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Ute Hillmer 08




TECHNOLOGY
                     TECHNOLOGY
                     MARKETING
                     LECTURE
 MARKETING               Intro

 is different !
                        Product

    ESB Lecture
   Dr. Ute Hillmer     Customer


     June 2009
                       Comm.
                       Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Content of the Lecture                             TECHNOLOGY
                                                   MARKETING
                                                   LECTURE
     1. Why is Tech Marketing different?
     2. Characteristics of innovative technology       Intro


     3. Customer profiles
                                                      Product
     4. Marketing Communication Strategy
        a) Communication content                     Customer

        b) Technology decision process
                                                     Comm.
        c) Communication channels / networks         Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Examples for                                 TECHNOLOGY
                                             MARKETING

technology                                   LECTURE



products??
                                                 Intro




                                                Product




“… that TECHNOLOGIES changed the way           Customer


        you do things in your discipline /     Comm.
                                               Strategy
                      profession lately?”
Ute Hillmer 08




               TECHNOLOGY
               MARKETING
               LECTURE
Why should         Intro


marketing be
different?
                  Product




                 Customer



                 Comm.
                 Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Technology Marketing is different
because its products…                                      TECHNOLOGY
                                                           MARKETING
   … really change the way one is doing things             LECTURE
   … need a lot of explanation
   – benefits often not readily obvious                        Intro

   – difference to competition not readily obvious
                                                              Product
   … have a short product lifecycle
   – today's technology might be outpaced tomorrow
                                                             Customer
   … influence and penetrate life and its experiences

 rethinking Marketing : New=Good Credibility= important     Comm.
                                                             Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Technology Marketing is different
because its customers…                                       TECHNOLOGY
                                                             MARKETING
                                                             LECTURE
  –   are sceptical and expect a dialogue
  –   don‟t have any time to waist                               Intro


  –   can be well informed
  –   are uncertain due to always new technologies              Product

  –   expect customised solutions at low prices
                                                               Customer
   rethinking Marketing : New=Good Credibility= important
                                                               Comm.
                                                               Strategy
Most importantly: Technology
                                        Ute Hillmer 08




Marketing is different because its
Products…                            TECHNOLOGY
                                     MARKETING
                                     LECTURE

                                         Intro
 … really
  change the
  way you are                           Product


  doing things
                                       Customer



                                       Comm.
                                       Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




                     The Diffusion of an Innovation
                                                                                            TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                            MARKETING
               Disruptive innovation                                                        LECTURE
                                                                 Continuous innovation
                                     Tornado
                                                                                                Intro
        Marketsize




                      Early                                                                    Product
                                                           Mainstreet          Total
                      Market
                                                                            Assimilation

                                                                                              Customer




                                                                                     Time     Comm.
                                                                                              Strategy


Source: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation 1962, 1995, p.262;
Moore; Crossing the Chasm 1995, 1999, p.12; The Chasm Institute LLC 2008.
Ute Hillmer 08




                          Diffusion of an Innovation
                                                                     TECHNOLOGY
                                                                     MARKETING
                                                                     LECTURE
Marketsize




                                                                         Intro


                                                       Time
                                                                        Product




                                          Marketsize
             Marketsize




                                                                       Customer



                                                                       Comm.
                                                              Time     Strategy


                                   Time
Ute Hillmer 08




              Why do certain
    innovations diffuse much    TECHNOLOGY
                                MARKETING
                                LECTURE
          faster than others?
                                    Intro



Why do certain                     Product


innovations have a much
longer mainstreet
                                  Customer




momentum?                         Comm.
                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Success Factors of an
Innovation Diffussion Strategy                   TECHNOLOGY
                                                 MARKETING
                                                 LECTURE
1. Favourable Characteristics of Technology
   Innovations.                                      Intro



2. Business Strategy that recognises different
                                                    Product
   customer profiles.
3. Marketing Communication Strategy were           Customer


  communication content and communication
                                                   Comm.

  vehicle recognises and considers point 1+2.      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Inbound Elements of High Tech
Marketing                                TECHNOLOGY
                                         MARKETING
                                         LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                             Intro
Customer profiles
Communication strategy                      Product

   – Content
   – Technology decision process           Customer


   – Communication channels / networks
                                           Comm.
                                           Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Inbound Elements of High Tech
Marketing                                TECHNOLOGY
                                         MARKETING
                                         LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                             Intro
Customer profiles
Communication strategy                     Product
                                           Product

   – Content
   – Technology decision process           Customer


   – Communication channels / networks
                                           Comm.
                                           Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




1. Favourable Characteristics of
Technology Innovations                        TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
                                              LECTURE
Innovations perceived as having greater:
                                                  Intro

- relative advantage        - compatibility
- trialability              - observability     Product
                                                Product



- less complexity           - familiarity       Customer



will be adopted more rapidly than others        Comm.
                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Relative Advantage                                       TECHNOLOGY
                                                         MARKETING
= Degree to which a technology is perceived as           LECTURE
  “better”
                                                             Intro

  Measured in economic terms, but social prestige,
  convenience, and satisfaction are also important         Product
                                                           Product

  Objective advantages are not so important, it
  matters if an individual perceives the innovation as     Customer

  an advantage
                                                           Comm.
                                                           Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



Yes!
                         TECHNOLOGY
                         MARKETING
An advantage for         LECTURE


one individual, a            Intro




thread for another?        Product
                           Product




                           Customer

       No!
                Mmm...     Comm.
                           Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Sub dimensions of
Relative Advantage                                      TECHNOLOGY
                                                        MARKETING
                                                        LECTURE
economic profitability       personal goal
low initial cost             more or less flexibility       Intro



a decrease in discomfort     more or less control
                                                          Product
                                                          Product

social prestige              personal marketability
savings in time and effort   curiosity                    Customer



immediacy of the reward      stability                    Comm.
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



Subjective Construction
of Reality                TECHNOLOGY
                          MARKETING
                          LECTURE
   Each individual sees
   the world through          Intro


   subjective lenses.
   Making sense of the      Product
                            Product


   world through
   her/his own              Customer



   meaning system.          Comm.
                            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Bike!
          TECHNOLOGY
          MARKETING
          LECTURE

              Intro




            Product
            Product




            Customer



            Comm.
            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Bike!
          TECHNOLOGY
          MARKETING
          LECTURE

              Intro




            Product
            Product




            Customer



            Comm.
            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Bike!
          TECHNOLOGY
          MARKETING
          LECTURE

              Intro




            Product
            Product




            Customer



            Comm.
            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Bike!
          TECHNOLOGY
          MARKETING
          LECTURE

              Intro




            Product
            Product




            Customer



            Comm.
            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



  A Bike! ?
                                  Blob
                                   TECHNOLOGY
                                  blob
                                   MARKETING
Bla                   Blubber
                                   LECTURE
                                  ...
bla ...       Blub    blubber..
              blub.   .                Intro


              ..
                                     Product
                                     Product




                                     Customer



                                     Comm.
                                     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Meaning System Approach
                                                     TECHNOLOGY
                                                     MARKETING
                                                     LECTURE
    “… is built around the idea that people
    develop beliefs that organise their world            Intro

    and that give meaning to their
    experiences”                                       Product
                                                       Product
                                 DWECK 2000, p. xi

                                                       Customer


    Different people hold different
                                                       Comm.
    meaning systems.                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Marketing and Rationality                             TECHNOLOGY
                                                      MARKETING
„Good" is relative                                    LECTURE
    - not immediately evident
                                                          Intro

    - complex to understand
    - circumvented by the market                        Product
                                                        Product


    - considered to be amoral
                                                        Customer
    - difficult to implement

 „Good“ ideas do not sell themselves, they need to     Comm.
                                                        Strategy
  be properly expressed and communicated
Ute Hillmer 08




Marketing and Rationality (2)                TECHNOLOGY
                                             MARKETING
                                             LECTURE
Most individuals perceive their actions as
rational.                                        Intro



Lack of knowledge or inaccurate perception     Product
                                               Product

guide an individuals evaluation.
                                               Customer



                                               Comm.
                                               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Status Aspects                                TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
                                              LECTURE
 Every innovation also has at
 least some degree of status conferral.           Intro




                                                Product
                                                Product


 A motivation for many individuals to adopt
 is the desire to gain social status.           Customer



                                                Comm.
                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Special Forms of Advantages      TECHNOLOGY
                                 MARKETING
                                 LECTURE
       A fad
                                     Intro
       Preventive technologies
       Incentives                  Product
                                   Product

       Mandates
                                   Customer



                                   Comm.
                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




A Fad                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                MARKETING
is an innovation that represents a relatively   LECTURE
unimportant aspect of culture, which
                                                    Intro
diffuses very rapidly, mainly for status
reasons, and then is rapidly discontinued.        Product
                                                  Product




                                                  Customer



                                                  Comm.
                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Preventive Technologies                                 TECHNOLOGY
                                                        MARKETING
                                                        LECTURE
 Preventive innovations are slower to diffuse
 because                                                    Intro



  • individuals have difficulties in perceiving their     Product
                                                          Product
     relative advantage
  • the rewards are uncertain                             Customer



                                                          Comm.
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Incentives                                          TECHNOLOGY
                                                    MARKETING
increase the degree of relative advantage of        LECTURE

the technology                                          Intro

 • incentives increase the rate of adoption
                                                      Product
                                                      Product
 • incentives lead to adoption of an innovation
    by individuals different from those who would
    otherwise adopt                                   Customer



                                                      Comm.
                                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Mandates                                               TECHNOLOGY
                                                       MARKETING
                                                       LECTURE
incentives or penalties by law, tax etc.
                                                           Intro
    • behaviour change that is desired by society
      but might not be desired by the individual can
                                                         Product
                                                         Product
      be mandated
 tax reduction for solar energy        boost in          Customer

   solar energy cell sales
                                                         Comm.
                                                         Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Favourable Characteristics
of Innovations                                TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
                                              LECTURE
Innovations perceived as having greater:
                                                  Intro

- relative advantage        - compatibility
- trialability              - observability     Product
                                                Product



- less complexity           - familiarity       Customer



will be adopted more rapidly than others        Comm.
                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Triability                                                TECHNOLOGY
                                                          MARKETING
= Degree to which a technology can be                     LECTURE
  experimented with on a limited basis
                                                              Intro


• Technology is easier to adopt if it can be tried out
                                                            Product
   in part, on a temporary basis, or easily dispensed       Product



   with after trial.
                                                            Customer

• It„s a way to find out how it works under one's own
                                                            Comm.
   conditions          it gives meaning to a technology     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Complexity                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                     MARKETING
= Degree to which a technology is perceived as       LECTURE
  difficult to understand and use.
                                                         Intro


• It is the perception of the end user that counts
                                                       Product
  for achieving public adoption.                       Product



• An innovation might look simple from the             Customer

  viewpoint of the developer.
                                                       Comm.
                                                       Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Compatibility                                      TECHNOLOGY
                                                   MARKETING
= The degree to which technology is perceived as   LECTURE
  being consistent with existing values, past
  experiences, and needs of potential adopters         Intro




• Technologies that are incompatible with            Product
                                                     Product


  values and norms will be adopted much
                                                     Customer

  slower because they require the adoption of
                                                     Comm.
  a new value system.                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




     Familiarity                               TECHNOLOGY
                                               MARKETING
                                               LECTURE
A combination of past experiences and
social conformity.                                 Intro



Often, it is the compatibility of a new          Product
                                                 Product

technology to familiar social and individual
concepts and not to existing technologies        Customer

and processes.
                                                 Comm.
                                                 Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Naming a new Technology             TECHNOLOGY
                                    MARKETING
                                    LECTURE
  A name affects its perceived
  familiarity and compatibility         Intro




                                      Product
                                      Product


 Customer research to name a new
  technology in each culture          Customer



                                      Comm.
                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Positioning a Technology                              TECHNOLOGY
                                                      MARKETING
                                                      LECTURE
Positioning „co-designs“ a technology
                                                          Intro



  Position a new technology in relation to already
                                                        Product
                                                        Product
  familiar concepts  familiarity!
  Potential adopters have relevant experiences with     Customer

  which they associate the new innovation.
                                                        Comm.
                                                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




              Observability                              TECHNOLOGY
                                                         MARKETING
= degree to which the results of a technology are        LECTURE
  visible to others
                                                             Intro

• Observing the advantages of a new technology
  increases the chance of adoption significantly.          Product
                                                           Product


• After some adopt, observability improves the
                                                           Customer
  diffusion effect, a critical component of technology
  transfer.                                                Comm.
                                                           Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Where in a            TECHNOLOGY
                      MARKETING
                      LECTURE

marketing plan do         Intro



the discussed areas     Product
                        Product


belong?                 Customer



                        Comm.
                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




     Marketing Plan
                                                                                TECHNOLOGY
1.    Objective                     5.   Marketing Communication                MARKETING
2.    Marketing Strategy                    Target Customer                     LECTURE
                                            Positioning
         Target Customer
                                            Key Message
         Compelling reason to buy
                                            Elements of the Communication Mix
                                                                                    Intro
3.    Key Issues
                                            Deliverables
4.    Product Marketing
         Whole Product              6.   Partner Marketing                        Product
                                                                                  Product
                       Features
                       Service
                                            Partners & Allies
                       Benefits
                                    7.   Key Account Marketing
         Pricing
                                                                                  Customer
         Distribution Channels
         Competition

                                                                                  Comm.
                                                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Outbound Elements of
Technology Marketing                TECHNOLOGY
                                    MARKETING
                                    LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                        Intro
Customer profiles
Communication content                  Product


Technology decision process
                                      Customer
                                      Customer
Communication channels / networks
                                      Comm.
                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




“Innovativeness”                                          TECHNOLOGY
                                                          MARKETING
= degree to which an individual or a unit is relatively   LECTURE
  earlier in adopting new technologies
                                                              Intro



                               Indicates overt
                                                             Product

           Yes!                behavioural
           No!
          Mmm...               change, not just             Customer
                                                            Customer
                               cognitive or
                               attitudinal change           Comm.
                                                            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Human Behaviour +
Technology Marketing                                    TECHNOLOGY
                                                        MARKETING
      “… dramatically change past behaviour…”           LECTURE

and the typical human reaction:                             Intro


    – the majority of the market will hesitate to buy
      for a long time                                      Product
                                             No !!!

    – when the new way of doing things gets               Customer
                                                          Customer


      accepted, everybody wants it right away
                                                          Comm.
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Individual Adopter Categorization on
the Basis of Innovativeness                                                               TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                          MARKETING
                                                                                          LECTURE

                                                                                              Intro




                                                                                             Product
  Marketsize size
           Market




                                                                                            Customer
                                                                                            Customer



                                                                                            Comm.
                    Chart based on Rogers 1962, 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1991,1999, p. 12
                                                                                            Strategy

                                                                        Time
Individual Adopter Categorization
                                                                                               Ute Hillmer 08




      on the Basis of Innovativeness                                                        TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                            MARKETING
                             Pragmatists:
                                                                                            LECTURE
                         Stick with the herd!
           Marketsize




                                                               Conservatives:
                                                                 Hold on!                       Intro
        Visionaries:                                                            Skeptics:
 Techies:Get ahead!                                                             No way!
   Try it!                                                                                     Product




                                                                                              Customer
                                                                                              Customer

                                                                                     Time
  Innovators             Early             Early              Late      Laggards              Comm.
                        Adopters          Majority           Majority                         Strategy
Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
2009 Category Life Cycle
                                                                                                          Ute Hillmer 08




                                 Placement                                                             TECHNOLOGY
                                      •Mobile, web-based•HDTV
                                                                                                       MARKETING
                                      b-applications     •Laptops (consumer)                           LECTURE
          Marketsize




                                      •Solar power       •Virtual meetings
                                      •Tablet computers (enterprise) •Consumer games
                                                                                                           Intro
                                      •Social networking
                       •Cloud computing                                 •Social networking
                       •Many web 2.0 (business)                         (consumer)
                       applications   •Smartphones                      •Laptops (enterprise)
                       •Many “green”                                                                      Product
                       technologies

                                                                                                         Customer
                                                                                                         Customer

                                                                                                Time
  Innovators                   Early            Early           Late          Laggards                   Comm.
                              Adopters         Majority        Majority                                  Strategy
Source: Chasm Institute 2008 LLC.
Ute Hillmer 08




Inventors: Techies
Technology is their life                                    TECHNOLOGY
                                                            MARKETING
    Technology - Crazy                                      LECTURE
    – Spend hours to get the product to work
    – Do everything to help the product                         Intro

    – Technology should be for free

    Forgiving souls                                            Product


    – Don‟t mind lousy documentation and weird procedures
      to achieve functionality                                Customer
                                                              Customer
    – Want technology first – no need for a sales channel
                                                              Comm.
 Their role: they move technology forward but do              Strategy
   not generate much diffusion
Ute Hillmer 08



Visionaries
Technology enthusiastic businessmen,                            TECHNOLOGY
driven by a dream                                               MARKETING
                                                                LECTURE
 Businessman first
 - driven to be the first                                             Intro

 - new technologies are used to serve their own strategic benefit
 - don‟t want incremental but fundamental improvements
                                                                     Product
 - make business world aware of new technologies
 - not very price-sensitive, have project budget
                                                                    Customer
                                                                    Customer
 - live in the future
 - communicate with techies and other visionaries
                                                                    Comm.
                                                                    Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



    Visionaries (2)
                                              TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
Take a risk                                   LECTURE
- love publicity
                                                  Intro
- risky projects
- start projects from ground up, don„t want      Product

  standards, want to develop them
- buy by intuition                              Customer
                                                Customer


- highly motivated, driven by a dream
                                                Comm.
                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




     Visionaries (3)
                                                         TECHNOLOGY
Excellent communicators                                  MARKETING
                                                         LECTURE
- charismatic; they fight for their project
- like to serve as a reference                               Intro


- network with techies and pragmatists
- too many references demotivate visionaries                Product


- look for new ideas in communication with intelligent
  people                                                   Customer
                                                           Customer



                                                           Comm.
Their role: they fund the product development              Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Pragmatists
Look for measurable, incremental improvement               TECHNOLOGY
Driven by business results                                 MARKETING
                                                           LECTURE
   - improved productivity
Avoid risk                                                     Intro


   - risk is a negative term
   - want to work with market leader/ established firms       Product

   - look for product quality, support, consulting, good
     interfaces, reliability
                                                             Customer
                                                             Customer
   - want standards, “save buys”
   - need references
                                                             Comm.
   - live in the present                                     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Pragmatists (2)
                                                      TECHNOLOGY
Loyal customers
                                                      MARKETING
• are interested in company they buy from             LECTURE
• revenue and profit must grow steadily “stability”
                                                          Intro
• communicate within company and industry
• the first mass market
                                                         Product

Their role: They hold the key to the mainstream
  market
                                                        Customer
                                                        Customer

BUT: you need to be established in order for
  them to buy from you but you don‘t get                Comm.
  established until they buy from you ! ?               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



    Pragmatists (3)
                                             TECHNOLOGY
                                             MARKETING
Consequences out of this profile             LECTURE

  One really needs to be familiar with the       Intro

  processes and issues that worry these
  people                                        Product




 Offer a clear relative advantage to them     Customer
                                               Customer



                                               Comm.
                                               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Conservatives
“I don’t have to like the product, even if I use it”   TECHNOLOGY
                                                       MARKETING
                                                       LECTURE
- They do what pragmatics do, but later
                                                           Intro
- Invest in technology to keep up with
  competition
                                                          Product
- Have low technical competence
                                                         Customer
                                                         Customer



                                                         Comm.
                                                         Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Conservatives (2)
                                              TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
- predictable                                 LECTURE
- want everything faster, cheaper, improved
                                                  Intro
- are price sensitive
- like bundles, pre-installed solutions          Product

- “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it”
- very interested in service and support        Customer
                                                Customer


Their role: huge mass market                    Comm.
                                                Strategy
Individual Adopter Categorization
                                                                                                     Ute Hillmer 08




         on the Basis of Innovativeness                                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                                  MARKETING
                                Pragmatists:
                                                                                                  LECTURE
                            Stick with the herd!
              Marketsize




                                                                     Conservatives:
                                                                       Hold on!                       Intro
           Visionaries:                                                               Skeptics:
    Techies:Get ahead!                                                                No way!
      Try it!                                                                                        Product




                                                                                                    Customer
                                                                                                    Customer

                                                                                           Time
     Innovators             Early             Early             Late          Laggards              Comm.
                           Adopters          Majority          Majority                             Strategy
Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
Ute Hillmer 08




The Chasm
                                        TECHNOLOGY
                                        MARKETING
1. Visionaries had their turn and new   LECTURE
   visionaries chase new dreams (new
   technologies new visionaries)            Intro



2. Pragmatists want to wait                Product

3. Investors get nervous
                                          Customer
           NO MARKET!! ??                 Customer



                                          Comm.
                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


               Technology Adoption and Its
                       Challenges                                                            TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                             MARKETING
               From „change agent“ to                                                        LECTURE
               productivity improvement                        How much technical
Marktvolumen
                                                               competence is                          Intro
                                                               necessary?
 Translate a hot technology
 into a business benefit                                                                             Product
                         Lack of appreciation




                                                                                                  Customer
                                                                                                  Customer



                                                                                                     Comm.
                                                                                                     Strategy
    Innovators Early                             Early      Late             Laggards         Zeit

              Adopters                          Majority   Majority
                                                                      Geoffrey Moore 1995, 1999
Ute Hillmer 08




Why is there a Chasm?
                                                 TECHNOLOGY
Techies and Visionaries talk                     MARKETING
                                                 LECTURE
Conservatives watch the Pragmatists before
buying technology
                                                     Intro

                      BUT
Visionaries and Pragmatists don„t respect each      Product

other
                                                   Customer
                                                   Customer
       customer references are there
                     - but not the right ones!     Comm.
                                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



       Why won‟t Pragmatists buy?
                                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                           MARKETING
1. Pragmatic customers hold on to the old paradigm         LECTURE
2. Customers see the benefit but they don„t have a pressing
                                                            Intro
   reason to change
3. User and purchasing want to hold on to the old status      Product
   quo
                                                             Customer
                                                             Customer

              the market reacts reluctant
                                                             Comm.
                                                             Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




                    TECHNOLOGY
                    MARKETING

What can be done?   LECTURE

                        Intro




                       Product




                      Customer
                      Customer



                      Comm.
                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




  Crossing the Chasm successfully
                                      TECHNOLOGY
                                      MARKETING
„Concentrate a overwhelming power     LECTURE
  on a small, focused target market
                                          Intro
  segment“
               FOCUS                     Product




                                        Customer
                                        Customer



                                        Comm.
                                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Pragmatists want Observability
                                                    TECHNOLOGY
                                                    MARKETING
“… be familiar with the processes and issues that   LECTURE
  worry these people…”
                                                        Intro


 relative advantage
                                                       Product
 compatibility
 trialability                                        Customer
                                                      Customer

 observability
                                                      Comm.
 less complexity                                     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




What does that mean for Marketing?
                                          TECHNOLOGY
                                          MARKETING
                                          LECTURE
The previous key to success has to be
thrown away! Everything has to be             Intro
changed:
rework message and positioning               Product



new message: solve a core niche problem
                                            Customer
                                            Customer

get references in this niche
                                            Comm.
                                            Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Positive Effects of the Focus
                                             TECHNOLOGY
                                             MARKETING
                                             LECTURE
    Effective marketing message
    Word of mouth (interpersonal networks)       Intro



    100% product solution is possible           Product


    Focused investment of resources
                                               Customer
                                               Customer
    Usually no competition (not yet)
    Possibility for market leadership          Comm.
                                               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




The 100%-Product
                                                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                                           MARKETING
                                                                           LECTURE
               Standards
                             Additional
               and
                             Software
               Procedures
                                                         Anything else         Intro
                                            Additional
    Training          Core-                 Hardware     you would need
    and
    Support          Produkt                             to achieve your      Product
                                                         compelling
                                          System

          Cables
                                          integration    reason to buy
                       Installation
                                                                             Customer
                                                                             Customer
                       and
                       Debugging


                                                                             Comm.
                                                                             Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Market leadership
                                                              TECHNOLOGY
                                                              MARKETING
Pragmatists value stability and predictability                LECTURE
 As long as there is no stability and predictability in the
                                                                  Intro
 market, they will not make a decision. They talk with each
 other, they watch and they wait.
                                                                 Product

A pattern, stability and predictability develops
as soon as there is a clear market leader                       Customer
                                                                Customer



        This is the way to the mass market                      Comm.
                                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



Focus – and then?
Situation:                                                 TECHNOLOGY
                                                           MARKETING
Vendor has market leadership in a small niche + a 100%     LECTURE
product for a small niche.
                                                               Intro
Next step:
New markets develop automatically, that are close to the      Product
focused niche because now there are:

• relative product advantages that almost fit                Customer
                                                             Customer

• credible references    observability
• word of mouth     credible communication channels          Comm.
                                                             Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




     Recap: Marketing Plan
                                                                                TECHNOLOGY
1.    Objective                     5.   Marketing Communication                MARKETING
2.    Marketing Strategy                    Target Customer                     LECTURE
                                            Positioning
         Target Customer
                                            Key Message
         Compelling reason to buy
                                            Elements of the Communication Mix
                                                                                    Intro
3.    Key Issues
                                            Deliverables
4.    Product Marketing
         Whole Product              6.   Partner Marketing                         Product
                       Features
                       Service
                                            Partners & Allies
                       Benefits
                                    7.   Key Account Marketing
         Pricing
                                                                                  Customer
                                                                                  Customer
         Distribution Channels
         Competition

                                                                                  Comm.
                                                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Outbound Elements of
Technology Marketing                TECHNOLOGY
                                    MARKETING
                                    LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                        Intro
Customer profiles
Communication content                  Product


Technology decision process
                                      Customer
Communication channels / networks
                                      Comm.
                                      Strategy
                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




  Communication content
                                                         TECHNOLOGY
Two kind of information:                                 MARKETING
                                                         LECTURE
Technology information     Technology evaluation information
What is it?                What are the consequences?            Intro


How does it work?          What are the benefits?
                                                               Product

Why does it work?
                           Individual evaluation information
                                                               Customer
                           What might it do to me?
                           How can I benefit?                  Comm.
                                                               Strategy
                                                               Strategy


                           What will I loose?
Ute Hillmer 08

     Who needs what kind of
     information and when?
                                                                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                           MARKETING
                             Pragmatists:
                                                                                           LECTURE
                         Stick with the herd!
          Marketsize




                                                              Conservatives:
                                                                Hold on!                       Intro
                 Visionaries:                                                  Skeptics:
                 Get ahead!                                                    No way!
                                                                                              Product
Techies:
 Try it!
                                                                                             Customer

                                                                                    Time
 Innovators             Early             Early              Late      Laggards              Comm.
                       Adopters          Majority           Majority                         Strategy
                                                                                             Strategy
Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
Ute Hillmer 08

Level of Concern over Time
for the Mainstream
                             TECHNOLOGY
                             MARKETING
                             LECTURE

                                 Intro




                                Product




                               Customer



                               Comm.
                               Strategy
                               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Outbound Elements of
Technology Marketing                TECHNOLOGY
                                    MARKETING
                                    LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                        Intro
Customer profiles
Communication content                  Product


Technology decision process
                                      Customer
Communication channels / networks
                                      Comm.
                                      Strategy
                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Technology Decision Process   TECHNOLOGY
                              MARKETING
                              LECTURE
         Knowledge
                                  Intro

         Persuasion
         Decision                Product


         Implementation
                                Customer
         Confirmation
                                Comm.
                                Strategy
                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Types of Innovation Decision                                                    TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                MARKETING
                                                                                LECTURE
• optional innovation decision




                                       Individual‟s influence on the decision
                                                                                    Intro




• collective innovation decision                                                   Product




• authority innovation decision                                                   Customer

   Organizational decision processes
                                                                                  Comm.
                                                                                  Strategy
                                                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Outbound Elements of
Technology Marketing                TECHNOLOGY
                                    MARKETING
                                    LECTURE
Characteristics of technology
                                        Intro
Customer profiles
Communication content                  Product


Technology decision process
                                      Customer
Communication channels / networks
                                      Comm.
                                      Strategy
                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Communication Channels /
Networks                                                   TECHNOLOGY
                                                           MARKETING
                                                           LECTURE
Communication
 process in which participants create and share
                                                               Intro
 information with one another in order to reach a mutual
 understanding.
                                                              Product
Communication Channels
 – connect the informed individual with the others.
                                                             Customer
 – the means for the information exchange to
   communicate a new idea to one or several others.
                                                             Comm.
                                                             Strategy
                                                             Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Communication Channels (2)      TECHNOLOGY
                                MARKETING
                                LECTURE
     • Mass media channels
                                    Intro


     • Interpersonal channels
                                   Product




                                  Customer



                                  Comm.
                                  Strategy
                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Role of Communication Channels
                                                            TECHNOLOGY
                                                            MARKETING
• Technology is not evaluated in scientific studies of      LECTURE
  its consequences (also they are not irrelevant to early
   adopters)
                                                                Intro

• People depend mainly upon subjective evaluation
  from other individuals like themselves                       Product


 The core motivator is the modelling and imitation
  of opinion leaders and peers who have adopted               Customer

  previously
                                                              Comm.
                                                              Strategy
                                                              Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Technology and Cultural Change
                                                     TECHNOLOGY
                                                     MARKETING
 Technology adoption always brings about culture     LECTURE
 change adoption decision is a change in the
 “rules for behaviour”.                                  Intro



 Sometimes, social structure and culture must           Product
 change considerably to adopt. The public requires
 assurances from opinion leaders to make such a
 change.                                               Customer



                                                       Comm.
                                                       Strategy
                                                       Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Mass Media Channels                                   TECHNOLOGY
                                                      MARKETING
 Rapid and efficient to inform about the existence    LECTURE
 of an innovation = awareness creation
                                                          Intro

 It also gives feedback to potential adopters about
 those who have adopted.                                 Product


 Because they create awareness, mass
 communications place some pressure upon                Customer

 opinion leaders to make decisions about the new
 technology.                                            Comm.
                                                        Strategy
                                                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Mass Media Channels   TECHNOLOGY
                      MARKETING
                      LECTURE
 are …..
                          Intro




                         Product




                        Customer



                        Comm.
                        Strategy
                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Interpersonal Communication                             TECHNOLOGY
                                                        MARKETING
Interpersonal communications between experts and        LECTURE
the public, opinion leaders and the public, peers and
among friends and family = persuasion                       Intro


Equally as essential as mass communications.
                                                           Product

Knowing the viewpoints of close references (e.g.,
family and friends) and opinion leaders is a critical     Customer
element of the social comparison process leading to
choice shift.
                                                          Comm.
                                                          Strategy
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




 Communication Channels                                 TECHNOLOGY
 Effectiveness                                          MARKETING
                                                        LECTURE
by decision stages
                                                            Intro
  Mass media is more important at the knowledge stage
  Interpersonal channels are more important at the         Product
  persuasion stage

                                                          Customer



                                                          Comm.
                                                          Strategy
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Communication Channels
Effectiveness (2)                                                TECHNOLOGY
                                                                 MARKETING
                                                                 LECTURE
by adopter category
                                                                     Intro
   Mass media channels are more important than
   interpersonal channels for early adopters;
                                                                    Product
   Interpersonal influence is less important to early adopters
 Mass media channels early in a product life cycle;               Customer
  interpersonal channels later
                                                                   Comm.
                                                                   Strategy
                                                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



Communication Channels
Effectiveness (3)                                                     TECHNOLOGY
                                                                      MARKETING
Interpersonal Channels and Adopter Profile                            LECTURE

                                                                            Intro




                                                                           Product




                                                                          Customer



                                                                          Comm.
                                                                          Strategy
                                                                          Strategy

                                   Source: Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, p. 198
Ute Hillmer 08




Mass Media Communication Flow                      TECHNOLOGY
                                                   MARKETING
 Transmission of facts alone   limited success     LECTURE

 Media presents positions of proponents and            Intro

 opponents and opinion leaders are mediating the
 information higher success                           Product


 Mass media channels are primarily knowledge
 creators (awareness)                                Customer



                                                     Comm.
                                                     Strategy
                                                     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08


Interpersonal Communication Flow:
Opinion leaders                               TECHNOLOGY
                                              MARKETING
                                              LECTURE
 Social systems have prestige hierarchies
    some persons / organisations are              Intro
 more influential than others

 Focus upon wining opinion leaders. It will      Product


 be opinion leaders who will persuade
 others to adopt.                               Customer




 Interpersonal networks persuade                Comm.
                                                Strategy
                                                Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Communication Networks
                                                 TECHNOLOGY
 Networks have a certain degree of               MARKETING
                                                 LECTURE
 structure, of stability. This structure is so
 complex, that even the members of the               Intro
 system do not understand the
 communication structure of which they
                                                    Product
 are part.

 100 members: 4.950 links                          Customer


 200 members: 19.900 links
                                                   Comm.
                                                   Strategy
                                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Interpersonal Communication Networks            TECHNOLOGY
                                                MARKETING
                                                LECTURE
 • Interconnected individuals who are linked
   by patterned communication flows to a            Intro
   given individual.
                                                   Product
 • Individual behaviour is determined in part
   by information and influence that is           Customer
   communicated through the individual's
   personal network.                              Comm.
                                                  Strategy
                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Interpersonal Networks (2)                              TECHNOLOGY
                                                        MARKETING
 Interlocking personal networks                         LECTURE
    a network of individuals, all of whom interact
    with each other                                         Intro



 Radial personal networks                                  Product
    a set of individuals linked to a focal individual
    (opinion leader) but not interacting with each
    other. Such networks are less dense and               Customer


    more open
                                                          Comm.
                                                          Strategy
                                                          Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Interpersonal Networks (3)   TECHNOLOGY
                             MARKETING
 are…                        LECTURE

                                 Intro




                                Product




                               Customer



                               Comm.
                               Strategy
                               Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Radial Personal Networks
"the strength of weak ties"                     TECHNOLOGY
                                                MARKETING
                                                LECTURE
   Weak ties occur with individuals only
   marginally included in the current network       Intro
   of contacts
   They allow the exchange of information          Product

   with a wider environment
   Particularly important in the diffusion of     Customer

   innovations because the links reach out to
   the entire system                              Comm.
                                                  Strategy
                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Radial Personal Networks “the
strength of weak ties“ (2)                            TECHNOLOGY
                                                      MARKETING
                                                      LECTURE
  new information flows stronger in weak
  ties, because an individuals close                      Intro

  friends seldom know much more that
  the individual does not also know.                     Product


  Communication proximity:
                                                        Customer
   the degree to which two individuals in a network
   have overlapping personal communication
                                                        Comm.
   networks                                             Strategy
                                                        Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Similarity in Networks                             TECHNOLOGY
                                                   MARKETING
                                                   LECTURE
  individuals tend to be linked to others who
  are close to them in physical distance and
                                                       Intro
  who are relatively homophilious = similar in
  social characteristics.
                                                      Product
  Network links with similar individuals require
  the least effort (easy communication) and are
                                                     Customer
  most rewarding (agreement on many terms).
                                                     Comm.
                                                     Strategy
                                                     Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Similarity in Networks (2)                       TECHNOLOGY
                                                 MARKETING
   Technology diffusion demands a certain        LECTURE
   degree of heterophily to be effective
                                                     Intro



 If individuals want more information, they        Product
  must break out of the comfort of close links
  and form more open and spatially distant
  network links.                                   Customer



                                                   Comm.
                                                   Strategy
                                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Personal Networks and Thresholds                 TECHNOLOGY
                                                 MARKETING
  A threshold is reached when an individual is   LECTURE
  convinced to adopt as the result of knowing
  that some minimum number of other                  Intro

  individuals have adopted
  The threshold is an individual level.             Product




                                                   Customer



                                                   Comm.
                                                   Strategy
                                                   Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




Personal Networks and Thresholds (2)                TECHNOLOGY
                                                    MARKETING
   some people adopt late, but early within their   LECTURE
   personal network - a lack of network
   exposure to the innovation                           Intro


   some people adopt easily within the entire
   system but late within their personal network       Product


 a person is more likely to adopt if more of the
  other individuals in his or her personal            Customer


  network have adopted previously
                                                      Comm.
                                                      Strategy
                                                      Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




  Technology-adoption Life-cycle
  - the Cycle in the Cycle                                           TECHNOLOGY
                                                                     MARKETING
                                                                     LECTURE
     Marketsize




                                                                         Intro




                                                                        Product




                                                                       Customer

                                                              Time
Innovators         Early      Early      Late      Laggards            Comm.
                  Adopters   Majority   Majority                       Strategy
                                                                       Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08




                      Mainstream Behaviour
number of adoptions
  Noncumulative



                                                                                 TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                 MARKETING
                                                                                 LECTURE

                                                                                     Intro




                                                                                    Product
                                             Increasingly
                                         conforming behaviour
                                                                                   Customer


      Innovators         Early            Early             Late      Laggards     Time
                        Adopters         Majority          Majority                Comm.
                                                                                   Strategy
                                                                                   Strategy
Chart based on Rogers 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1999, p. 12
Ute Hillmer 08




                      Individualistic Behaviour
number of adoptions
  Noncumulative



                                                                                  TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                  MARKETING
                                                                                  LECTURE

                                                                                      Intro




                                                                                     Product
                                                Increasingly
                                               individualistic
                                                 behaviour                          Customer


      Innovators         Early            Early              Late      Laggards     Time
                        Adopters         Majority           Majority                Comm.
                                                                                    Strategy
                                                                                    Strategy
Chart based on Rogers 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1999, p. 12
Ute Hillmer 08



                Group-Identities vs. Role-Identities
                During Technology Adoption
                                                                                               TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                               MARKETING
number of adoptions




                                                                                               LECTURE
  Noncumulative




                             Multiple, coherent
                                                                             Group-Identity dominates
                             group and role
                             identities that                                 Role-Identity dominates
                                                                                                   Intro
                             balance the
                             individual

                                                                                                   Product




                                                                                                  Customer


                                                                                  time
                      individualistic endorsement                                                  Comm.
                                                                            Individualistic behaviour
                                                    conforming behaviour
                                behaviour                                     Strong ROLE-identityStrategy
                                                    strong GROUP-identity
                         Strong ROLE-identity           “I am part of it”   “I can and will change it”
                            “I can change it”
Ute Hillmer 08




     Recap: Marketing Plan
                                                                                TECHNOLOGY
1.    Objective                     5.   Marketing Communication                MARKETING
2.    Marketing Strategy                    Target Customer                     LECTURE
                                            Positioning
         Target Customer
                                            Key Message
         Compelling reason to buy
                                            Elements of the Communication Mix
                                                                                    Intro
3.    Key Issues
                                            Deliverables
4.    Product Marketing
         Whole Product              6.   Partner Marketing                         Product
                       Features
                       Service
                                            Partners & Allies
                       Benefits
                                    7.   Key Account Marketing
         Pricing
                                                                                  Customer
         Distribution Channels
         Competition

                                                                                  Comm.
                                                                                  Strategy
                                                                                  Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



  E-Learning Case Study
                                                  TECHNOLOGY
                                                  MARKETING
Develop the key components of a marketing and     LECTURE

marcom plan for a product in the fast moving e-       Intro

learning (online learning) segment.
                                                     Product




                                                    Customer



                                                    Comm.
                                                    Strategy
Ute Hillmer 08



   E-Learning Case Study 1
Your company is in the business of developing and marketing e-        TECHNOLOGY
learning software for the institutional or organisational market. A   MARKETING
                                                                      LECTURE
strategic move is to develop a software application, especially
targeted at the academic online-learning market. You and your
team are in charge to develop the market oriented part of the             Intro

business plan for, what is hoped to become a new, breakthrough
software application within the next 2-3 years.                          Product

At the end of the 4 days, your team is expected to present an
outline of the marketing- and marcom-plan to the board, the VP of
                                                                        Customer
R&D as well as the VP of sales and marketing in order to get their
OK for the necessary funding and the time allocation of the
respective teams necessary for the project. (Joint presentation at      Comm.
                                                                        Strategy
the end of the 4th day, each team member presenting about 5
minutes).

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Why Technology Marketing is different!

  • 1. Ute Hillmer 08 TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE MARKETING Intro is different ! Product ESB Lecture Dr. Ute Hillmer Customer June 2009 Comm. Strategy
  • 2. Ute Hillmer 08 Content of the Lecture TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE 1. Why is Tech Marketing different? 2. Characteristics of innovative technology Intro 3. Customer profiles Product 4. Marketing Communication Strategy a) Communication content Customer b) Technology decision process Comm. c) Communication channels / networks Strategy
  • 3. Ute Hillmer 08 Examples for TECHNOLOGY MARKETING technology LECTURE products?? Intro Product “… that TECHNOLOGIES changed the way Customer you do things in your discipline / Comm. Strategy profession lately?”
  • 4. Ute Hillmer 08 TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Why should Intro marketing be different? Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 5. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology Marketing is different because its products… TECHNOLOGY MARKETING … really change the way one is doing things LECTURE … need a lot of explanation – benefits often not readily obvious Intro – difference to competition not readily obvious Product … have a short product lifecycle – today's technology might be outpaced tomorrow Customer … influence and penetrate life and its experiences  rethinking Marketing : New=Good Credibility= important Comm. Strategy
  • 6. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology Marketing is different because its customers… TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE – are sceptical and expect a dialogue – don‟t have any time to waist Intro – can be well informed – are uncertain due to always new technologies Product – expect customised solutions at low prices Customer  rethinking Marketing : New=Good Credibility= important Comm. Strategy
  • 7. Most importantly: Technology Ute Hillmer 08 Marketing is different because its Products… TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro … really change the way you are Product doing things Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 8. Ute Hillmer 08 The Diffusion of an Innovation TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Disruptive innovation LECTURE Continuous innovation Tornado Intro Marketsize Early Product Mainstreet Total Market Assimilation Customer Time Comm. Strategy Source: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation 1962, 1995, p.262; Moore; Crossing the Chasm 1995, 1999, p.12; The Chasm Institute LLC 2008.
  • 9. Ute Hillmer 08 Diffusion of an Innovation TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Marketsize Intro Time Product Marketsize Marketsize Customer Comm. Time Strategy Time
  • 10. Ute Hillmer 08 Why do certain innovations diffuse much TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE faster than others? Intro Why do certain Product innovations have a much longer mainstreet Customer momentum? Comm. Strategy
  • 11. Ute Hillmer 08 Success Factors of an Innovation Diffussion Strategy TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE 1. Favourable Characteristics of Technology Innovations. Intro 2. Business Strategy that recognises different Product customer profiles. 3. Marketing Communication Strategy were Customer communication content and communication Comm. vehicle recognises and considers point 1+2. Strategy
  • 12. Ute Hillmer 08 Inbound Elements of High Tech Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication strategy Product – Content – Technology decision process Customer – Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy
  • 13. Ute Hillmer 08 Inbound Elements of High Tech Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication strategy Product Product – Content – Technology decision process Customer – Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy
  • 14. Ute Hillmer 08 1. Favourable Characteristics of Technology Innovations TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Innovations perceived as having greater: Intro - relative advantage - compatibility - trialability - observability Product Product - less complexity - familiarity Customer will be adopted more rapidly than others Comm. Strategy
  • 15. Ute Hillmer 08 Relative Advantage TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = Degree to which a technology is perceived as LECTURE “better” Intro Measured in economic terms, but social prestige, convenience, and satisfaction are also important Product Product Objective advantages are not so important, it matters if an individual perceives the innovation as Customer an advantage Comm. Strategy
  • 16. Ute Hillmer 08 Yes! TECHNOLOGY MARKETING An advantage for LECTURE one individual, a Intro thread for another? Product Product Customer No! Mmm... Comm. Strategy
  • 17. Ute Hillmer 08 Sub dimensions of Relative Advantage TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE economic profitability personal goal low initial cost more or less flexibility Intro a decrease in discomfort more or less control Product Product social prestige personal marketability savings in time and effort curiosity Customer immediacy of the reward stability Comm. Strategy
  • 18. Ute Hillmer 08 Subjective Construction of Reality TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Each individual sees the world through Intro subjective lenses. Making sense of the Product Product world through her/his own Customer meaning system. Comm. Strategy
  • 19. Ute Hillmer 08 A Bike! TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 20. Ute Hillmer 08 A Bike! TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 21. Ute Hillmer 08 A Bike! TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 22. Ute Hillmer 08 A Bike! TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 23. Ute Hillmer 08 A Bike! ? Blob TECHNOLOGY blob MARKETING Bla Blubber LECTURE ... bla ... Blub blubber.. blub. . Intro .. Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 24. Ute Hillmer 08 A Meaning System Approach TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE “… is built around the idea that people develop beliefs that organise their world Intro and that give meaning to their experiences” Product Product DWECK 2000, p. xi Customer Different people hold different Comm. meaning systems. Strategy
  • 25. Ute Hillmer 08 Marketing and Rationality TECHNOLOGY MARKETING „Good" is relative LECTURE - not immediately evident Intro - complex to understand - circumvented by the market Product Product - considered to be amoral Customer - difficult to implement  „Good“ ideas do not sell themselves, they need to Comm. Strategy be properly expressed and communicated
  • 26. Ute Hillmer 08 Marketing and Rationality (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Most individuals perceive their actions as rational. Intro Lack of knowledge or inaccurate perception Product Product guide an individuals evaluation. Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 27. Ute Hillmer 08 Status Aspects TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Every innovation also has at least some degree of status conferral. Intro Product Product A motivation for many individuals to adopt is the desire to gain social status. Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 28. Ute Hillmer 08 Special Forms of Advantages TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE A fad Intro Preventive technologies Incentives Product Product Mandates Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 29. Ute Hillmer 08 A Fad TECHNOLOGY MARKETING is an innovation that represents a relatively LECTURE unimportant aspect of culture, which Intro diffuses very rapidly, mainly for status reasons, and then is rapidly discontinued. Product Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 30. Ute Hillmer 08 Preventive Technologies TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Preventive innovations are slower to diffuse because Intro • individuals have difficulties in perceiving their Product Product relative advantage • the rewards are uncertain Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 31. Ute Hillmer 08 Incentives TECHNOLOGY MARKETING increase the degree of relative advantage of LECTURE the technology Intro • incentives increase the rate of adoption Product Product • incentives lead to adoption of an innovation by individuals different from those who would otherwise adopt Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 32. Ute Hillmer 08 Mandates TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE incentives or penalties by law, tax etc. Intro • behaviour change that is desired by society but might not be desired by the individual can Product Product be mandated tax reduction for solar energy boost in Customer solar energy cell sales Comm. Strategy
  • 33. Ute Hillmer 08 Favourable Characteristics of Innovations TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Innovations perceived as having greater: Intro - relative advantage - compatibility - trialability - observability Product Product - less complexity - familiarity Customer will be adopted more rapidly than others Comm. Strategy
  • 34. Ute Hillmer 08 Triability TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = Degree to which a technology can be LECTURE experimented with on a limited basis Intro • Technology is easier to adopt if it can be tried out Product in part, on a temporary basis, or easily dispensed Product with after trial. Customer • It„s a way to find out how it works under one's own Comm. conditions it gives meaning to a technology Strategy
  • 35. Ute Hillmer 08 Complexity TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = Degree to which a technology is perceived as LECTURE difficult to understand and use. Intro • It is the perception of the end user that counts Product for achieving public adoption. Product • An innovation might look simple from the Customer viewpoint of the developer. Comm. Strategy
  • 36. Ute Hillmer 08 Compatibility TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = The degree to which technology is perceived as LECTURE being consistent with existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters Intro • Technologies that are incompatible with Product Product values and norms will be adopted much Customer slower because they require the adoption of Comm. a new value system. Strategy
  • 37. Ute Hillmer 08 Familiarity TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE A combination of past experiences and social conformity. Intro Often, it is the compatibility of a new Product Product technology to familiar social and individual concepts and not to existing technologies Customer and processes. Comm. Strategy
  • 38. Ute Hillmer 08 Naming a new Technology TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE A name affects its perceived familiarity and compatibility Intro Product Product  Customer research to name a new technology in each culture Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 39. Ute Hillmer 08 Positioning a Technology TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Positioning „co-designs“ a technology Intro Position a new technology in relation to already Product Product familiar concepts  familiarity! Potential adopters have relevant experiences with Customer which they associate the new innovation. Comm. Strategy
  • 40. Ute Hillmer 08 Observability TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = degree to which the results of a technology are LECTURE visible to others Intro • Observing the advantages of a new technology increases the chance of adoption significantly. Product Product • After some adopt, observability improves the Customer diffusion effect, a critical component of technology transfer. Comm. Strategy
  • 41. Ute Hillmer 08 Where in a TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE marketing plan do Intro the discussed areas Product Product belong? Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 42. Ute Hillmer 08 Marketing Plan TECHNOLOGY 1. Objective 5. Marketing Communication MARKETING 2. Marketing Strategy Target Customer LECTURE Positioning Target Customer Key Message Compelling reason to buy Elements of the Communication Mix Intro 3. Key Issues Deliverables 4. Product Marketing Whole Product 6. Partner Marketing Product Product Features Service Partners & Allies Benefits 7. Key Account Marketing Pricing Customer Distribution Channels Competition Comm. Strategy
  • 43. Ute Hillmer 08 Outbound Elements of Technology Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication content Product Technology decision process Customer Customer Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy
  • 44. Ute Hillmer 08 “Innovativeness” TECHNOLOGY MARKETING = degree to which an individual or a unit is relatively LECTURE earlier in adopting new technologies Intro Indicates overt Product Yes! behavioural No! Mmm... change, not just Customer Customer cognitive or attitudinal change Comm. Strategy
  • 45. Ute Hillmer 08 Human Behaviour + Technology Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING “… dramatically change past behaviour…” LECTURE and the typical human reaction: Intro – the majority of the market will hesitate to buy for a long time Product No !!! – when the new way of doing things gets Customer Customer accepted, everybody wants it right away Comm. Strategy
  • 46. Ute Hillmer 08 Individual Adopter Categorization on the Basis of Innovativeness TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Marketsize size Market Customer Customer Comm. Chart based on Rogers 1962, 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1991,1999, p. 12 Strategy Time
  • 47. Individual Adopter Categorization Ute Hillmer 08 on the Basis of Innovativeness TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Pragmatists: LECTURE Stick with the herd! Marketsize Conservatives: Hold on! Intro Visionaries: Skeptics: Techies:Get ahead! No way! Try it! Product Customer Customer Time Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Comm. Adopters Majority Majority Strategy Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
  • 48. 2009 Category Life Cycle Ute Hillmer 08 Placement TECHNOLOGY •Mobile, web-based•HDTV MARKETING b-applications •Laptops (consumer) LECTURE Marketsize •Solar power •Virtual meetings •Tablet computers (enterprise) •Consumer games Intro •Social networking •Cloud computing •Social networking •Many web 2.0 (business) (consumer) applications •Smartphones •Laptops (enterprise) •Many “green” Product technologies Customer Customer Time Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Comm. Adopters Majority Majority Strategy Source: Chasm Institute 2008 LLC.
  • 49. Ute Hillmer 08 Inventors: Techies Technology is their life TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Technology - Crazy LECTURE – Spend hours to get the product to work – Do everything to help the product Intro – Technology should be for free Forgiving souls Product – Don‟t mind lousy documentation and weird procedures to achieve functionality Customer Customer – Want technology first – no need for a sales channel Comm. Their role: they move technology forward but do Strategy not generate much diffusion
  • 50. Ute Hillmer 08 Visionaries Technology enthusiastic businessmen, TECHNOLOGY driven by a dream MARKETING LECTURE Businessman first - driven to be the first Intro - new technologies are used to serve their own strategic benefit - don‟t want incremental but fundamental improvements Product - make business world aware of new technologies - not very price-sensitive, have project budget Customer Customer - live in the future - communicate with techies and other visionaries Comm. Strategy
  • 51. Ute Hillmer 08 Visionaries (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Take a risk LECTURE - love publicity Intro - risky projects - start projects from ground up, don„t want Product standards, want to develop them - buy by intuition Customer Customer - highly motivated, driven by a dream Comm. Strategy
  • 52. Ute Hillmer 08 Visionaries (3) TECHNOLOGY Excellent communicators MARKETING LECTURE - charismatic; they fight for their project - like to serve as a reference Intro - network with techies and pragmatists - too many references demotivate visionaries Product - look for new ideas in communication with intelligent people Customer Customer Comm. Their role: they fund the product development Strategy
  • 53. Ute Hillmer 08 Pragmatists Look for measurable, incremental improvement TECHNOLOGY Driven by business results MARKETING LECTURE - improved productivity Avoid risk Intro - risk is a negative term - want to work with market leader/ established firms Product - look for product quality, support, consulting, good interfaces, reliability Customer Customer - want standards, “save buys” - need references Comm. - live in the present Strategy
  • 54. Ute Hillmer 08 Pragmatists (2) TECHNOLOGY Loyal customers MARKETING • are interested in company they buy from LECTURE • revenue and profit must grow steadily “stability” Intro • communicate within company and industry • the first mass market Product Their role: They hold the key to the mainstream market Customer Customer BUT: you need to be established in order for them to buy from you but you don‘t get Comm. established until they buy from you ! ? Strategy
  • 55. Ute Hillmer 08 Pragmatists (3) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Consequences out of this profile LECTURE One really needs to be familiar with the Intro processes and issues that worry these people Product  Offer a clear relative advantage to them Customer Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 56. Ute Hillmer 08 Conservatives “I don’t have to like the product, even if I use it” TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE - They do what pragmatics do, but later Intro - Invest in technology to keep up with competition Product - Have low technical competence Customer Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 57. Ute Hillmer 08 Conservatives (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING - predictable LECTURE - want everything faster, cheaper, improved Intro - are price sensitive - like bundles, pre-installed solutions Product - “if it isn’t broken, don’t fix it” - very interested in service and support Customer Customer Their role: huge mass market Comm. Strategy
  • 58. Individual Adopter Categorization Ute Hillmer 08 on the Basis of Innovativeness TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Pragmatists: LECTURE Stick with the herd! Marketsize Conservatives: Hold on! Intro Visionaries: Skeptics: Techies:Get ahead! No way! Try it! Product Customer Customer Time Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Comm. Adopters Majority Majority Strategy Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
  • 59. Ute Hillmer 08 The Chasm TECHNOLOGY MARKETING 1. Visionaries had their turn and new LECTURE visionaries chase new dreams (new technologies new visionaries) Intro 2. Pragmatists want to wait Product 3. Investors get nervous Customer NO MARKET!! ?? Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 60. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology Adoption and Its Challenges TECHNOLOGY MARKETING From „change agent“ to LECTURE productivity improvement How much technical Marktvolumen competence is Intro necessary? Translate a hot technology into a business benefit Product Lack of appreciation Customer Customer Comm. Strategy Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Zeit Adopters Majority Majority Geoffrey Moore 1995, 1999
  • 61. Ute Hillmer 08 Why is there a Chasm? TECHNOLOGY Techies and Visionaries talk MARKETING LECTURE Conservatives watch the Pragmatists before buying technology Intro BUT Visionaries and Pragmatists don„t respect each Product other Customer Customer customer references are there - but not the right ones! Comm. Strategy
  • 62. Ute Hillmer 08 Why won‟t Pragmatists buy? TECHNOLOGY MARKETING 1. Pragmatic customers hold on to the old paradigm LECTURE 2. Customers see the benefit but they don„t have a pressing Intro reason to change 3. User and purchasing want to hold on to the old status Product quo Customer Customer the market reacts reluctant Comm. Strategy
  • 63. Ute Hillmer 08 TECHNOLOGY MARKETING What can be done? LECTURE Intro Product Customer Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 64. Ute Hillmer 08 Crossing the Chasm successfully TECHNOLOGY MARKETING „Concentrate a overwhelming power LECTURE on a small, focused target market Intro segment“ FOCUS Product Customer Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 65. Ute Hillmer 08 Pragmatists want Observability TECHNOLOGY MARKETING “… be familiar with the processes and issues that LECTURE worry these people…” Intro  relative advantage Product  compatibility  trialability Customer Customer  observability Comm.  less complexity Strategy
  • 66. Ute Hillmer 08 What does that mean for Marketing? TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE The previous key to success has to be thrown away! Everything has to be Intro changed: rework message and positioning Product new message: solve a core niche problem Customer Customer get references in this niche Comm. Strategy
  • 67. Ute Hillmer 08 Positive Effects of the Focus TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Effective marketing message Word of mouth (interpersonal networks) Intro 100% product solution is possible Product Focused investment of resources Customer Customer Usually no competition (not yet) Possibility for market leadership Comm. Strategy
  • 68. Ute Hillmer 08 The 100%-Product TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Standards Additional and Software Procedures Anything else Intro Additional Training Core- Hardware you would need and Support Produkt to achieve your Product compelling System Cables integration reason to buy Installation Customer Customer and Debugging Comm. Strategy
  • 69. Ute Hillmer 08 Market leadership TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Pragmatists value stability and predictability LECTURE As long as there is no stability and predictability in the Intro market, they will not make a decision. They talk with each other, they watch and they wait. Product A pattern, stability and predictability develops as soon as there is a clear market leader Customer Customer This is the way to the mass market Comm. Strategy
  • 70. Ute Hillmer 08 Focus – and then? Situation: TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Vendor has market leadership in a small niche + a 100% LECTURE product for a small niche. Intro Next step: New markets develop automatically, that are close to the Product focused niche because now there are: • relative product advantages that almost fit Customer Customer • credible references observability • word of mouth credible communication channels Comm. Strategy
  • 71. Ute Hillmer 08 Recap: Marketing Plan TECHNOLOGY 1. Objective 5. Marketing Communication MARKETING 2. Marketing Strategy Target Customer LECTURE Positioning Target Customer Key Message Compelling reason to buy Elements of the Communication Mix Intro 3. Key Issues Deliverables 4. Product Marketing Whole Product 6. Partner Marketing Product Features Service Partners & Allies Benefits 7. Key Account Marketing Pricing Customer Customer Distribution Channels Competition Comm. Strategy
  • 72. Ute Hillmer 08 Outbound Elements of Technology Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication content Product Technology decision process Customer Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 73. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication content TECHNOLOGY Two kind of information: MARKETING LECTURE Technology information Technology evaluation information What is it? What are the consequences? Intro How does it work? What are the benefits? Product Why does it work? Individual evaluation information Customer What might it do to me? How can I benefit? Comm. Strategy Strategy What will I loose?
  • 74. Ute Hillmer 08 Who needs what kind of information and when? TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Pragmatists: LECTURE Stick with the herd! Marketsize Conservatives: Hold on! Intro Visionaries: Skeptics: Get ahead! No way! Product Techies: Try it! Customer Time Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Comm. Adopters Majority Majority Strategy Strategy Sources: Rogers Diffusion of Innovation; Moore; Crossing the Chasm
  • 75. Ute Hillmer 08 Level of Concern over Time for the Mainstream TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 76. Ute Hillmer 08 Outbound Elements of Technology Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication content Product Technology decision process Customer Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 77. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology Decision Process TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Knowledge Intro Persuasion Decision Product Implementation Customer Confirmation Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 78. Ute Hillmer 08 Types of Innovation Decision TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE • optional innovation decision Individual‟s influence on the decision Intro • collective innovation decision Product • authority innovation decision Customer Organizational decision processes Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 79. Ute Hillmer 08 Outbound Elements of Technology Marketing TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Characteristics of technology Intro Customer profiles Communication content Product Technology decision process Customer Communication channels / networks Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 80. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Channels / Networks TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Communication process in which participants create and share Intro information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding. Product Communication Channels – connect the informed individual with the others. Customer – the means for the information exchange to communicate a new idea to one or several others. Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 81. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Channels (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE • Mass media channels Intro • Interpersonal channels Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 82. Ute Hillmer 08 Role of Communication Channels TECHNOLOGY MARKETING • Technology is not evaluated in scientific studies of LECTURE its consequences (also they are not irrelevant to early adopters) Intro • People depend mainly upon subjective evaluation from other individuals like themselves Product  The core motivator is the modelling and imitation of opinion leaders and peers who have adopted Customer previously Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 83. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology and Cultural Change TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Technology adoption always brings about culture LECTURE change adoption decision is a change in the “rules for behaviour”. Intro Sometimes, social structure and culture must Product change considerably to adopt. The public requires assurances from opinion leaders to make such a change. Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 84. Ute Hillmer 08 Mass Media Channels TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Rapid and efficient to inform about the existence LECTURE of an innovation = awareness creation Intro It also gives feedback to potential adopters about those who have adopted. Product Because they create awareness, mass communications place some pressure upon Customer opinion leaders to make decisions about the new technology. Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 85. Ute Hillmer 08 Mass Media Channels TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE are ….. Intro Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 86. Ute Hillmer 08 Interpersonal Communication TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Interpersonal communications between experts and LECTURE the public, opinion leaders and the public, peers and among friends and family = persuasion Intro Equally as essential as mass communications. Product Knowing the viewpoints of close references (e.g., family and friends) and opinion leaders is a critical Customer element of the social comparison process leading to choice shift. Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 87. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Channels TECHNOLOGY Effectiveness MARKETING LECTURE by decision stages Intro Mass media is more important at the knowledge stage Interpersonal channels are more important at the Product persuasion stage Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 88. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Channels Effectiveness (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE by adopter category Intro Mass media channels are more important than interpersonal channels for early adopters; Product Interpersonal influence is less important to early adopters  Mass media channels early in a product life cycle; Customer interpersonal channels later Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 89. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Channels Effectiveness (3) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Interpersonal Channels and Adopter Profile LECTURE Intro Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy Source: Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, p. 198
  • 90. Ute Hillmer 08 Mass Media Communication Flow TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Transmission of facts alone limited success LECTURE Media presents positions of proponents and Intro opponents and opinion leaders are mediating the information higher success Product Mass media channels are primarily knowledge creators (awareness) Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 91. Ute Hillmer 08 Interpersonal Communication Flow: Opinion leaders TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Social systems have prestige hierarchies some persons / organisations are Intro more influential than others Focus upon wining opinion leaders. It will Product be opinion leaders who will persuade others to adopt. Customer Interpersonal networks persuade Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 92. Ute Hillmer 08 Communication Networks TECHNOLOGY Networks have a certain degree of MARKETING LECTURE structure, of stability. This structure is so complex, that even the members of the Intro system do not understand the communication structure of which they Product are part. 100 members: 4.950 links Customer 200 members: 19.900 links Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 93. Ute Hillmer 08 Interpersonal Communication Networks TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE • Interconnected individuals who are linked by patterned communication flows to a Intro given individual. Product • Individual behaviour is determined in part by information and influence that is Customer communicated through the individual's personal network. Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 94. Ute Hillmer 08 Interpersonal Networks (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Interlocking personal networks LECTURE a network of individuals, all of whom interact with each other Intro Radial personal networks Product a set of individuals linked to a focal individual (opinion leader) but not interacting with each other. Such networks are less dense and Customer more open Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 95. Ute Hillmer 08 Interpersonal Networks (3) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING are… LECTURE Intro Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 96. Ute Hillmer 08 Radial Personal Networks "the strength of weak ties" TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Weak ties occur with individuals only marginally included in the current network Intro of contacts They allow the exchange of information Product with a wider environment Particularly important in the diffusion of Customer innovations because the links reach out to the entire system Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 97. Ute Hillmer 08 Radial Personal Networks “the strength of weak ties“ (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE new information flows stronger in weak ties, because an individuals close Intro friends seldom know much more that the individual does not also know. Product Communication proximity: Customer the degree to which two individuals in a network have overlapping personal communication Comm. networks Strategy Strategy
  • 98. Ute Hillmer 08 Similarity in Networks TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE individuals tend to be linked to others who are close to them in physical distance and Intro who are relatively homophilious = similar in social characteristics. Product Network links with similar individuals require the least effort (easy communication) and are Customer most rewarding (agreement on many terms). Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 99. Ute Hillmer 08 Similarity in Networks (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Technology diffusion demands a certain LECTURE degree of heterophily to be effective Intro  If individuals want more information, they Product must break out of the comfort of close links and form more open and spatially distant network links. Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 100. Ute Hillmer 08 Personal Networks and Thresholds TECHNOLOGY MARKETING A threshold is reached when an individual is LECTURE convinced to adopt as the result of knowing that some minimum number of other Intro individuals have adopted The threshold is an individual level. Product Customer Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 101. Ute Hillmer 08 Personal Networks and Thresholds (2) TECHNOLOGY MARKETING some people adopt late, but early within their LECTURE personal network - a lack of network exposure to the innovation Intro some people adopt easily within the entire system but late within their personal network Product  a person is more likely to adopt if more of the other individuals in his or her personal Customer network have adopted previously Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 102. Ute Hillmer 08 Technology-adoption Life-cycle - the Cycle in the Cycle TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Marketsize Intro Product Customer Time Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Comm. Adopters Majority Majority Strategy Strategy
  • 103. Ute Hillmer 08 Mainstream Behaviour number of adoptions Noncumulative TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Increasingly conforming behaviour Customer Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Time Adopters Majority Majority Comm. Strategy Strategy Chart based on Rogers 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1999, p. 12
  • 104. Ute Hillmer 08 Individualistic Behaviour number of adoptions Noncumulative TECHNOLOGY MARKETING LECTURE Intro Product Increasingly individualistic behaviour Customer Innovators Early Early Late Laggards Time Adopters Majority Majority Comm. Strategy Strategy Chart based on Rogers 1995, p. 262 and Moore 1999, p. 12
  • 105. Ute Hillmer 08 Group-Identities vs. Role-Identities During Technology Adoption TECHNOLOGY MARKETING number of adoptions LECTURE Noncumulative Multiple, coherent Group-Identity dominates group and role identities that Role-Identity dominates Intro balance the individual Product Customer time individualistic endorsement Comm. Individualistic behaviour conforming behaviour behaviour Strong ROLE-identityStrategy strong GROUP-identity Strong ROLE-identity “I am part of it” “I can and will change it” “I can change it”
  • 106. Ute Hillmer 08 Recap: Marketing Plan TECHNOLOGY 1. Objective 5. Marketing Communication MARKETING 2. Marketing Strategy Target Customer LECTURE Positioning Target Customer Key Message Compelling reason to buy Elements of the Communication Mix Intro 3. Key Issues Deliverables 4. Product Marketing Whole Product 6. Partner Marketing Product Features Service Partners & Allies Benefits 7. Key Account Marketing Pricing Customer Distribution Channels Competition Comm. Strategy Strategy
  • 107. Ute Hillmer 08 E-Learning Case Study TECHNOLOGY MARKETING Develop the key components of a marketing and LECTURE marcom plan for a product in the fast moving e- Intro learning (online learning) segment. Product Customer Comm. Strategy
  • 108. Ute Hillmer 08 E-Learning Case Study 1 Your company is in the business of developing and marketing e- TECHNOLOGY learning software for the institutional or organisational market. A MARKETING LECTURE strategic move is to develop a software application, especially targeted at the academic online-learning market. You and your team are in charge to develop the market oriented part of the Intro business plan for, what is hoped to become a new, breakthrough software application within the next 2-3 years. Product At the end of the 4 days, your team is expected to present an outline of the marketing- and marcom-plan to the board, the VP of Customer R&D as well as the VP of sales and marketing in order to get their OK for the necessary funding and the time allocation of the respective teams necessary for the project. (Joint presentation at Comm. Strategy the end of the 4th day, each team member presenting about 5 minutes).