently recognized Martin V.) Wycliffe 1329-84) denied transubstantiation, criticised wealth of church and indulgences. Peasants revolt Huss (1373-1415) opposed indulgences, images. Burned at Council of Constance.