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Arabic Islamic World


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Arabic Islamic World

  3. 3. PRE-ISLAMIC ARABIA <ul><li>The Arabian peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely deserts with mountains, oases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile areas in the southern mountains around Yemen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic Bedouin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organized in family and clan groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many tribes seem to have been matrilineal with some rights for women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-classical Arabia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Romans (Byzantines) and Persians had client kingdoms in area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active in long-distance over land trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade from Damascus to Mecca/Medina to Yemen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade across desert to Persian Gulf and along coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Red Sea trade system; links between Yemen and Abyssinia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade includes gold, frankincense and myrrh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion was polytheist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of Jews in Arabia; Monophysite Christians in cities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MUHAMMAD’S EARLY LIFE <ul><li>Muhammad ibn Abdullah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult early life: orphaned, lived with uncle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muhammad's spiritual transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At age 40, he experienced visions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was only one true god, Allah (&quot;the god&quot;) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah would soon bring judgment on the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Quran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers compiled Muhammad's actual revelations after his death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quran (&quot;recitation&quot;), became the holy book of Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suras are chapters; organized from longest to shortest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A work of magnificent poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Hadith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sayings attributed to Muhammad; not included in Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three levels from most accurate/likely to highly suspect </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. THE HIJRA (FLIGHT) <ul><li>Conflict at Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His teachings offended others, especially ruling elite of Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the Kaa'ba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The hijra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under persecution, Muhammad, followers fled to Medina, 622 C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The move, known as hijra , was starting point of Islamic calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The umma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized a cohesive community called umma in Medina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led commercial adventure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes launched raids against Mecca caravans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped the poor and needy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The &quot;seal of the prophets&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred himself as &quot;seal of the prophets,&quot; - final prophet of Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held Hebrew scriptures and New Testament in high esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to followers as “Peoples of the Book” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If they did not threaten umma, were to be protected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CONQUEST OF ARABIA <ul><li>Muhammad's return to Mecca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered Mecca, 630 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed a theocratic government dedicated to Allah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kaa'ba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kaa'ba shrine was not destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 632, Muhammad led the first Islamic pilgrimage to the Ka'ba </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligations taught by Muhammad, known as the Five Pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars bound the umma into a cohesive community of faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profession of faith, prayer, tithing, pilgrimage, fasting at Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic law: the s haria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerged during the centuries after Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew laws, precepts from the Quran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew traditions from Arabic culture, Hadith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the s haria , Islam became a religion and a way of life </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. EXPANSION OF ISLAM <ul><li>The caliph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph (&quot;deputy&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became head of state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First four called Orthodox caliphs because they were original followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The expansion of Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>633-637, seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>640's, conquered Egypt and north Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>651, toppled Sassanid dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>711, conquered the Hindu kingdom of Sind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>711-718, conquered northwest Africa, most of Iberia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success due to weakness of enemies, vigor of Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to Islamic world as Dar al Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Shia and Sunnis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shia sect supported Ali (last caliph and son in law of Muhammad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A refuge for non-Arab converts, poor; followers in Iraq, Iran </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Felt caliphs should be directly related to Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sunnis (&quot;traditionalists&quot;) accepted legitimacy of early caliphs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were Arab as opposed to Islamic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not feel caliphs had to be related to Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two sects struggled over succession; produced a civil war, murder </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. UMAYYAD DYNASTY <ul><li>The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New caliph won civil war; murdered Ali; established dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established capital city at Damascus in Syria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy toward conquered peoples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dhimmis were the conquered Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the converts did not enjoy wealth, position of authority </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Umayyad decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caliphs became alienated from Arabs by early 8th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the mid-century, faced strong resistance of the Shia faction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The discontent of conquered peoples also increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umayyad family slaughtered; only one son escaped to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed breakaway Umayyad Dynasty in Spain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ABBASID DYNASTY <ul><li>Abu al-Abbas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A descendant of Muhammad's uncle; allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia during 740's </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shattered Umayyad forces at a battle in 750; annihilated the Umayyad clan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire still growing, but not initiated by the central government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbasid administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied heavily on Persians, Persian techniques of statecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad, newly built city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governors ruled provinces; Ulama, qadis (judges) ruled local areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harun al-Rashid (786-809 C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented the high point of the dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghdad became metropolis, center for commerce, industry, and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbasid decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle for succession between Harun's sons led to civil war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governors built their own power bases, regional dynasties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local military commanders took title of Sultan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, the Seljuk Turks controlled the imperial family </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. AN URBAN CIVILIZATION <ul><li>Arab Urban History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Islamic Arabs were both urban, bedouin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mecca, Medina, Yemeni cities, cities of Palmyra, Arab Petropolis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center of the city was a market place often shared with religious center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities designed with human-environment interaction in mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nomads came to city to trade, city often settled by whole tribes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs had settled in cities in Syria, Iraq, Jordan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic cities linked to wider world through merchants, trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab cities exposed to Jews, Persians, Monophysites, Sabeans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arabic Empire and Urban Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam as a culture requires mosque, merchant: very urban in outlook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital moved from Mecca to Damascus by Umayyads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs founded military cities on edges of desert to rule empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As empire grew, needed something more permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abbasids moved capital from Damascus, Kufa to Baghdad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other designed for purpose cities include Fez, Cairo, Tunis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing agricultural production contributed to growth of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities: centers for administration, industry, trade, education, faith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many different ethnic minorities settled in Muslim cities (quarters) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosque at center surrounded by suk, square, in decreasing social order </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. CHANGED ECONOMICS <ul><li>Merchants, pilgrims, travelers exchanged foods across empire </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange and spread of food and industrial crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian plants traveled to other lands of the empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staple crops: sugarcane, rice, new varieties of sorghum and wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables: spinach, artichokes, eggplants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits: oranges, lemons, limes, bananas, coconuts, watermelons, mangoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial crops: cotton, indigo, henna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of new crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased varieties and quantities of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial crops became the basis for a thriving textile industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foodstuffs increased health, populations of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous agricultural manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural methods and techniques improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved irrigation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. A VAST TRADE ZONE <ul><li>Camels and caravans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overland desert trade traveled mostly by camel caravan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caravanserais (motel, corrals) in Islamic cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading goods usually luxury in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maritime trade based on technological borrowing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab, Persian mariners borrowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compass from the Chinese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateen sail from southeast Asian, Indian mariners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe from the Hellenistic mariners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization and dominance of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In North Africa across Sahara, down Nile, SW Asia, to India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia Gulf down coasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many cities grew rich from trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources in group investments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different kinds of joint endeavors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operated on large scale and provided extensive services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters of credit, or sakk , functioned as bank checks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange of Ideas included Islam, technology, culture </li></ul>
  19. 19. OTHER ISLAMIC REGIONS <ul><li>Al-Andalus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic Spain, conquered by Muslim Berbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed independence from the Abbasid dynasty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participated in commercial life of the larger Islamic world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products of al-Andalus enjoyed a reputation for excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordoba was a center of learning, commerce, architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After death of Abd al Rahman III broke up into petty kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A unique blended culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab, Latin, German, Islamic, Christian, Jewish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very tolerant and integrated society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warred for 700 years with Christian kingdoms in north </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong followers of Shia, broke with Abbassids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berbers followed many puritanical Shia like movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually Fatimids conquered Egypt, formed rival caliphate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely Turkish, Persian and Islamic but not Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tended to be distant from Baghdad and more tolerant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated into trans-Eurasian trade network </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. MUSLIM SPAIN
  22. 22. WOMEN’S CHANGING STATUS <ul><li>Pre-Islamic Arab Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs as nomads allowed women many rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women often poets, tribe leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some evidence of matrilineal tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Quran and women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quran enhanced rights, security of women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced husbands to honor contracts, love women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed women to own property, protected from exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What produced the change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign Contacts changed the perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted veiling from Mesopotamia, Persia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation from India through purdah, harem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim rights for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often weaken through Hadith, traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often reduced, ignored </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarch beliefs reinforced by conquest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yet Quran, sharia also reinforced male domination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Hadith, Arab traditions reinforced male domination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. IMAGE OF WOMEN
  24. 24. ISLAMIC CULTURAL TRADITION <ul><li>Quran, sharia were main sources to formulate moral guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Constant struggle between what is Arabic and what is Islamic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Arabic script as only language of Islam strengthened trend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persians, Turks, Indians, and Africans struggled for acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promotion of Islamic values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulama, qadis , and missionaries were main agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education also promoted Islamic values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sufis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic mystics, effective missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged devotion by singing, dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led ascetic, holy lives, won respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged followers to revere Allah in own ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The hajj </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kaa'ba became the symbol of Islamic cultural unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. ISLAM & OTHER CONTACTS <ul><li>Persian influence on Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After Arabs most prominent of Muslims, resisted Arabization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural traditions often borrowed heavily by Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Became early followers of Shia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and regionalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many advisors (vizer is Persian word) to Caliphs were Persian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultured, diplomatic language of Abbassid court became Persian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literary achievements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omar Khayyam was greatest of Medieval Muslim poets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Arabian Nights largely in a Persian style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Turkish influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asian nomads converted to Islam, developed literary culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invaded SW Asia and made caliphate dependent on Turkish nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed military might, leadership of late Abbassid state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indian Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purdah and harem borrowed from Hindus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Hindi numerals,&quot; which Europeans called &quot;Arabic numerals&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greek Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle; Greek math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effort of harmonizing two traditions met resistance from Sufis </li></ul></ul>