The following are the requisites of the reading process and should guide the reading teachers in their pedagogy (NCCA Research Report 2012):
Vocabulary is an expandable, stored set of words that students know the meanings of and use. Vocabulary has both print and speech forms.
The main objective of reading. It involves analyzing and synthesizing of the text to create meaning. Reading comprehension is the ability to understand, remember, and communicate meaning from what has been read. Comprehension is the purpose and the goal of reading, but comprehension depends on students being able to access the text. Reading comprehension is the most complex aspect of reading. It not only involves all of the other four aspects of reading, it also requires the reader to draw upon general thinking skills. When a reader is actively engaged with a text, she is asking and answering questions about the story and summarizing what she has read. Like vocabulary, reading comprehension skills develop and improve over time through instruction and practice.
Fluency is a reader’s ability to read with speed, accuracy and expression. Your ability to move through a piece of text at a fluid pace while evoking the meaning and feeling of it demonstrates your fluency.
Unenthusiastic or reluctant readers need to be encouraged to read through supportive physical and social environment.
Students who have mastered phonemic awareness are able to identify, manipulate, and substitute individual sounds at the beginning, middle, or end of spoken words.
The knowledge and manipulation of sounds in spoken words. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that words are created from phonemes (small units of sound in language).
Automatic recognition of individual words leads to fluent reading of strings of words, which in turn leads to full comprehension—the goal of reading instruction. When this process is automatic and efficient then additional reading strategies can be taught to help the students glean more from what they read and have a successful and fulfilling experience with text.
Decoding is important because it is the foundation on which all other reading instruction builds. If students cannot decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be limited and their reading comprehension will suffer. Teaching higher-level reading strategies to students stuck at the word level is ineffective. We might as well be banging our head against a wall.
Components of reading process
The knowledge of word and word meaning.
2 Types of Vocabulary
---Includes the words that one takes in when listening
---Is composed of the words one uses when speaking and
It is defined as the level of understanding of a text/message. This
understanding comes from the interaction between the words
that are written and how they trigger knowledge outside the
The ability to read aloud with expression to
demonstrate an understanding of the author’s message
(Department of Education and Training in Western
Oral Reading Fluency
3 Key Components of Oral Reading Fluency
(McKenna and Stahl (2009))
Accurate Word Recognition
Appropriate Rhythm and Intonation of Speech
The attitude one has toward reading.
The ability to work around sound units that comprise
or make up a word.