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This slide provides some reasons that capacity is an issue. The following slides guide a discussion of capacity.

This slide provides some reasons that capacity is an issue. The following slides guide a discussion of capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

This slide can be used to frame a discussion of capacity.

Points to be made might include:

- capacity definition and measurement is necessary if we are to develop a production schedule

- while a process may have “maximum” capacity, many factors prevent us from achieving that capacity on a continuous basis.

Students should be asked to suggest factors which might prevent one from achieving maximum capacity.

- 1. Quantitative Methods of Management Transportation Models PowerPoint presentation by: Gaasm C.G. ; Caduhada, C.A.; Arciete, J.; Villanueva, J.; Almendra, P.B.; Apa-ap, N. © 2006 Prentice ©2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Hall, Inc. C–1
- 2. Outline Transportation Modeling Developing An Initial Solution The Northwest-Corner Rule The Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method The Stepping-Stone Method Special Issues In Modeling Demand Not Equal to Supply Degeneracy © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–2
- 3. Learning Objectives Identify or Define: Transportation modeling Facility location analysis © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–3
- 4. Learning Objectives Identify or Define: Degeneracy Unbalanced analysis © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–4
- 5. Learning Objectives When you complete this module, you should be able to: Explain or Be Able to Use: Northwest-corner rule Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method Stepping-stone method © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–5
- 6. Transportation Modeling An interactive procedure that finds the least costly means of moving products from a series of sources to a series of destinations Can be used to help resolve distribution and location decisions © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–6
- 7. Transportation Modeling A special class of linear programming Need to know 1. The origin points and the capacity or supply per period at each 2. The destination points and the demand per period at each 3. The cost of shipping one unit from each origin to each destination © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–7
- 8. Transportation Problem Albuquerque To Boston Cleveland Des Moines $5 $4 $3 Evansville $8 $4 $3 Fort Lauderdale $9 $7 $5 From Table C.1 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C–8
- 9. Transportation Problem Des Moines (100 units capacity) Albuquerque (300 units required) Figure C.1 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Cleveland (200 units required) Boston (200 units required) Evansville (300 units capacity) Fort Lauderdale (300 units capacity) C–9
- 10. Transportation Matrix Figure C.2 To From Albuquerque $5 Des Moines $4 $3 300 $4 $3 $9 Fort Lauderdale $7 $5 200 Cost of shipping 1 unit from Fort Lauderdale factory to Boston warehouse © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Cleveland $8 Evansville Warehouse requirement Boston 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 Des Moines capacity constraint Cell representing a possible source-todestination shipping assignment (Evansville to Cleveland) 700 Cleveland warehouse demand Total demand and total supply C – 10
- 11. Northwest-Corner Rule Start in the upper left-hand cell (or northwest corner) of the table and allocate units to shipping routes as follows: 1. Exhaust the supply (factory capacity) of each row before moving down to the next row 2. Exhaust the (warehouse) requirements of each column before moving to the next column 3. Check to ensure that all supplies and demands are met © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 11
- 12. Northwest-Corner Rule 1. Assign 100 tubs from Des Moines to Albuquerque (exhausting Des Moines’s supply) 2. Assign 200 tubs from Evansville to Albuquerque (exhausting Albuquerque’s demand) 3. Assign 100 tubs from Evansville to Boston (exhausting Evansville’s supply) 4. Assign 100 tubs from Fort Lauderdale to Boston (exhausting Boston’s demand) 5. Assign 200 tubs from Fort Lauderdale to Cleveland (exhausting Cleveland’s demand and Fort Lauderdale’s supply) © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 12
- 13. Northwest-Corner Rule To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (A) Albuquerque 100 200 Warehouse requirement Figure C.3 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 300 (C) Cleveland $5 $4 $3 $8 $4 $3 $9 (F) Fort Lauderdale (B) Boston 100 100 200 $7 200 200 $5 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Means that the firm is shipping 100 bathtubs from Fort Lauderdale to Boston C – 13
- 14. Northwest-Corner Rule Computed Shipping Cost Route From To D A E A E B F B F C Table C.2 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. Tubs Shipped 100 200 100 100 200 Cost per Unit Total Cost $5 $ 500 8 1,600 4 400 7 700 5 $1,000 Total: $4,200 This is a feasible solution but not necessarily the lowest cost alternative C – 14
- 15. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method 1. Identify the cell with the lowest cost 2. Allocate as many units as possible to that cell without exceeding supply or demand; then cross out the row or column (or both) that is exhausted by this assignment 3. Find the cell with the lowest cost from the remaining cells 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all units have been allocated © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 15
- 16. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque (C) Cleveland $5 (F) Fort Lauderdale 300 $4 $3 $9 (E) Evansville $4 $8 (D) Des Moines Warehouse requirement (B) Boston $7 $5 200 100 200 $3 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 First, $3 is the lowest cost cell so ship 100 units from Des Moines to Cleveland and cross off the first row as Des Moines is satisfied Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 16
- 17. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque $5 (F) Fort Lauderdale 300 $4 $9 (E) Evansville $4 $8 (D) Des Moines Warehouse requirement (B) Boston (C) Cleveland $7 200 100 100 $3 $3 $5 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Second, $3 is again the lowest cost cell so ship 100 units from Evansville to Cleveland and cross off column C as Cleveland is satisfied Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 17
- 18. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque $5 (D) Des Moines $8 (E) Evansville $4 200 $9 (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (B) Boston 300 $4 (C) Cleveland 100 100 $7 200 $3 $3 $5 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Third, $4 is the lowest cost cell so ship 200 units from Evansville to Boston and cross off column B and row E as Evansville and Boston are satisfied Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 18
- 19. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque $5 (D) Des Moines $8 (E) Evansville (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (B) Boston 300 300 $4 200 $9 $4 (C) Cleveland 100 100 $7 200 $3 $3 $5 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Finally, ship 300 units from Albuquerque to Fort Lauderdale as this is the only remaining cell to complete the allocations Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 19
- 20. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque $5 (D) Des Moines $8 (E) Evansville (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (B) Boston 300 300 $4 200 $9 $4 (C) Cleveland 100 100 $7 200 $3 $3 $5 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Total Cost = $3(100) + $3(100) + $4(200) + $9(300) = $4,100 Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 20
- 21. Intuitive Lowest-Cost Method To From (A) Albuquerque (B) Boston $5 ThisDes Moines (D) is a feasible solution, and an improvement over $8 the previous solution, but (E) Evansville not necessarily the lowest 200 cost alternative $9 (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement 300 300 200 $4 $4 (C) Cleveland 100 100 $7 $3 $3 $5 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Total Cost = $3(100) + $3(100) + $4(200) + $9(300) = $4,100 Figure C.4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 21
- 22. Stepping-Stone Method 1. Select any unused square to evaluate 2. Beginning at this square, trace a closed path back to the original square via squares that are currently being used 3. Beginning with a plus (+) sign at the unused corner, place alternate minus and plus signs at each corner of the path just traced © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 22
- 23. Stepping-Stone Method 4. Calculate an improvement index by first adding the unit-cost figures found in each square containing a plus sign and subtracting the unit costs in each square containing a minus sign 5. Repeat steps 1 though 4 until you have calculated an improvement index for all unused squares. If all indices are ≥ 0, you have reached an optimal solution. © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 23
- 24. Stepping-Stone Method To From (A) Albuquerque (D) Des Moines 100 (E) Evansville 200 - $8 + $9 (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement $5 300 (B) Boston (C) Cleveland $4 + 100 - 100 200 $3 $4 $3 $7 200 $5 200 99 Factory capacity 300 Des MoinesBoston index 300 = $4 - $5 + $8 - $4 700 = +$3 100 $5 100 + - 201 Figure C.5 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. + 200 $4 1 $8 99 - $4 100 C – 24
- 25. Stepping-Stone Method To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (A) Albuquerque 100 200 $5 $3 + $8 + 100 $4 $3 $9 100 + 300 (C) Cleveland $4 Start - (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (B) Boston 200 $7 200 - 200 $5 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Des Moines-Cleveland index Figure C.6 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. = $3 - $5 + $8 - $4 + $7 - $5 = +$4 C – 25
- 26. Stepping-Stone Method To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (A) Albuquerque (B) Boston (C) Cleveland $4 $3 $8 100 $5 $4 $3 200 100 Evansville-Cleveland index = $3 - $4 + $7 - $5 = +$1 $9 $7 100 200 $5 Factory capacity 100 300 300 (Closed path = EC - EB + FB - FC) Fort Lauderdale-Albuquerque index 300 200 200 700 = $9 - $7 + $4 - $8 = -$1 (Closed path = FA - FB + EB - EA) © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 26
- 27. Stepping-Stone Method 1. If an improvement is possible, choose the route (unused square) with the largest negative improvement index 2. On the closed path for that route, select the smallest number found in the squares containing minus signs 3. Add this number to all squares on the closed path with plus signs and subtract it from all squares with a minus sign © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 27
- 28. Stepping-Stone Method To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement Figure C.7 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. (A) Albuquerque 100 200 $4 $3 $8 $4 $3 $7 $5 1. 2. 3. 4. 100 + $9 300 (C) Cleveland $5 - + (B) Boston 100 - 200 200 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Add 100 units on route FA Subtract 100 from routes FB Add 100 to route EB Subtract 100 from route EA C – 28
- 29. Stepping-Stone Method To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (A) Albuquerque 100 100 100 300 (B) Boston (C) Cleveland $5 $4 $3 $8 $4 $3 $7 $5 200 $9 200 200 200 Factory capacity 100 300 300 700 Total Cost = $5(100) + $8(100) + $4(200) + $9(100) + $5(200) = $4,000 Figure C.8 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 29
- 30. Special Issues in Modeling Demand not equal to supply Called an unbalanced problem Common situation in the real world Resolved by introducing dummy sources or dummy destinations as necessary with cost coefficients of zero © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 30
- 31. Special Issues in 50($3) + 150($5) + 150(0) Modeling Total Cost = 250($5) + 50($8) + 200($4) + = $3,350 To From (D) Des Moines (E) Evansville (A) Albuquerque 250 50 Figure C.9 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 300 (C) Cleveland Dummy $5 $4 $3 0 $8 $4 $3 0 $5 0 200 $9 (F) Fort Lauderdale Warehouse requirement (B) Boston $7 200 50 150 200 150 150 Factory capacity 250 300 300 850 New Des Moines capacity C – 31
- 32. Special Issues in Modeling Degeneracy To use the stepping-stone methodology, the number of occupied squares in any solution must be equal to the number of rows in the table plus the number of columns minus 1 If a solution does not satisfy this rule it is called degenerate © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. C – 32
- 33. Special Issues in Modeling To From Customer 1 Customer 2 Customer 3 Warehouse 1 100 $8 $2 $6 $10 $9 $9 Warehouse 2 0 $7 Warehouse 3 Customer demand Figure C.10 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. 100 100 $10 100 20 80 100 $7 Warehouse supply 100 120 80 300 Initial solution is degenerate Place a zero quantity in an unused square and proceed computing improvement indices C – 33

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