COLUMBUS 1492
517 years ago today
Columbus landed in
the Bahamas
COLONIALISM AND
THE
ARCHITECTURE
PROJECT
© Tony Ward
2009...
Please note that parts of this presentation are highly critical of
some past and present policies and actions of the Catho...
Who controls the past controls the future.
Who controls the present controls the past.
George Orwell, 1984.
HISTORY
ST. MICHAEL BURROWBRIDGE
ST. MICHAEL GLASTONBURY
MT. ST. MICHAEL, CORNWALL
All of these early Christian
churches, dedicate...
MT. ST. MICHELE AD.708ST. MICHEL LE PUY
Such ancient places of
pilgrimage have for
over a thousand years
been surmounted b...
ST. MICHAELWhat each of these sites has in
common, is a dedication to St.
Michael, who slew a dragon. The
dragon (horned, ...
DOME OF THE ROCK (685-691)
5 years after the death of the
Islamic Prophet Muhammad
in 632, in a war of liberation
from the...
This act of reclamation was quite conscious, and sought to compete with and
overwhelm the Christian buildings that has bee...
THE CRUSADES
1095-1291
EUROPEAN
COLONIALISM
Church and State
F r o m t h e 1 1 t h - 1 3 t h
Centuries, successive
P o p e...
EARLY CHRISTIAN
ENTREPRENEURS
If the mountain won’t come to
Mohammed.., (If the pilgrims can’t
come to the Holy Land, then the Holy
Land must come to th...
Michelle Obama's Chicago
Olympics pep rally
The Obama’s attempt to gain the Olympics for Chicago in 2016 is just the
lates...
COLUMBUS 1492The processes of colonisation
that had been established in
the crusades was carried to a
fine art in the 15th...
OVIEDO 1328-1528
What is interesting about
this picture?
It’s possible to see here the
shift that happened to
Spanish Chur...
CONQUISTADORS
The “discovery” of America, was very profitable to the European colonisers
(primarily the Spanish). The amou...
TOLEDO ALTAR
Once simple churches such
as those in Oviedo and
Toledo suddenly soared to
new heights, expanded, and
had new...
In the Chapter House (right) this 500-pound, 10-foot high, 15th-century gilded
monstrance by Juan del Arfe, a silversmith....
MALAGA & VALENCIA
As Jack Weather-ford notes:
“I first saw this wealth of silver and gold in a Holy Week procession in
Cōr...
Florentine Banking Cardinals
(alone):
• Medici (2 Popes)
• Strozzi
• Salviati
• Ridolfi
• Gaddi (2 cardinals)
Medici Villa...
The riches sought by Ferdinand and Isabella eventually found their way, to
the banking system and the Church throughout th...
THE CHURCH AND STATE:
Phillip II (1556-1598) moved the capital from Toledo to Madrid in 1559.
Reacting to the Protestant R...
THE COUNTER-REFORMATION
Bernini:The Coronaro
(1646)
To counter the potential loss of revenue
that the Reform movement thre...
The process worked! Whereas in 1600 Europe was all but lost
to the Reformists, by 1650, more than two-thirds of the
contin...
THE COST? WHO PAID?!
• In the Potosi mines of Bolivia alone, six thousand African
slaves all died of altitude sickness.
• ...
CULPABLE CHURCH
So while the late Pope John Paul may have
sought to defend the activities of the
Church in the process of ...
ZAPATISTAS
Indigenous Mexicans still suffer from the privations caused by the original
genocide. Here, in 1989, the Zapati...
TERRORIST COLUMBUS
In European culture, Christopher Columbus is portrayed as a hero-explorer
who brought “progress” and Ch...
Marx put it succinctly: “...(the) discovery of
gold and silver in America, the extirpation,
enslavement and entombment in ...
1898
COLONIAL EXPANSION
The activity of the Church and the Spanish monarchy was just the
beginning of a process of colonia...
BRITISH IMPERIALISM AT HOME:
THE ENCLOSURES
Throughout the 17th, 18th and part of the 19th Centuries, British society and
the British landscape were transformed by a ...
LEGAL THEFT
'The law locks up the man or woman
Who steals the goose from off the common;
But lets the greater villain loos...
URBAN ENGLAND 1830s+
Salford factory town by LS Lowry 1887-1976 - the world I was born into.
STOURHEAD 1741-80
The profits from these dispossessions and exploitations was poured into
the large mansion houses that no...
BLENHEIM PALACE 1705-24
Blenheim Palace, “gift of a grateful nation” to the Duke and Duchess of
Marlborough in return for ...
HARLAXTON HALL
“Some of them had been there for centuries, visible triumphs over the ruin and
labour of others. But the extraordinary pha...
MR & MRS ANDREWS
Painted by Gainsborough, the landscape evokes Robert Andrews' estate, to
which his marriage added propert...
PETERLOO MASSACRE
The lie was given to this supposed pastoral harmony in August,
1819, when 60,000-80,000 Northern demonst...
TRANSPORTATION
The prisons were overflowing
and convicted felons were
usually transported to a penal
colony - either to th...
RECENT TRANSPORTEES
Bizarre as it sounds, the practice of forced migration continued after WW2 - albeit in
different form ...
Such practices only serve to highlight the crucial role played by forced
deportation in even the recent history of colonia...
SLAVERY
Additionally, much of the British
economy was built upon the slave
trade through the Ports of Liverpool
and London...
MONTICELLO
As the country moved from an agrarian to an industrial economy, the
disposition of the slave population became ...
AMERICAN PROGRESS 1830 - 1880
The American colonisation of the West, and the dispossession of its
indigenous peoples was c...
PAHA SAPA
The Black Hills are sacred to the Sioux Indians. In the
1868 Fort Laramie treaty and, the United States
recogniz...
AMERICAN GENOCIDE
It is clear that the US had no intention of honouring the Ft.
Laramie Treaty. Gold was not “discovered” ...
For a description of the spiritual significance of Bear Butte visit:
http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/369/123/
MATO...
LIBERTY
(WHAT PRICE) LIBERTY 1865-86?
What price Liberty? A gift from one supposedly libertarian colonial regime to anothe...
COLONIALISM & DESIGN
Since the 14th Century, Architecture
has been complicit in the oppression
and genocide of indigenous
...
COLONIALISM AND EDUCATION
“The most odious form of colonisation, and that which has
brought with it the greatest pain for ...
CONCEPTS MYTHOLOGISED
BY CAPITALISM
Our education must proceed through the critical demystification
of, every idea, every ...
BERKELEY 1970: FREEDOM OF SPEECH
My own re-education began as a young Assistant Professor at the
University of California,...
The Campus police were deployed at strategic points and patrolled the
Campus in separate roving platoons, all armed in the...
I took these photographs during one of the many anti-war
demonstrations that occurred that Spring.
By this time life on Campus had become a parody of academic activity. Students were
coming to class with gas-masks in thei...
TURNING POINT
May 4th 1970
The shooting was the single factor causing the only nationwide student strike in U.S.
history—o...
THE STRIKE
CURRICULUM CHANGE
One of the most significant changes brought about by the
strike was a change to the curriculum. We creat...
CHICANO STUDENT PROFILES
• Two years in College
• No Hispanic buildings shown
• No Hispanic designers noted
• No Hispanic ...
RESULTS:
The students elected to work collectively to explore the
issue of Chicano Architecture in the context of a live
p...
The indigenous
Maori people.
Arrived approx.
800 years ago
from Oceania
MAORI
TREATY OF WAITANGI 1840
Representatives of the British Crown signed a Treaty with Maori
chiefs at Waitangi on 6th February...
LAND OCCUPATION
Maori land ownership patterns
1860 1908 1960
From Cook’s “discovery” of NZ in 1769 Maori were dispossessed...
CONFISCATIONS
One of the primary means of land
dispossession was “legal” confiscation.
Under the New Zealand Settlement Ac...
THE WHAKATANE STUDY
©2009
Tony Ward
To download a more extensive version visit:
http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/16...
WHAKATANE
NORTH ISLAND
SOUTH ISLAND
Bay of Plenty
LOCATION: Bay of Plenty
North Island
POPULATION: 15,000
MAORI POP.: 30% ...
MAORI HISTORY
Site of one of the first Maori
settlements in New Zealand -
deeply historical and of great
spiritual signifi...
WAIRAKA
“Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!”
“Make Me like a Man”
Traditional home of Ngati Awa whose entire
lands were confiscated in 1866 on the false
charge of murdering a missionary. T...
TOWN DEVELOPMENT
Successive Local Governments then began to “reclaim” the harbour, and
develope a European township along ...
MODERN TOWNSHIP
Proposed Development Site
• The modern (1988) town centre occupies the narrow space between the
Escarpment...
THE COUNCIL
The Council had almost no
Maori representation (one
t o k e n m e m b e r f r o m
distant Rotorua), - this
des...
NGATI AWA
What we learned changed all of our attitudes and lives.
Stories were told of:
• land confiscation,
• dispossessi...
Muriwai’s
Cave
Irakewa
The Heads Wairere Stream/
Falls
Munuka
Tuatahi
Piripai
Numerous Pa Sites
SACRED LANDSCAPE
Marae
Tor...
WAHI TAPU
Irakewa Rock (dynamited)Muriwai’s Cave (Isolated, filled in)
Wairere Stream and Falls (polluted)
For more than 1...
PIRIPAI
Ancient Urupa (burial site)
One of the Council’s plans was to open up Piripai (the Sand-spit) for
residential and ...
POHATUROA - ULTIMATE INSULT
POHATUROA
Pohaturoa - the Rock - was the centre of ceremonial life. Here, mothers buried
the w...
DESIGN DILEMMA
We faced a stark choice:
• Conform to Council philosophies and ignore
the pain of Ngati Awa and the cultura...
RECONCILIATION
We supported Ngati Awa claims and opted to
intervene to act as intermediaries, with the
townspeople.
Clearl...
TRUST-BUILDING
Creating an environment of mutual trust required
that:
• We establish the trust of both parties.
• We opera...
LINKING ISSUES
We developed 67 Patterns to guide Town Development.
They addressed not only:
• economic and material concer...
DIFFERENCES
The Council’s Perceptions were:
• materialistic
• economic
• progressive.
They were interested in:
• Town Grow...
DETAILS
Four design proposals were fleshed
out with sketches, plans and a scale
model designed to illustrate the
proposal ...
COUNCIL DISPLAY
The model, the four design proposals and all of the supporting arguments and
Patterns were displayed in th...
THE TOWN FORUM
170 people attended on a stormy night. All Councilors, Ngati Awa Trust Board
members, many retailers and la...
DISCUSSION
Following a general description
and explanation, break-out
sessions, facilitated by students
were asked to sugg...
CONSENSUS DESIGN
Based on this feedback and internal review a final design was
proposed that seemed to contain the best el...
THE REPORT
The Mayor concluded the meeting by
saying:
“We have all witnessed and participated in
a truly historic moment i...
HERITAGE TRAIL
The proposed Cultural Heritage Trail
has been completed. All sites have been
included. Signs with Maori ver...
PIRIPAI
Recommendations on the need to
preserve the un-built nature of
Piripai have so far been successful,
but the pressu...
THE TOILETS
.
The offensive public toilets (right) have been
removed and the area landscaped.
While the Waiewe stream has ...
REPRESENTATION
Whakatane District Council is now considered one of the most culturally
sensitive Councils in New Zealand. ...
© Tony Ward
2000
A more detailed version of this presentation is available at”
http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/189...
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE MAORI
• The Maori population of NZ is about 15%
• Number of Maori students in the SOA (1990) - app....
Dr. Pita Sharples - now Minister of Education
(right) with Elder Frank Paul and Senior
Lecturers Tony Ward, Mike Barnes wi...
CONCEPTUAL BEGINNINGS
The concept was gradually developed (left to right) taking in the different
elements of existing inf...
Gradually, a site development plan emerged (right) from the conceptual diagram
(left). In the plan, the small creek along ...
This initial proposal the went through a process of several further
transformations, in detailed consultation with the Hoa...
All of these building designs were modeled on the
base model that had been constructed earlier and
discussed with the Hoan...
View across the Atea from Whare Nui
Specialist Classrooms on left, Whare Tapere distant right
TE WHARE KURA O HOANI
WAITITI
Working drawings, specifications and
tenders were completed, and several
students were employed in the
process. Two years ...
The Whare Matauranga was altered substantially
from the original design. However, its relationship
to the creek, was retai...
The specialist rooms (Art, Science and Engineering) are grouped together and
clustered around the small creek. Native vege...
Total cost: $3M+
No. of students: 14
Students who graduated: 12 (86%)
No. completing Masters: 2
No. teaching at University...
THE PARIHAKA PROJECT
© Tony Ward 2009
A downloadable and extended version of this presentation is available at:
http://www...
In the 1860s and 1870s, the European
invasion of the Waikato and the
crossing of the Waitara River in 1860 in
violation of...
TE WHITI AND TOHU
Two Taranaki chiefs, Te Whiti-o-
Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi
e s t a b l i s h e d a p e a c e f u l
commun...
PARIHAKA 1870-80
By 1870, a prosperous settlement
• 1500 inhabitants.
• its own vegetable gardens
• wheat fields
• three f...
Gradually, roads were built
by the armed constabulary
and were approaching the
Parihaka community (top
right). Surveyors a...
THE ARRESTS
Te Whiti’s ploughmen were arrested. Within a week, more than a hundred
were in custody, many were sentenced to...
THE INVASION
It was into this context that
early in November, Parihaka
Pa was invaded by a force of
945 volunteers and 644...
6th November,
• Village was invaded and pillaged.
• They were met on the path into the
village by two lines of children - ...
• Following the invasion of the Pa,
• continued resistance and imprisonments through to the end of the
century.
• Occupati...
THE RECONSTRUCTION
In March 1883, Te Whiti and Tohu were finally
released and arrived back at Parihaka. They were
still un...
THE LEGACY
In 1995 the Community Design Studio was invited to help
the people of Parihaka develop planning guidelines to
r...
THE PARIHAKA PROJECT
© Tony Ward 2009
A downloadable and extended version of this presentation is available at:
http://www...
THE SURVEY
During the Winter of 1995, staff and
students regularly traveled the 6
hour drive to Taranaki to survey the
Pa ...
BUILDING THE MODEL
Once the survey was complete we were able to draw accurate
topographical maps of the pa site and from t...
In addition to the survey,
model and development
plan, we were also asked to
develop designs for the
rehabilitation - Te W...
PRELIMINARY PLANS
Preliminary Ground Floor Plan Preliminary First Floor Plan
The need to significantly increase the space ...
CULTURAL LANDCAPE
The new spatial organisation of Te Pae Pae was
configured around specific directions and points of
refer...
Te Niho
Te Raukura Te Pae Pae
Mahi Kuare
Toroanui
Rangi Kapuia
Te Whiti’s Tomb
Tohu’s Grave
Taranaki
Te Whiti’s Tomb
Te Pa...
MEDIA COVERAGE
The story of the Parihaka Project became
nation-wide news in mid-1996, as TVNZ film
crews arrived to film t...
THE DESIGN
And so the project came to an end. The models and all documentation were given
to the Trustees to use as they w...
DESIGN MODEL IMAGES
Below are a number of general images of the design model in its final form.
THE DREAM
On the last day of the project, I was taken aside by an elder. As we climbed up the
steps of the ruin of Te Rauk...
INDIGENOUS PEDAGOGIES
The world is in a mess. Part of the reason for the mess is capitalism
and its colonising project. Th...
ASPECTS OF MAORI PEDAGOGY
• Maori tend towards a holistic approach to education with subject connections,
rather than divi...
• Learners are encouraged to learn by DOING tasks in the proper setting
• There is emphasis on the learner LOOKING, LISTEN...
• Accretive learning in a collective situation is the preferred mode
• Talking circles are conducive to better communicati...
Colonialism and the architecture project.
Colonialism and the architecture project.
Colonialism and the architecture project.
Colonialism and the architecture project.
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Colonialism and the architecture project.

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Architecture has always been the province of the rich and powerful, and has played a crucial part in the development of modernity, colonisation and capitalism, This is a critical study of its social, political and moral contradictions, and points to a possible alternative course for the profession - one that supports emancipation, cultural self-determination and social sustainability.

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Colonialism and the architecture project.

  1. 1. COLUMBUS 1492 517 years ago today Columbus landed in the Bahamas COLONIALISM AND THE ARCHITECTURE PROJECT © Tony Ward 2009 For extended versions of this document visit: http://www.TonyWardedu.com
  2. 2. Please note that parts of this presentation are highly critical of some past and present policies and actions of the Catholic Church. This is not an anti-Church analysis. I was myself raised as a devout Catholic until I was in my late teens, and for a while studied with a view to the priesthood. I hold in deepest respect those members of the Church who work at great personal sacrifice and often die for the poor and oppressed. I dedicate this piece to them. This critical analysis of the roles of the Church and the State in the development of Capitalism and in systems of oppression and genocide is for me a necessary part of my coming to understand my own white privilege and the histories of the peoples upon whose bodies it is built. What follows is a history of the relationship of Architecture to the process of colonisation from the point of view of its victims. I make no apologies for voicing these suppressed views.
  3. 3. Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. George Orwell, 1984. HISTORY
  4. 4. ST. MICHAEL BURROWBRIDGE ST. MICHAEL GLASTONBURY MT. ST. MICHAEL, CORNWALL All of these early Christian churches, dedicated to St. Michael, the Archangel are located on very ancient pre- Christian (Celtic) sacred sites. COLONISING ARCHITECTURE?
  5. 5. MT. ST. MICHELE AD.708ST. MICHEL LE PUY Such ancient places of pilgrimage have for over a thousand years been surmounted by a fortress-like churches, c l a i m i n g t h e i r dominance of the s u r r o u n d i n g community. Such sites were important in the process of hegemony. Throughout Europe, the same process occurred. Here, the famous Benedictine monastery of Mt St, Michele, built in 708. (above) stands on an island-rock that was sacred to pre- Christian peoples. And (left) the chapel of St-Michel d'Aiguilhe dominates the surrounding landscape.
  6. 6. ST. MICHAELWhat each of these sites has in common, is a dedication to St. Michael, who slew a dragon. The dragon (horned, winged and breathing fire) was not only characterised as Satan in early Christian iconography, but also of the Earth Spirit - the source of the pre-Christian spirituality, of the Mother Goddess cult. The symbolic skewering (By a piece of Christian Architecture) of the Earth Goddess represented the imposition of Christian patriarchy over gynocentric Europe. The Freudian symbolism is not too obscure! The Goddess was replaced, by a male deity. But she lives on even today in the re-branded guise of the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  7. 7. DOME OF THE ROCK (685-691) 5 years after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad in 632, in a war of liberation from the Byzantine Empire (the remnant Eastern Roman Imperium that had merged with the Roman Church), Jerusalem was conquered by the Islamic army. The Dome of the Rock was erected as a statement of reclamation by t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e between 685 and 691 CE. The loss of pilgrimage revenues from Jerusalem was a serious blow to Church finances as well as affront to Christian hegemony and power.
  8. 8. This act of reclamation was quite conscious, and sought to compete with and overwhelm the Christian buildings that has been built on the site during the Byzantine occupation. Historians contend that the Caliph wished to create a structure which would compete with the existing buildings of other religions in the city. al-Maqdisi writes that he ”sought to build for the Muslims a masjid that should be unique and a wonder to the world. And in like manner, is it not evident that Caliph Abd al-Malik, seeing the greatness of the martyrium of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and its magnificence was moved lest it should dazzle the minds of Muslims and hence erected above the Rock the dome which is now seen there.”
  9. 9. THE CRUSADES 1095-1291 EUROPEAN COLONIALISM Church and State F r o m t h e 1 1 t h - 1 3 t h Centuries, successive P o p e s a n d m o n a r c h s formed alliances to wrest the Holy Land from Islam. The Crusades failed in their purpose to “retake” the Holy L a n d f o r C h r i s t , b u t established an imperialist pattern that would prevail for centuries (down to none other than George Bush?) The Crusades were a series of religiously-sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Latin Christian Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific Crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued into the 15th century. The Crusades were fought mainly against Muslims, although campaigns were also waged against pagan Slavs, Jews, Russian and Greek Orthodox Christians, Mongols, Cathars, Hussites, Waldensians, Old Prussians, and political enemies of the popes. There were 9 crusades in all - most of them failures.
  10. 10. EARLY CHRISTIAN ENTREPRENEURS
  11. 11. If the mountain won’t come to Mohammed.., (If the pilgrims can’t come to the Holy Land, then the Holy Land must come to the pilgrims). St. Chapelle, Paris (1248) was built by Louis IX to house the Crown of Thorns - no doubt retrieved during The Crusades but purchased by him from the Latin Emperor at Constantinople, Baldwin II, as an investment in his move to become rightful King. He paid 135,000 livres for the relics and 40,000 livres to build the chapel. His endorsement by the Pope of the ownership of the relics was a powerful aid to his ambitions. Despite the fact that it was Louis’ private Chapel, the presence of the relics in Paris (and Louis’ own increased prestige) would no doubt have been a big draw-card to the pilgrims of the day, and an economic boost for the economy of the city and the added prestige of the King.
  12. 12. Michelle Obama's Chicago Olympics pep rally The Obama’s attempt to gain the Olympics for Chicago in 2016 is just the latest example of a very old economic strategy: capital investment for regular expected returns from Tourism.
  13. 13. COLUMBUS 1492The processes of colonisation that had been established in the crusades was carried to a fine art in the 15th-16th Centuries by the Spanish, with the blessing and twisted legal logic of Alexander VI, the Spanish (Borgia) Pope. After the discovery of the New World, the Pope’s papal bull Inter Cetera Divini (1493) divided the world into franchises, and established a r i g h t t o c o l o n i s e a n d appropriate resources based u p o n t h e l e g i t i m a t i n g argument of “saving souls”.
  14. 14. OVIEDO 1328-1528 What is interesting about this picture? It’s possible to see here the shift that happened to Spanish Church Architecture after 1492. The plain, simple, yet elegant architecture of the Gothic remains. But the Sanctuary has become an extravaganza of imagery and iconic motifs, dripping with gold.
  15. 15. CONQUISTADORS The “discovery” of America, was very profitable to the European colonisers (primarily the Spanish). The amounts of gold and silver taken from the new World by Columbus and those who followed him were staggering. In the mid-Seventeenth Century silver constituted more than 99 percent of mineral exports from Spanish America, and between 1503 and 1660, 185,000 kilograms of gold and 16,000,000 of silver arrived at the Spanish port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Silver shipped to Spain in little more than a century and a half exceeded more than three times the total European reserves - and probably much more since these official figures are not complete.
  16. 16. TOLEDO ALTAR Once simple churches such as those in Oviedo and Toledo suddenly soared to new heights, expanded, and had new windows installed to let the sun pour down on the vast collection of gold and jewels from the New World. The cathedral of Toledo boasts a five-hundred pound monstrance made from the Indian booty brought back by Columbus himself.
  17. 17. In the Chapter House (right) this 500-pound, 10-foot high, 15th-century gilded monstrance by Juan del Arfe, a silversmith. Made of solid silver, it was gilded 70 years later, allegedly with gold brought back by Columbus. It is still carried through the streets of Toledo (left) during the feast of Corpus Christi. Cordoba, Avila and every other city in the south boast similar artifacts. Gold became so common in European palaces and churches that architects developed a novel style of decoration emphasising entering light that could illuminate the gold and make it dazzle the observer.
  18. 18. MALAGA & VALENCIA As Jack Weather-ford notes: “I first saw this wealth of silver and gold in a Holy Week procession in Cōrdoba…Dressed in their long robes of purple and white topped by tall conical hats from which hung veils covering their faces they looked like marchers in a Ku Klux Klan rally The first one carried a six foot high cross of silver. Twelve young boys…followed him, each of them carried a gold trumpet four feet long and a foot wide at the mouth. From each trumpet hung a banner of the Hapsburg eagle… Following…marched more boys with tall silver crosses and more men with covered faces. In Andalusia over 300 such processions marched during Holy Week.”
  19. 19. Florentine Banking Cardinals (alone): • Medici (2 Popes) • Strozzi • Salviati • Ridolfi • Gaddi (2 cardinals) Medici Villa Madama, Rome 1518 THE CHURCH AND THE BANKS The banking families lent the Church money for projects (which their sibling- cardinals and popes initiated) then collected the interest from the booty.
  20. 20. The riches sought by Ferdinand and Isabella eventually found their way, to the banking system and the Church throughout the dominions of the Netherlands, Sardinia, Sicily, Italy, Austria, Switzerland and Germany. Many of the great banking families of Italy were deeply connected to the Church hierarchy. Election to the Papacy was invariably accompanied by simony and bribery, because of the great power that the position wielded. These banking families lent the Church money for projects (which their sibling-cardinals and popes initiated), and then claiming their interest on the spoils of colonial conquest which the Pope had sanctioned. The Spanish Crown was almost completely mortgaged, owing nearly all of the silver shipments before they arrived to German, Genoese, Flemish and Spanish bankers. In 1543, sixty-five percent of all Royal revenues went to paying annuities on debts. Latin American silver benefited the Spanish economy only indirectly. It ended in the hands of the Fuggers, (German bankers who had advanced to the Pope the funds needed to finish St. Peter’s), and of the Welsers, the Shetzes, and the Grimaldi, the other major bankers in the Italian and Spanish economies. It is worth noting that the ongoing expropriation of gold and silver was also partly occasioned because of the loss of Church revenues occasioned by the expanding Reformation and Henry VIII’s dissolution of the Monasteries and appropriation of their assets and revenues (1536-41).
  21. 21. THE CHURCH AND STATE: Phillip II (1556-1598) moved the capital from Toledo to Madrid in 1559. Reacting to the Protestant Reformation sweeping through Europe during the sixteenth century, he devoted much of his reign and most of his New World gold to stemming the Protestant tide through a new kind of Church architecture.
  22. 22. THE COUNTER-REFORMATION Bernini:The Coronaro (1646) To counter the potential loss of revenue that the Reform movement threatened, the Church threw all of its economic and political might behind the Counter- Reformation project. Much of the wealth acquired by Phillip and the Church was used to combat the austerity of the Protestant architecture. The Church adopted a specific design policy of ehat we might call Enrapturement- intended to induce perceptual ambiguity and to overwhelm the senses through a sensual and voluptuous experience that would swamp the auditory, visual, olefactory and haptic representational systems, inducing a trance-like (and transcendental) experience. Borromini, Bernini (right) at The Coronaro (1646) and Cosmos Damien and Egid Quirin Asam, Assumption (Rohr, 1720) (next slide) were masters of the art. .
  23. 23. The process worked! Whereas in 1600 Europe was all but lost to the Reformists, by 1650, more than two-thirds of the continent was once again under the sway of orthodox Catholicism ZIMMERMAN WIESKIRCHE 1746 ASSAM: ASSUMPTION(1720)
  24. 24. THE COST? WHO PAID?! • In the Potosi mines of Bolivia alone, six thousand African slaves all died of altitude sickness. • Four out of five of the local Indians forced into slave labour for the Spanish died in their first year in the mines. • By 1600 over three million native people were murdered or died from the results of their enslavement in South America • In the fourteen years after of Columbus’ arrival more than a quarter of a million Haitians were murdered by the Spanish • Historian David Stannard argues that the destruction of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas, in a "string of genocide campaigns" by Europeans and their descendants, was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world
  25. 25. CULPABLE CHURCH So while the late Pope John Paul may have sought to defend the activities of the Church in the process of colonisation and the genocide of indigenous communities on spiritual grounds (right), there is no denying that the Church’s greed for gold (both to pay off growing debt and to stem reform) was also one of its motivations. The Church continues today to support despotic dictators in El Salvador, Guatemala, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Peru, the Phillipines and elsewhere in the interests of maintaining its power and hegemony.
  26. 26. ZAPATISTAS Indigenous Mexicans still suffer from the privations caused by the original genocide. Here, in 1989, the Zapatista Mayans cluster around the entrance to the Cathedral in Mexico City’s Zoccalo in a land protest against State and Church policies toward the Mayan people, especially in Chiapas, the southernmost and poorest (and most indigenous) province. Their plight has been highlighted by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation
  27. 27. TERRORIST COLUMBUS In European culture, Christopher Columbus is portrayed as a hero-explorer who brought “progress” and Christianity to native peoples. To many of these same native peoples, Columbus is seen as a terrorist who brought death, slavery, starvation and centuries of subjugation. This poster (below right) is taken from indigenous demonstrations such as the one in Columbia during the 500th Anniversary of Columbus’ voyage in 1992. Demonstrations such as this took place all across the all Americas to mark the start of their subjugation and exploitation.
  28. 28. Marx put it succinctly: “...(the) discovery of gold and silver in America, the extirpation, enslavement and entombment in mines of the aboriginal population, the beginning of the conquest and looting of the East Indies, the turning of Africa into a warren for the commercial hunting of black skins, signaled the rosy dawn of the era of capitalist production”.. Karl Marx COLONISATION & CAPITALISM
  29. 29. 1898 COLONIAL EXPANSION The activity of the Church and the Spanish monarchy was just the beginning of a process of colonial expansion that in the next 400 years would cover the planet. So much wealth poured into Europe from South America that it fuelled a massive investment programme. Each of the European nations joined in the subjugation of indigenous peoples to increase its economic power.
  30. 30. BRITISH IMPERIALISM AT HOME: THE ENCLOSURES
  31. 31. Throughout the 17th, 18th and part of the 19th Centuries, British society and the British landscape were transformed by a series of Parliamentary Acts - the Enclosure Acts. These Acts allowed rich and powerful politicians, and landowners (you had to be a land-owner to vote) to force millions of peasants off what had been until then, common land over which they had living, grazing, hunting and growing rights. These displaced folk were herded into the burgeoning towns where they formed an immense pool of cheap labour, ready to be exploited in the factories - owned, of course, by the same land- owning class interests that had displaced them in the first place. Those caught “poaching” to feed their families were transported to the penal colonies in America and Australia. As one example, in North Wales, Llandudno's 1843 Enclosure Act was progressed through Parliament by Edward Mostyn Lloyd Mostyn M.P. whose family consequently acquired freehold rights over much of the old village of Llandudno. Smallholders were then evicted, their fields paved over and an ancient agricultural settlement transformed into a fashionable bathing resort. A century and a half later Mostyn Estates still own and control most of our town. The town of Mostyn, to the East, was, until recently, home to a giant smelting firm owned, naturally, by the family.
  32. 32. LEGAL THEFT 'The law locks up the man or woman Who steals the goose from off the common; But lets the greater villain loose Who steals the common from the goose.' 18th Century poem Graffiti, Auckland, NZ 1987
  33. 33. URBAN ENGLAND 1830s+
  34. 34. Salford factory town by LS Lowry 1887-1976 - the world I was born into.
  35. 35. STOURHEAD 1741-80 The profits from these dispossessions and exploitations was poured into the large mansion houses that now (dis) grace the English countryside.
  36. 36. BLENHEIM PALACE 1705-24 Blenheim Palace, “gift of a grateful nation” to the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough in return for military triumph against the French and Bavarians. The birthplace and burial place of Sir Winston Churchill. “Set in 2100 acres of beautiful parkland landscaped by ‘Capability’ Brown, the exquisite Baroque Palace is surrounded by sweeping lawns, formal gardens and the magnificent Lake.” The architect was Sir John Vanbrugh.
  37. 37. HARLAXTON HALL
  38. 38. “Some of them had been there for centuries, visible triumphs over the ruin and labour of others. But the extraordinary phase of extension, rebuilding and enlarging which occurred in the 18th century, represents a spectacular increase in the rate of exploitation, a good deal of it, of course, the profit of trade and of colonial exploitation; much of it, however, the higher surplus value of a new and more efficient mode of production. It is fashionable to admire these extraordinarily numerous houses: the extended manors, the neo-classical mansions, that lie so close to rural Britain. People still pass from village to village, guidebook in hand, to see the next and yet the next example, to look at the stones and the furniture. But stand at any point and look at that land. Look at what those fields, those streams, those woods even today produce. Think it through as labour and see how long and systematic the exploitation and seizure must have been, to rear that many houses on that scale... What these ‘great’ houses do is to break the scale, by an act of will corresponding to their real and systematic exploitation of others. For look at the sites, the facades, the defining avenues and walls, the great iron gates and the guardian lodges. These were chosen for more than their effect from the inside out... they were chosen, also, you now see, for the other effect, from the outside looking in: a visible stamping of power, of displayed wealth and command: a social disproportion which was meant to impress and overawe. Much of the real profit of a more modern agriculture went not into productive investment, but into that explicit social declaration: a mutually competitive but still uniform exposition, at every turn, of an established and commanding class power.” Williams, R., The Country and The City, Hogarth Press, London, 1985, pp. 105-106.
  39. 39. MR & MRS ANDREWS Painted by Gainsborough, the landscape evokes Robert Andrews' estate, to which his marriage added property. The gun, intended to indicate a recreational interest in hunting, no doubt had a more sinister purpose. Key to these estates was the availability of cheap labour - vast pools of unemployed, hungry peasants and convicted transportees who hover beyond the edge of vision.
  40. 40. PETERLOO MASSACRE The lie was given to this supposed pastoral harmony in August, 1819, when 60,000-80,000 Northern demonstrators peacefully seeking representation were charged by sabre-wielding cavalry. 15 people were killed and 400–700 were injured.
  41. 41. TRANSPORTATION The prisons were overflowing and convicted felons were usually transported to a penal colony - either to the Americas, from the 1610s t h r o u g h t h e A m e r i c a n Revolution in the 1770s, and then to Australia between 1788 and 1868. During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government, many for petty crimes they were driven to commit because of the poverty they were forced to live in. Over the 80 years more than 165,000 convicts were transported to Australia.
  42. 42. RECENT TRANSPORTEES Bizarre as it sounds, the practice of forced migration continued after WW2 - albeit in different form - up into the 1960s. British colonial policy encouraged working class single mothers or wives of disabled servicemen were intimidated to place their children (more than 500,000) into foster care and orphanages, which then contracted with the Church and the Government to transport them to Australia where they were subjected to economic exploitation and emotional, physical and often sexual abuse in Christian Brothers institutions. In November 2009, the Australian Government at last issued a formal apology to these “Forgotten Australians”. See: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/australia/6578427/ Australian-apology-to-British-child-migrants-speech-in-full.html
  43. 43. Such practices only serve to highlight the crucial role played by forced deportation in even the recent history of colonial development. In the early colonial years the number of transportees and immigrant workers to the new American colony was not enough to keep up with the demands of economic growth. The gap was filled by slaves. The trade in slaves was the ground upon which the economies of both Britain and United States was built. In the Americas: • Not enough workers • Not enough Transportees • Slavery was the answer • 15 million Africans shipped • Up to 600 slaves per ship • Chained together hand & foot • Half became effective workers • 7.5M died or were crippled • Cost price: £25 • Sale Price: £150 (500% profit) British were the biggest traders • Profits financed Empire building • Development of America THE SLAVE TRADE
  44. 44. SLAVERY Additionally, much of the British economy was built upon the slave trade through the Ports of Liverpool and London. Britain had outlawed the slave trade with the Slave Trade Act in 1807, with penalties of £100 per slave levied on British captains found importing slaves. But trading continued - captains throwing their slaves overboard rather than being caught and fined. In 1823 the first Anti-Slavery Society was formed in Britain, They prevailed ten years later with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Internal trading continued in the United States until slavery was ended at the conclusion of the Civil War in 1865. The entire United States Economy is built on the bodies of African slaves
  45. 45. MONTICELLO As the country moved from an agrarian to an industrial economy, the disposition of the slave population became a source of dispute. Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. In 1860, about 385,000 individuals (i.e. 1.4% of White Americans in the country, or 4.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves. 95% of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, these slaves represented a potential source of cheap labour to Northern industrialists. M o n t i c e l l o i n Charlottesville, Virginia, was the estate of Thomas Jefferson, the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence, third President of the United States, and founder of the University of Virginia. His power was built on slavery and he fathered children with Sally Hemings his daughter’s childhood friend and one of his slaves.
  46. 46. AMERICAN PROGRESS 1830 - 1880 The American colonisation of the West, and the dispossession of its indigenous peoples was carried out under the ideology of Manifest Destiny. Europeans believed that they had a superior culture, and that it was their God- given destiny to occupy the land and to extinguish the culture of its original inhabitants. In this illustration, we see Progress leading the settlers across the prairie, Bible in hand, stringing telegraph wires with the other, while the “savages” flee ahead American Progress - John Gast, 1872 .
  47. 47. PAHA SAPA The Black Hills are sacred to the Sioux Indians. In the 1868 Fort Laramie treaty and, the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. However, after the discovery of gold in 1874, the United States confiscated the land in 1877. Thomas Jefferson wrote of the Indians in America that the government was obliged "now to pursue them to extermination, or drive them to new seats beyond our reach." Theodor Roosevelt once said, "I don't go so far as to think that the only good Indians are dead Indians, but I believe nine out of ten are, and I shouldn't like to inquire too closely into the case of the tenth". George Washington instructed Major General John Sullivan to attack Iroquois people and "lay waste all the settlements around...that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed", and to “not listen to any overture of peace before the total ruin of their settlements is effected". Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution, by hanging, of 38 Dakota Sioux prisoners in Mankato, Minnesota. Most of those executed were holy men or political leaders of their camps. None of them were responsible for committing the crimes they were accused of. Mt. Rushmore is carved into the images of four presidents who were all white supremacists.
  48. 48. AMERICAN GENOCIDE It is clear that the US had no intention of honouring the Ft. Laramie Treaty. Gold was not “discovered” by accident in 1874. Six years after the signing, George Armstrong Custer was in fact authorised to take his exploration team into the Black Hills specifically to look for gold. "They made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they never kept but one; they promised to take our land and they took it." Historian David Stannard estimates that almost 100 million died in what he calls the American Holocaust. What distinguished the genocide of Latin America from that of the United States was that in the former case the outcome was not the intent but rather the effect of a policy of enslavement and economic production. In the case of the United States,, the eradication, removal and assimilation of native American American culture was a stated policy. It was itself a form of production.
  49. 49. For a description of the spiritual significance of Bear Butte visit: http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/369/123/ MATO PAHA Mato Paha - Bear Butte is the most sacred of all sacred mountains to the Plains Indians. For untold centuries they have gone their to pray and to carry out their sacred ceremonies. It lies about 6 miles from Sturgis, S.D., where, every August, tens of thousands of bikers congregate for the annual Harley Davidson Rally. The local authorities have consistently refused to grant the Dakota (or the mountain) any special status that might protect them from the visual and noise intrusion and the drunken behavior that attends the rally. The map (left) indicates (in red) the bars and concert venues that have been allowed to develop around the mountain. Were it the Vatican, offensive development would be banned. In a simple, present day context, we might cite the example of Mato Paha - bear Butte, in South Dakota where the spiritual traditions and space of indigenous people are annually violated.
  50. 50. LIBERTY (WHAT PRICE) LIBERTY 1865-86? What price Liberty? A gift from one supposedly libertarian colonial regime to another at a time when Native Americans were being dispossessed and eradicated, the year after the Navajo Long Walk..
  51. 51. COLONIALISM & DESIGN Since the 14th Century, Architecture has been complicit in the oppression and genocide of indigenous communities. Even with the advent of Modernism’s theories of the Social Good, this process not ceased. In the 1950s, Brasilia (right) required the removal of thousands of Indigenous people. It is listed as a World Heritage Site. Architecture is whore of capitalism a n d t h e h a n d m a i d e n o f oppression. Brasilia 1956 The question is, How can we turn architecture into an antiracist, anticolonial project? How can we change the role of the designer to serve, rather than oppress, the people?
  52. 52. COLONIALISM AND EDUCATION “The most odious form of colonisation, and that which has brought with it the greatest pain for the colonised (is) the colonisation of the mind” Franz Fanon "The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas; ie., the class, which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production...” Karl Marx The field of Education is one of the major arenas of mind colonisation in which capitalism conducts and effects its global project. If we can transform Education, we can change the world.
  53. 53. CONCEPTS MYTHOLOGISED BY CAPITALISM Our education must proceed through the critical demystification of, every idea, every concept, every theory that has been shaped and mythologised by the ruling class. Some key concepts: • Knowledge • Education • Beauty • Liberty • History • Democracy • Individualism • Competition • Human Nature • Responsibility • Intelligence • Development • Sustainability • Space • Time • Rationality Decolonising ourselves requires that we demystify and decolonise these and other concepts. For critical analyses of these see: http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/295/98/
  54. 54. BERKELEY 1970: FREEDOM OF SPEECH My own re-education began as a young Assistant Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1970 around the freedom to speak out against the Vietnam War. I had a Draft Card, a Green Card and 3 children. With the Draft Lottery, I was eligible for shipment to the war. Some of my students had already been, others would go. We were all already involved.
  55. 55. The Campus police were deployed at strategic points and patrolled the Campus in separate roving platoons, all armed in the usual manner, with side- arms, but also carrying teargas and riot sticks. Checkpoints were established at all Campus entrances to make sure that everyone on campus had either staff or student identification. This was to ensure that “outside subversive elements” were not “infiltrating” the student population to sew the seeds of violence (as widely reported in the news media) .
  56. 56. I took these photographs during one of the many anti-war demonstrations that occurred that Spring.
  57. 57. By this time life on Campus had become a parody of academic activity. Students were coming to class with gas-masks in their packs, alongside their books and calculators. Anti- war demonstrations were by now beginning to become widespread in all Universities across America.
  58. 58. TURNING POINT May 4th 1970 The shooting was the single factor causing the only nationwide student strike in U.S. history—over 4 million students protested and over 900 American colleges and universities closed during the student strikes. It was a turning point in the Vietnam War Not long after noon on Monday, the 4th May 1970, 28 Ohio National Guardsmen fired 61 rounds of live ammunition over a thirteen second period into an unarmed demonstration of anti-war protesters on the Kent State University campus, killing four and wounding nine. The shootings led to a mass outrage across American campuses.
  59. 59. THE STRIKE
  60. 60. CURRICULUM CHANGE One of the most significant changes brought about by the strike was a change to the curriculum. We created An experimental 12 credit whole-semester programme that allowed students to combine subjects in one major project that promoted: • self initiation • self-time management • holistic projects • self-direction • self-evaluation. • experimental pedagogies • group work and co-operative learning • community engagement The first intake of students, in the Spring of 1972, included a group of 8 Chicano students.
  61. 61. CHICANO STUDENT PROFILES • Two years in College • No Hispanic buildings shown • No Hispanic designers noted • No Hispanic college lecturers • No role models cited • Low enrolment rates (<7%) • Low completion rates (<20%) • Low pass rates IDENTITY AND DESIGN Issue of cultural identity
  62. 62. RESULTS: The students elected to work collectively to explore the issue of Chicano Architecture in the context of a live project (a Marcato) in the largely Hispanic community of Richmond, California. The result? • All completed the course with high grades (100%) • All completed their degrees (100%) • 5 went on to complete Masters (62%) • 3 later taught Architecture at University level. (37%) Clearly something astonishing was going on! It was my first inkling of the powerful relationship between language, culture, identity and learning that would serve me well in my later work in New Zealand
  63. 63. The indigenous Maori people. Arrived approx. 800 years ago from Oceania MAORI
  64. 64. TREATY OF WAITANGI 1840 Representatives of the British Crown signed a Treaty with Maori chiefs at Waitangi on 6th February 1940. There were two versions of the Treaty, One in English and one in Maori. They were not the same. In the Maori version, they ceded Governorship (Kawanatanga). In the English version they ceded sovereignty (Rangatiratanga). They would not have signed if they had known. The Treaty was written by Samuel Marsden - a Missionary who spoke Maori. From the get-go the Crown intended to deceive Maori into signing away self-government in return for British citizenship. The Treaty promised that the Crown would guarantee and protect Maori land, culture, language and resources.
  65. 65. LAND OCCUPATION Maori land ownership patterns 1860 1908 1960 From Cook’s “discovery” of NZ in 1769 Maori were dispossessed of 95% of their land through government legislation and fraud.
  66. 66. CONFISCATIONS One of the primary means of land dispossession was “legal” confiscation. Under the New Zealand Settlement Act of 1863, tribes that were deemed “rebellious” had their land confiscated by the government. The definition of “rebellious” bore striking (slippery) similarities to American Indian “Hostiles” and today’s “terrorists” - convenient labels for demonising those we oppress When provocative Government raids of native lands were resisted by Maori tribes, they were labeled “Rebellious”, their leaders imprisoned and hung and their lands were taken. The struggle continues today as Maori attempt to gain redress and resist globalisation
  67. 67. THE WHAKATANE STUDY ©2009 Tony Ward To download a more extensive version visit: http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/166/49/
  68. 68. WHAKATANE NORTH ISLAND SOUTH ISLAND Bay of Plenty LOCATION: Bay of Plenty North Island POPULATION: 15,000 MAORI POP.: 30% (Town) 52% (Region) 15% (Nationally) UNEMPLOYMENT: 8% MAORI UNEMPLOYMENT: 30% ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME: $15,000 AVE. NATIONAL INCOME: $54,000 MAIN INDUSTRY: Farming, Tourism, To design a commercial development for the Whakatane D. C. Project:
  69. 69. MAORI HISTORY Site of one of the first Maori settlements in New Zealand - deeply historical and of great spiritual significance. Landing place of the Mataatua Waka (canoe) party - the origin of seven separate tribes. ”Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!” About two hundred years before the Santa Maria arrived in Haiti the Mataatua canoe landed in what is now called Whakatane. Whakatane is a small town (35,000) located at the mouth of the Whakatane River in New Zealand’s Eastern Bay of Plenty, and is squeezed between the river and a large escarpment to the South. Development has therefore been constrained since the 1870s when Europeans first settled the area. Before that, the area was settled by Maori for almost a thousand years. Whakatane is believed to have been the destination of a large number of the ocean-going migratory canoes or waka that came from Polynesia, and most specifically, the landing-place of the Mataatua waka which brought the ancestors of the present day Mataatua confederation of tribes, Ngati Awa, Tuhoe, Whanau a Apanui, Ngai te Rangi, Whakatohea, and so on. Wairaka is the largely Maori settlement at the river head, named after Wairaka, the daughter of the waka captain, Toroa. It is the site of the original landing-place. It is said that then the waka landed, the men went ashore top explore, leaving only the women to guard the waka. As the tide came in the waka started to drift away. Since waka-work was tapu, only men were allowed to wield a paddle. Wairaka, using her initiative, voiced a kaiaria (prayer):”Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!”(I must act like a man - hence the name of the town). The population of the town is approximately 30% Maori - about twice the national average, while that of the surrounding district is almost 50%. The history of the township and its surroundings have been the source of bitter disputes between the two cultures since 1866, Under the New Zealand Settlement Act of 1863, the Crown wrongfully confiscated all Ngati Awa land for the alleged murder of the Lutheran Missionary Volkner in Opotiki. The Crown has since admitted its fault, made a cash settlement and and posthumously pardoned the Ngati Awa leaders who were imprisoned and executed
  70. 70. WAIRAKA “Me whakatāne au i ahau nei!” “Make Me like a Man”
  71. 71. Traditional home of Ngati Awa whose entire lands were confiscated in 1866 on the false charge of murdering a missionary. The leaders were hanged. They were later (1988) pardoned and the Govt apologised but the land was gone! LANDLESS
  72. 72. TOWN DEVELOPMENT Successive Local Governments then began to “reclaim” the harbour, and develope a European township along the river. At the time of European settlement, the riverbank used to wash the base of the Escarpment, and the rock, Pohaturoa, which now stands in the centre of the business district, was an island (top right). Over the last 150 years, successive reclamations have filled in parts of the river to form a berth for trading and fishing vessels (bottom right). In the 1950s, further reclamation isolated Pohaturoa from the river, and the development of the present commercial strip, The Strand was initiated (below left). This development has continued since the 1950s and the town has now become something of a tourist destination with the riverfront and rivermouth forming a key element of its identity
  73. 73. MODERN TOWNSHIP Proposed Development Site • The modern (1988) town centre occupies the narrow space between the Escarpment and the river. • Residential Development is mainly to the North and West • Council wanted to develop the triangle of “reclaimed” land between the Strand and the river Residential development Wairaka (Maori Settlement Area) is to the East The modern (1988) township occupies the space between the Escarpment (from which this photo is taken) and the river. Pohaturoa can be seen, surrounded by roads in the centre of the town. It was in this context that in 1988, the Community Design Studio at the School of Architecture at the University of Auckland was approached by a Development Management Resources (DMR) - a project management company - to participate with them in an exploratory study for the addition of further retailing space in the triangular area behind The Strand and between it and the river. They had contracted with the District Council to conduct a retailing survey and they wanted the Community Design Studio to develop the design concepts. We undertook to assist DMR, but with the understanding that our responsibility would be to engage with the people of Whakatane and discover what their dreams and expectations for the town might be.
  74. 74. THE COUNCIL The Council had almost no Maori representation (one t o k e n m e m b e r f r o m distant Rotorua), - this despite the fact that more than 50% of the Region’s population were Maori. The Council seemed reluctant for us to meet Maori representatives, saying they would “just obstruct the process” In our initial meetings with Council, it soon became clear that significant tensions and enmity existed between the Council and the Maori community. At a meeting with the Mayor and Council, we raised the point that the 50% Maori population represented a significant constituency that needed to have a voice in the planning decisions. We were reluctantly directed by Council officers to meet with the Ngati Awa Trust Board, but were told that they “did not have anything of significance to offer”. The Council itself had only one Maori representative - a resident of Rotorua, over an hour‘s drive away. In general, we were both surprised and disappointed at the lack of dialogue between the Council and the Maori community. Accordingly, a meeting was set up with the Trust Board in the upper chambers of the Whakatane Hotel.
  75. 75. NGATI AWA What we learned changed all of our attitudes and lives. Stories were told of: • land confiscation, • dispossession, • displacement, • racism, • political, spiritual and economic oppression, • persecution • execution of leaders • the destruction of almost all sacred sites • deep mistrust and anger Nevertheless we arranged a separate meeting with Ngati Awa. A f t e r i n i t i a l s u s p i c i o n a n d o u r assurances of commitment they told a heart-rending tale of colonial oppression, pointing to specific locations and landmarks on our model of the town. The first response of the Trust Board (later to become Te Runanga o Ngati Awa)to our project was not encouraging: “If you are working for the Council we are not having anything to do with you - they have stabbed us in the back too many times already!!!” We assured them that we were working independently of the Council and that we were seriously interested in what they had to say. Discussions took place around a scale model of the town (as currently existing) that we had made for the purpose. Using the model as a reference point, the members of the Board began to pour out their long-standing frustrations and stories of cultural abuse and insensitivity, pointing to specific sacred sites that had been violated over generations by successive Council plans and developments. It would be an understatement to say that we were appalled by what we heard. For many of the students, this was the first time that they had ever been directly confronted with first-hand evidence of colonial oppression. Most were shocked by what they heard, since New Zealand history at that time had been “cleansed” of any culpability. Conceptions of neutrality became impossible to sustain. Students who had always believed that their knowledge was neutral and therefore innocent were quickly divested of this illusion. The class became, in effect, a laboratory in conscientisation. This process was helped by the presence of a Maori student in the class who consistently brought the discussions back to a cultural/political reference point, and there is little doubt that his impact upon the group and upon the process was significant. This raises significant issues from a pedagogical point of view and confirms value of participatory or collaborative research as a basis for design and planning projects. It also raises important questions about the composition of design teams in bicultural or multicultural settings.
  76. 76. Muriwai’s Cave Irakewa The Heads Wairere Stream/ Falls Munuka Tuatahi Piripai Numerous Pa Sites SACRED LANDSCAPE Marae Toroa’s Wananga PA SITE
  77. 77. WAHI TAPU Irakewa Rock (dynamited)Muriwai’s Cave (Isolated, filled in) Wairere Stream and Falls (polluted) For more than 150 years sacred sites had been systematically violated and desecrated by Councils, despite the pleas of the tribe. These included the three that had been cited as location markers by Irakewa to his son Toroa, 700 years ago, as the site of a possible settlement. Toroa was the captain of the Mataatua Canoe which founded Whakatane Te Toka o Irakewa (Irakewa Rock) is one of three landmarks that Toroa was told to look for by his father Irakewa when he set off in the Mataatua waka. Irakewa had visited the site earlier. The other two sites that he told his people to look for were a cave “for Muriwai” (below left) and a waterfall (above right). Using these references, Toroa was able to rediscover Kakahoroa (the original name for the area) and to settle it. Over the years, these landmarks have been violated. Wairere stream has been polluted by the town dump above its source, Muriwai’s cave has been isolated from the river and largely filled in, and in 1925, the then Harbour Board dynamited much of Irakewa Rock to improve the harbour entrance ( seen below right as only ripples on the water). This despite vigorous protest from Maori. These and other examples made it very clear to the design team that no positive development of the town was possible until these (to Maori sacrilegious) acts of vandalism were acknowledged and atoned.
  78. 78. PIRIPAI Ancient Urupa (burial site) One of the Council’s plans was to open up Piripai (the Sand-spit) for residential and commercial development, despite the fact that is the site of numerous ancient burial sites Piripai is the name of the sandspit which separates the Whakatane River from the Bay of Plenty and the Pacific Ocean. Apart from its outstanding beauty, it is also reputed by Maori to be an urupa - the site of numerous burials from both ancient battles and more recently from the influenza epidemic that claimed many lives in 1918. Over the years, many proposals have been raised to develop Piripai for residential development by linking it to the township with another bridge. Fortunately, the development costs have, until now, prevented this from happening. One of the issues raised by Ngati Awa was that Piripai must be made sacrosanct and immune to development because of its highly tapu nature.
  79. 79. POHATUROA - ULTIMATE INSULT POHATUROA Pohaturoa - the Rock - was the centre of ceremonial life. Here, mothers buried the whenua (afterbirth) and pito (umbilicus) of their newborn. In Maori, the word whenua has a double meaning. One the one hand it means afterbirth. It also means land - signifying that the spiritual connection between the person and the place is more than metaphorical. The Council built a public toilet over the spot! Toilet The most saddening of all of the stories poured out by the members of the Ngati Awa Trust Board concerned the desecration of their sacred rock - Pohaturoa in the centre of the town. This rock, (bottom right in this photograph) had for centuries been a place where Ngati Awa mothers had buried the whenua (placenta and umbilicus) of their babies. The Council had constructed a public toilet over this most sacred of places (the white building up against the side of the rock). In Maori, the word whenua has a double meaning. One the one hand it means afterbirth. It also means land - signifying that the spiritual connection between the person and the place is more than metaphorical. Those who have a right to occupy a place are said to have mana whenua, and they themselves are termed tangata whenua - literally, “people of the land”. The construction of the toilet was therefore seen not only as an insult to Ngati Awa parents and children, but as a direct affront to the mana whenua of Ngati Awa as a whole, -the ultimate insult.
  80. 80. DESIGN DILEMMA We faced a stark choice: • Conform to Council philosophies and ignore the pain of Ngati Awa and the cultural history of all previous developments • Confront Council and risk the project We collectively decided on a third alternative: • Using design as a lever, broker a reconciliation between the two communities
  81. 81. RECONCILIATION We supported Ngati Awa claims and opted to intervene to act as intermediaries, with the townspeople. Clearly: • Reconciliation was necessary. • Before reconciliation could take place, a dialogue needed to be established. • Before a dialogue could take place, trust needed to be established. • Neither party trusted the other enough to initiate the process of trust-building (a vicious circle).
  82. 82. TRUST-BUILDING Creating an environment of mutual trust required that: • We establish the trust of both parties. • We operate a process of inclusivity • We develop a common language • We make no attempt to dictate the dialogue • We continually reflect-back community concerns and issues • We interpret, explain and mediate • We stress common goals rather than differences • We facilitate open dialogue and community decision-making WE LISTEN!
  83. 83. LINKING ISSUES We developed 67 Patterns to guide Town Development. They addressed not only: • economic and material concerns • employment creation • investment • tourism etc. but also: • Reinstatement of Wahi Tapu, • A truthful recounting of history • Acknowledgment of past wrongs • Constitutional representation on Local Bodies Our task became to demonstrate the linkages between these issues (for instance by portraying Maori culture and history as an essential ingredient for economic growth).
  84. 84. DIFFERENCES The Council’s Perceptions were: • materialistic • economic • progressive. They were interested in: • Town Growth • Attracting Investment. • Sustainable Development • COUNCIL WERE LOOKING TO THE FUTURE • N G A T I A W A W E R E UNWILLING TO LEAVE THE PAINFUL PAST Ngati Awa were not anti-growth, but the council failed to recognise the link between the past and the future. Our task was to make that link explicit.
  85. 85. DETAILS Four design proposals were fleshed out with sketches, plans and a scale model designed to illustrate the proposal for the non-professional general public.
  86. 86. COUNCIL DISPLAY The model, the four design proposals and all of the supporting arguments and Patterns were displayed in the foyer of the District Council offices for a week in preparation for a Town Forum that was advertised in the local press and on talkback radio. The model, the four design proposals and all of the supporting arguments and Patterns were displayed in the foyer of the District Council offices for a week. This display, as well as the time and venue of the upcoming Town Forum were advertised in the local press and discussed on radio-talkback (where the Design Studio had been allocated air-time). In addition, students were encouraged to circulate throughout the town showing their work and discussing their ideas. Public interest was very strong and a large number of citizens visited the display.
  87. 87. THE TOWN FORUM 170 people attended on a stormy night. All Councilors, Ngati Awa Trust Board members, many retailers and large numbers of Maori and pakeha members of the public came. The meeting was facilitated by the students. The Town Forum took place at the War memorial Hall on a very wet and stormy Thursday night. Surprisingly, 170 people attended - an extraordinary number given the conditions. The Forum was opened by Mayor Byrne and facilitated by the staff and students of the Community Design Studio. All the material was on display for people to view. The Forum began with an overview of the process and a description of the role of the University. The general parameters and criteria of the design were described as were the characteristics of each of the four design proposals. Participants included almost the entire Council, several Council officers, members of the Ngati awa trust Board, local retailers and numerous members of the general public both Maori and pakeha.
  88. 88. DISCUSSION Following a general description and explanation, break-out sessions, facilitated by students were asked to suggest: • Five points of agreement • Five points of disagreement • Five points overlooked Plenary Session Breakout Session Student Facilitation Following the initial description, participants were encouraged to view the material and discuss its content with team members for purposes of clarification ( top right). When everyone felt that they thoroughly understood the proposals, the participants were asked to break down into focus groups at tables (with pens and papers, copies of the report and copies of the designs) facilitated by design students (below right). They were asked to list: • Five points of agreement with the designs • Five points of disagreement with the designs • Five desirable points overlooked in the designs • Five undesirable points overlooked in the designs This information was then included in an exhaustive meta-list for discussion in plenary session (below)
  89. 89. CONSENSUS DESIGN Based on this feedback and internal review a final design was proposed that seemed to contain the best elements of all of the preliminaries. A supermarket was included, with strenuous recommendations that it be omitted and strong safeguards for the flax- dyeing area.
  90. 90. THE REPORT The Mayor concluded the meeting by saying: “We have all witnessed and participated in a truly historic moment in the history of Whakatane in which for the first time, people with long-standing differences have come together to find common ground in the interests of the whole community.” SINCE THEN.... In the ensuing years, many of the recommendations in the Report were incorporated into the District Scheme and have had a major impact upon the quality of life in Whakatane.
  91. 91. HERITAGE TRAIL The proposed Cultural Heritage Trail has been completed. All sites have been included. Signs with Maori versions of historical events, critical of past Council, are prominently displayed Irekawa Muriwai’s Cave Wairere Falls
  92. 92. PIRIPAI Recommendations on the need to preserve the un-built nature of Piripai have so far been successful, but the pressure for development remains. The struggle continues Recommendations on the need to preserve the unbuilt nature of Piripai have so far been successful, but the pressure for development remains. The Council owns the land and has a plan to develop 100 acres of residential development. Ngati Awa themselves have plans to rebuild their “lost” meeting house Mataatua on Piripai, as part of a Conference Centre development. In 2005, proposals from the 1950s were reawakened to cut a harbour channel through Piripai to ease the exit to the Bay from the river - thus leaving the Heads as a kind of stagnant backwater lagoon for moorings. All of these proposals have been aired over the last few years, and great vigilance must be exercised to prevent one or all of them being realised. The undisturbed tranquility of Piripai is a taonga that must be retained at all cost. Development could eventually see it becoming like Waihi Beach or Pukahina - a very real loss.
  93. 93. THE TOILETS . The offensive public toilets (right) have been removed and the area landscaped. While the Waiewe stream has not been reinstated, and while the road between Pohaturoa and the Escarpment remains in place, a great deal of comfort is taken from the fact that the offensive public toilets have been removed and the area landscaped. The memorial shelter to those killed in World Wars also remains. More could undoubtedly be done to celebrate this most sacred of all wahi tapu and to acknowledge its importance in Ngati Awa history
  94. 94. REPRESENTATION Whakatane District Council is now considered one of the most culturally sensitive Councils in New Zealand. A Maori Liaison Committee has been appointed. This Committee comprises 12 members: • The Mayor • 11 Tribal representatives from different Iwi and Hapu in the region • 2 Councillors The Committee has only an advisory capacity, but its voice is increasingly heard by the Council as a whole.
  95. 95. © Tony Ward 2000 A more detailed version of this presentation is available at” http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/189/49/ TE WHARE KURA O HOANI WAITITI In 1982, concerned about their disappearing language and culture, leaders in the Maori community got together to develop a program of language reclamation. They proposed a system of Kohanga Reo - “Language Nests” in which fluent speakers of the language - grandparents, aunts and uncles would establish Maori-language kindergartens. At first they did so without government funding, but the system was so successful that eventually the government “bought in”. Three years later there emerged from these Kohanga a large group of Maori-fluent children, and the Maori community pressured the government to initiate a parallel system of kura kaupapa Primary Schools. The first was at Hoani Waititi Marae in West Auckland. Seven years later, in 1993, a phalanx of culturally strong adolescents emerged from these schools and once again, the Maori community demanded a culturally-specific post-primary school system for their children. This is the story of that first kura kaupapa Maori High School - again at Hoani Waititi Marae.
  96. 96. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE MAORI • The Maori population of NZ is about 15% • Number of Maori students in the SOA (1990) - app.15 (5%) • Maori student completion rates (1990) <30% There was a real need to do something to support the Maori students. THUS Formation of Whaihanga - Maori student support group in January 1993 by Tony Ward, Rau Hoskins and Saul Roberts, two Maori Graduate students. We determined to initiate support with a joint project, including Maori students from all years. We would design NZs first Kaupapa Maori High School.
  97. 97. Dr. Pita Sharples - now Minister of Education (right) with Elder Frank Paul and Senior Lecturers Tony Ward, Mike Barnes with Tutors Rau Hoskins and Saul Roberts with the students of Whaihanga design team - the Maori Architecture, Engineering and Planning Support group Appointed by the Board of Trustees, and working directly with the Ministry of Education, twelve Maori and one Maori- speaking Pakeha undergraduate students (all members of the recently formed Whaihanga Maori student support group) undertook and completed this historic project on time and within budget. THE TEAM
  98. 98. CONCEPTUAL BEGINNINGS The concept was gradually developed (left to right) taking in the different elements of existing infrastructure and buildings. The idea of linked but separate centres became increasingly clear, with each of these subsidiary centres (linked to the different stages of growth and development of the individual as an individual and as a social being with a life centred around whanau and Marae. The concept was gradually developed (left to right) taking in the different elements of existing infrastructure and buildings. The idea of linked but separate centres became increasingly clear, with each of these subsidiary centres (linked to the different stages of growth and development of the individual as an individual and as a social being with a life centred around whanau and Marae. Hence, there is a centre for the infants (Kohanga reo) for the tamariki (Kura Kaupapa Primary), for the adolescent (Whare Kura) and for the elderly (Kaumatua Housing). It was envisaged that, (as with the ponga) the system was open-ended, allowing for the eventual addition of a Whare Wananga (Tertiary Institute)
  99. 99. Gradually, a site development plan emerged (right) from the conceptual diagram (left). In the plan, the small creek along the Eastern boundary of the access road became the linking element, the spine, of the proposed design. Off this spine, different centres evolve with their own identity Conceptual Diagram Transformation Initial proposal TRANSFORMATIONS Gradually, a site development plan emerged (right) from the conceptual diagram (left). In the plan, the small creek which ran along the Eastern boundary of the access road became the linking element, the spine, of the proposed design. Off this spine, different centres evolve with their own identity, but always relating back to the main centre of the Marae Atea and the whare nui or whare tupuna.
  100. 100. This initial proposal the went through a process of several further transformations, in detailed consultation with the Hoani Waititi Board of Trustees and the Ministry of Education. From the rough conceptual diagram, a more definite site plan emerged (left) locating the proposed Whare Kura as one of these centres,to the east of the creek, but overhanging it and integrating it into the building design. Overall Site Plan Whare Kura Site Development Building Locations DEVELOPED DESIGN
  101. 101. All of these building designs were modeled on the base model that had been constructed earlier and discussed with the Hoani Waititi community as well as with the Ministry of Education. Detailed cost estimates were developed for each building proposal as well as for the development of the site as a whole. Library Whare Tapere Admin. Whare Hui Specialist Classrooms Atea Classrooms Marae Whare Kura Kaumatua Housing Kura and Kohanga Marae Creek Whare Kura Marae MODELING
  102. 102. View across the Atea from Whare Nui Specialist Classrooms on left, Whare Tapere distant right TE WHARE KURA O HOANI WAITITI
  103. 103. Working drawings, specifications and tenders were completed, and several students were employed in the process. Two years later, the school w a s f i n i s h e d i n c l u d i n g t h e Administration Building (below). Administration Building Plan Administration Building REALISATION
  104. 104. The Whare Matauranga was altered substantially from the original design. However, its relationship to the creek, was retained and its bush outlook - the main design intention in the original. The interior, has the same lofty feeling of the original. WHARE MATAURANGA
  105. 105. The specialist rooms (Art, Science and Engineering) are grouped together and clustered around the small creek. Native vegetation - Ponga, cabbage trees and harakeke (flax) were retained, providing summer shade pleasant outdoor learning spaces adjacent to decks. SPECIALIST CLASSROOMS
  106. 106. Total cost: $3M+ No. of students: 14 Students who graduated: 12 (86%) No. completing Masters: 2 No. teaching at University level: 3 No. at Practice Director levels: 4 No. at other senior levels: 6 Maori speakers at start: 3 Maori speakers at end: 7 CODA
  107. 107. THE PARIHAKA PROJECT © Tony Ward 2009 A downloadable and extended version of this presentation is available at: http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/231/49/ Another Whaihanga Project
  108. 108. In the 1860s and 1870s, the European invasion of the Waikato and the crossing of the Waitara River in 1860 in violation of agreements with Maori led to stiff resistance. The New Zealand Settlement Act of 1863 paved the way for the illegal confiscation in 1865 of 1.5 million acres of Taranaki land (the area coloured blue in the map below right.) For a long time after the passing of the Act nothing happened - because of the geographical remoteness of the region. CONFISCATIONS Taranaki Maori naturally assumed that the Act had been a matter of little consequence and went back to their daily lives with assurances from the Government that peaceful existence would ensure their continued occupation. To further allay the fears of Maori, and prevent further resistance the Government promised that ample Reserves would be set aside for Maori occupation. This never happened.
  109. 109. TE WHITI AND TOHU Two Taranaki chiefs, Te Whiti-o- Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi e s t a b l i s h e d a p e a c e f u l community at Parihaka. They and their followers were devoted to the principles of non-violence and passive resistance later made famous by Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther K i n g . T h e c o m m u n i t y a t Parihaka Pa, became a centre of resistance as members of other dispossessed tribes migrated to Parihaka where peace still existed. Te Whiti o Rongomai Tohu Kakahi
  110. 110. PARIHAKA 1870-80 By 1870, a prosperous settlement • 1500 inhabitants. • its own vegetable gardens • wheat fields • three flour mills • piped water • electric street lights. Europeans were always welcome. The community was peaceful, hard working and orderly. Parihaka in 1981
  111. 111. Gradually, roads were built by the armed constabulary and were approaching the Parihaka community (top right). Surveyors arrived in 1879 to survey the area for European occupation. Te Whiti and Tohu directed them to leave until the promised Reserves had been established. They left but returned. On May 25th 1879, Te Whiti sent his ploughmen to plough symbolic furrows into the land taken from them at Oakura. (below right). THE SURVEYS The Ploughmen Armed road-builders
  112. 112. THE ARRESTS Te Whiti’s ploughmen were arrested. Within a week, more than a hundred were in custody, many were sentenced to hard labour in the Dunedin gaol. None of them were ever tried. The Government passed new laws • The Maori Prisoners Trial Act - suspending habeas corpus and allowing Maori to be imprisoned without trial. • The Maori Prisoners Act prevented any lawmaker from bailing or releasing untried prisoners. • The Maori Prisoners Detention Act ensured that Maori from Parihaka who fenced across roads were to be held under the same laws as the ploughmen. • The West Coast Settlement Act allowed that Maori could be arrested for on suspicion of gathering to engage in acts of civil disobedience, On 26th June, ploughmen who had caused 5 shillings worth of damage to were sentenced to 2 months hard labour in Dunedin gaol, with sureties of £600 to keep the peace for one year, or to serve 12 months hard labour in Dunedin. All of this without trial. (Sound a bit like the Homeland Security Act & Guantanamo?)
  113. 113. THE INVASION It was into this context that early in November, Parihaka Pa was invaded by a force of 945 volunteers and 644 armed constabulary all armed to the teeth and supported by m u n i t i o n s - l a d e n p a c k animals. Inside the pa there were very few weapons - mostly old and inoperative. The people were under clear instructions not to engage in acts of aggression but to remain always polite and welcoming Invasion Day, Nov. 6th 1881. The invaders, November 5th 1881
  114. 114. 6th November, • Village was invaded and pillaged. • They were met on the path into the village by two lines of children - one of boys, singing, the other of girls, kneeling and doing the poi. • The women of the Pa had baked 500 loaves of bread for the advancing soldiers. • The pa was searched and only a small handful of old and minor weapons were found. • A six-pound artillery piece was installed overlooking the village. • 2000 people sat quietly awaiting their arrest. • They made way for the troops who moved in and arrested Te Whiti and Tohu. THE INVASION Te Whiti being taken from Parihaka
  115. 115. • Following the invasion of the Pa, • continued resistance and imprisonments through to the end of the century. • Occupation remained in place for two years. • Women were raped, gardens, crops and houses destroyed, • hundreds of livestock were slaughtered, • precious artifacts were stolen and looted and public meetings were forbidden. THE OCCUPATION
  116. 116. THE RECONSTRUCTION In March 1883, Te Whiti and Tohu were finally released and arrived back at Parihaka. They were still unable to hold meetings for another 17 months, but quickly set about rebuilding the pa. • New houses were built around the Marae. • Roads were built and improved, • A bakery and butchery were built. • A good water supply was installed, • as was electric lighting - before even Wellington could boast the same. It was not until 1897-8 that the majority of the prisoners returned from Dunedin. Many had died there. The return of the prisoners was greeted with celebrations, singing (below). But: • the promised reserves of 25,000 acres were reduced to 5,000 acres “as punishment”. • Even these reserves were not returned, but were instead vested in a Public Trustee and leased to Europeans at peppercorn rents in perpetuity. The continued poverty of Parihaka was thus guaranteed.
  117. 117. THE LEGACY In 1995 the Community Design Studio was invited to help the people of Parihaka develop planning guidelines to revitalise their economy, and develop designs for Te Whiti’s ageing Council House, Te Tae Pae. This involved the surveying of the village - a task that their ancestors and been imprisoned and died for resisting some hundred years earlier. It was a task we undertook with great humility.
  118. 118. THE PARIHAKA PROJECT © Tony Ward 2009 A downloadable and extended version of this presentation is available at: http://www.tonywardedu.com/content/view/231/49/
  119. 119. THE SURVEY During the Winter of 1995, staff and students regularly traveled the 6 hour drive to Taranaki to survey the Pa (often in freezing conditions) and to begin construction of a scale model. Readings were taken from the top of the hill where the 6 pound artillery piece had been situated during the invasion of 1881. In a great irony, we discovered that b e c a u s e p a r t o f t h e c i v i l disobedience in Te Whiti’s time had included the removal of survey pegs none could be found to which the new survey readings could be related. This meant that it was impossible to locate any of the readings of buildings or topography relative to known geographies. Consequently the electronic data could not be plotted to produce the contour map needed to make the model. Aerial View of the 49 acre Pa 1994
  120. 120. BUILDING THE MODEL Once the survey was complete we were able to draw accurate topographical maps of the pa site and from these to construct an accurate 3 dimensional model. The children from the community assisted us in constructing the model, placing the houses and integrating the vegetation. The elders, too, were always available to tell their stories and to help us to locate these with accuracy. The model became an indispensable aid to our knowledge and understanding
  121. 121. In addition to the survey, model and development plan, we were also asked to develop designs for the rehabilitation - Te Whiti’s old Council building. Though much loved, it was quite dilapidated and too small for the increasingly large groups that gathered there for the 18ths. Nga Puna Waihanga Hui 1994 (Gil Hanly) TE PAE PAE Te Pae Pae 1994
  122. 122. PRELIMINARY PLANS Preliminary Ground Floor Plan Preliminary First Floor Plan The need to significantly increase the space available in Te Pae Pae, coupled with site restrictions imposed by the Atea to the West and the stream to the East suggested a need to add a second storey. Since the sleeping capacity of the existing whare was only marginally adequate, it made sense to make this new space available for sleeping. This raised serious issues of tikanga, since it would locate sleeping areas above food areas. There was extended debate among Maori student participants about the efficacy of this (based upon their own iwi-tikanga understandings). In the end, it was clear that Parihaka operated on the basis of its own kawa and tikanga, and the students came to accept this as a viable solution.
  123. 123. CULTURAL LANDCAPE The new spatial organisation of Te Pae Pae was configured around specific directions and points of reference in the historical and cultural landscape of the Pa. In this way, the building itself, through its orientations and outlooks provides a constant reminder to resident and visitor of the significant aspects of the Parihaka story. Whare Puni roof and Taranaki Entrance points to Te Whiti’s Tomb.Tohu’s Grave site
  124. 124. Te Niho Te Raukura Te Pae Pae Mahi Kuare Toroanui Rangi Kapuia Te Whiti’s Tomb Tohu’s Grave Taranaki Te Whiti’s Tomb Te Pae Pae Toroanui Te Raukura Te Niho POINTS OF REFERENCE The heart of the Parihaka Pa remains intact. The whenua is the reference for the history and heroism of the people. There, lie all of the major features that weve together the story of Parihaka. And the story is told, for us, in the organisation of the building, which points to and acknowledges this sacred history.
  125. 125. MEDIA COVERAGE The story of the Parihaka Project became nation-wide news in mid-1996, as TVNZ film crews arrived to film the final stages of the process. The final stages of the model- building were filmed (below and right), the residents and students were interviewed and the programme went to air on Marae on 25th June.
  126. 126. THE DESIGN And so the project came to an end. The models and all documentation were given to the Trustees to use as they wished. Later, they would form the centrepiece of the Exhibition Parihaka: The Art of Passive Resistance which opened at Te Puke Ariki, the New Plymouth Art Gallery and Museum, after exhibiting in Wellington and Auckland.
  127. 127. DESIGN MODEL IMAGES Below are a number of general images of the design model in its final form.
  128. 128. THE DREAM On the last day of the project, I was taken aside by an elder. As we climbed up the steps of the ruin of Te Raukura, he told me of a dream he had had as a young child. He was in his late 80s now, and not quite old enough to have known Te Whiti. When he was five, he had dreamed that he was standing on the edge of a very large crowd, surrounding Te Whiti who was sitting on the verandah of Te Raukura. Slowly he wriggled his way to the front of the crowd. As he got closer to the front, between the legs of the adults, they tried to hold him back. But Te Whiti had seen the child and told those present to let him through. He climbed the steps to stand in front of the old man. Quietly, he told me that Te Whiti said to him, “Child, I will soon die, and Parihaka will decline. But one day it will return to its former glory. You will not see the day of its full greatness, but you will see the dawn of that day - the beginning of that rebirth!” On the spot where Te Whiti had sat, the old man turned to me with tears in his eyes and said, “ I believe that this is the day that Te Whiti told me about.”
  129. 129. INDIGENOUS PEDAGOGIES The world is in a mess. Part of the reason for the mess is capitalism and its colonising project. The world of Education has contributed to that mess and assists in the ongoing colonisation process. To bring about real change (and to save the world) it will be necessary to radically transform education. Precolonial, pre-capitalist indigenous pedagogies offer some important pointers to how we might make Education an instrument for social change. What follows are a series of guidelines culled from 30 years of working in the Maori community in Aotearoa- New Zealand. Many are shared with other Indigenous cultures.
  130. 130. ASPECTS OF MAORI PEDAGOGY • Maori tend towards a holistic approach to education with subject connections, rather than divisions, stressed • Learning in groups is favoured over individual learning • Knowledge belongs to the group and is to be used in service to the group rather than individual ambition. • Individual achievement is less important than learning to be an acceptable group member • Where possible, learners are integrated into existing groups comprising a range of expertise • Much important knowledge is gained in the peer group where information is pooled. • There is emphasis on the learner LOOKING, LISTENING and IMITATING with a minimum of instructional words • Maori adults tend not to prepare learners for problems beforehand and do not warn them about possible mistakes • Much significant learning takes place ad hoc and when needed, often after a crisis situation, when emotions are high.
  131. 131. • Learners are encouraged to learn by DOING tasks in the proper setting • There is emphasis on the learner LOOKING, LISTENING and IMITATING with a minimum of instructional words • Maori adults tend not to prepare learners for problems beforehand and do not warn them about possible mistakes • Much significant learning takes place ad hoc and when needed, often after a crisis situation, when emotions are high. • Learners are encouraged to learn by DOING tasks in the proper setting • Maori teachers avoid singling out individuals for praise or blame in public. • Memorisation and rote learning have an important role in transmitting culture and values • Storytelling is an important learning-teaching medium • The relationship between “learner” and “teacher” is very important. • Education involves the heart as well as the head. • Learning in the context of community needs is critical
  132. 132. • Accretive learning in a collective situation is the preferred mode • Talking circles are conducive to better communication • Teachers model behaviours for students • Learning takes place within a cultural framework (tikanga) • The spiritual has an important place in learning • Mutual dependency between students increases learning depth • Supportive communication enhances learning • Good decisions are recognised by their consensus value • Taking the time to arrive at consensus is more productive and sustainable • The process is more important than the outcome • Ritualised learning processes are very powerful • Learning is deeper when it integrates mental and physical activity • Acknowledgement is a crucial aspect of communication Not all of these are unique to Indigenous cultures but I have found in my experience that collectively, they are able to produce transformative educational outcomes.

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