Social Studies for 10th EGB
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
Life after Muhammad
After Muhammad died, they chose Abu
Bakr, one of Muhammad’s first converts, to be
the next leader of Islam.
They named him the first caliph, which is how the
highest leaders in Islam are called. It means:
They had to lead by setting the example as
Abu Bakr soon directed his armies to
unify Arabia through a series of battles.
The outcome was a unified Muslim
After this, they focused their attention
elsewhere and defeated Persia and
Byzantium, taking land away from them.
In these new lands, Muslims set new rules for
New places of worship could not be built
Even with many restrictions, Jews and
Christians could practice their own religion
Many early caliphs came from
the Umayyad family.
They moved the capital to
Damascus, in Syria, but also
continued to expand the
They went to Central
Asia, Northern India and
In northern Africa, a tribe of
people called Berbers, resisted.
But soon they converted to
In 771, a combination of Arabs
and Berbers invaded Spain
and quickly conquered it.
Next they moved into Frankish
territory, but a Christian army
defeated them at the Battle of
Despite this, Muslims called
Moors, continued to rule
Spain for the next 700 years.
Later, a new dynasty, the Abbasids came to
power in 749. They reorganized the government
to make it easier to rule such a large region.
Islam quickly spread through the lands
conquered by the Arabs. Within it, trade
As we know, trade doesn’t only move goods but
also ideas and culture. This way, Islam spread.
In India, Hindu beliefs stayed strong but on the
coast, Muslim communities spread quickly.
In Africa, both African and Muslim customs
coexisted, in which many leaders became devout
Through trade, new goods from distant markets arrived
to the Arab bazaars:
China: Paper and gunpowder
India: Cotton, rice and oranges
Africa: ivory and slaves.
Arabs spread out and met people with different
beliefs and cultures. Because of this, they
practiced religious tolerance (or acceptance).
Because they shared many things in common
with Jews and Christians, they respected
them, so far as calling them: People of the
Still, they had to pay a special tax and were
forbidden to convert anyone to their religion.
Arabs also adopted other customs and in this
way became a multicultural group, which
unified others through their language.
In the growth of Arab cities, the blend of
cultures was visible: there was wealth
which supported cultural development.
Baghdad became the capital in the year
It had more than 300,00 residents, with
markets, zoos, hospitals, libraries, public baths
and The House of Wisdom.
Here, the caliphs supported science and the
Córdoba, in Spain also became another
showplace for Muslim civilization.
In the 900s, it was the largest and most
advanced city in Europe!
What region did Muslims first unify and what caliph
led this unification?
Why do you think the Umayyad caliphs moved the
capital from Medina to Damascus?
Why did Muslims respect Christians and Jews?
What kind of goods and from where did Arab
merchants bring to the Bazaar?
What is “tolerance”?
Who were the Berbers and the Moors?
Burstein, S. M., & Shek, R. (2012). World History
(Teacher´s Edition) (1st Edition ed.). (H.
McDougal, Ed.) Orlando, Florida, US.: Houghton
Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Images taken from www.google.com