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2 1 arab expansion


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2 1 arab expansion

  1. 1. Social Studies for 10th EGB Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. Life after Muhammad After Muhammad died, they chose Abu Bakr, one of Muhammad’s first converts, to be the next leader of Islam. They named him the first caliph, which is how the highest leaders in Islam are called. It means: successor. They had to lead by setting the example as Muhammad.
  3. 3. Abu Bakr soon directed his armies to unify Arabia through a series of battles. The outcome was a unified Muslim state. After this, they focused their attention elsewhere and defeated Persia and Byzantium, taking land away from them. In these new lands, Muslims set new rules for non-Muslims: New places of worship could not be built Even with many restrictions, Jews and Christians could practice their own religion freely.
  4. 4. Many early caliphs came from the Umayyad family. They moved the capital to Damascus, in Syria, but also continued to expand the empire. They went to Central Asia, Northern India and North Africa. In northern Africa, a tribe of people called Berbers, resisted. But soon they converted to Islam.
  5. 5. In 771, a combination of Arabs and Berbers invaded Spain and quickly conquered it. Next they moved into Frankish territory, but a Christian army defeated them at the Battle of Tours. Despite this, Muslims called Moors, continued to rule Spain for the next 700 years.
  6. 6. Later, a new dynasty, the Abbasids came to power in 749. They reorganized the government to make it easier to rule such a large region.
  7. 7. Islam quickly spread through the lands conquered by the Arabs. Within it, trade flourished. As we know, trade doesn’t only move goods but also ideas and culture. This way, Islam spread. In India, Hindu beliefs stayed strong but on the coast, Muslim communities spread quickly. In Africa, both African and Muslim customs coexisted, in which many leaders became devout Muslims.
  8. 8. Through trade, new goods from distant markets arrived to the Arab bazaars: China: Paper and gunpowder India: Cotton, rice and oranges Africa: ivory and slaves.
  9. 9. Arabs spread out and met people with different beliefs and cultures. Because of this, they practiced religious tolerance (or acceptance). Because they shared many things in common with Jews and Christians, they respected them, so far as calling them: People of the Book. Still, they had to pay a special tax and were forbidden to convert anyone to their religion. Arabs also adopted other customs and in this way became a multicultural group, which unified others through their language.
  10. 10. In the growth of Arab cities, the blend of cultures was visible: there was wealth which supported cultural development. Baghdad became the capital in the year 762 It had more than 300,00 residents, with markets, zoos, hospitals, libraries, public baths and The House of Wisdom. Here, the caliphs supported science and the arts. Córdoba, in Spain also became another showplace for Muslim civilization. In the 900s, it was the largest and most advanced city in Europe!
  11. 11. Identify: What region did Muslims first unify and what caliph led this unification? Analyze: Why do you think the Umayyad caliphs moved the capital from Medina to Damascus? Why did Muslims respect Christians and Jews? Recall: What kind of goods and from where did Arab merchants bring to the Bazaar? What is “tolerance”? Who were the Berbers and the Moors?
  12. 12. Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History (Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H. McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Images taken from