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1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
CHAPTER
A Virtuous Republic
Creating a Workable Government, 1783–1789...
2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
A Virtuous Republic
I. Republicanism and the Politics of Virtue
II. Life under the Articles of Confederation
III. The Move...
Republicanism and the Politics of Virtue
A. George Washington: The American
Cincinnatus
B. The Politics of Virtue: Views f...
George Washington:
The American Cincinnatus
Why did Americans believe Washington was
the modern Cincinnatus?
What was the ...
6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
How did change in furniture design reflect the
influence of republican ideas?
Why was education so important to the
Founde...
8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
How did republican ideas change notions about women’s
roles?
Images as History
WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE
12 Visi...
13 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE
The text that ...
14 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Images as History
WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE
The large buil...
Democracy Triumphant?
Why did many supporters of republicanism
fear democracy?
Why did William Smith’s portrait cast him a...
16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Life under the Articles of Confederation
A. No Taxation without Representation
B. Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate
C. ...
Life under the Articles of Confederation
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail to
give the Confederation Congress the...
Life under the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation – America’s first
constitutional government in effect f...
21 Visions of America, A History of the United States
No Taxation without Representation
Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate
What diplomatic frustrations hampered the
new American nation?
What was the theory of...
Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate
Old Northwest – The region of the new
nation bordering on the Great Lakes
23 Visions ...
24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Settling the Old Northwest
What republican features distinguish the
Northwest Ordinance?
25 Visions of America, A History ...
Settling the Old Northwest
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – One of
several laws adopted by the Confederation
Congress designe...
27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Shays’s Rebellion
What was Shays’s Rebellion?
28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Shays’s Rebellion
Shays’s Rebellion – Uprising in western
Massachusetts in which farmers organized
themselves as local mil...
30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Movement for Constitutional Reform
A. The Road to Philadelphia
B. Large States versus Small States
C. Conflict over Sl...
32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Road to Philadelphia
Large States versus Small States
What were the main features of the Virginia
Plan?
Why did small states oppose the Virgini...
Large States versus Small States
Virginia Plan – A plan framed by James
Madison and introduced in the Constitution
Convent...
Large States versus Small States
New Jersey Plan – Proposal made by
William Patterson of New Jersey as an
alternative to t...
Large States versus Small States
Great Compromise – Compromise plan
proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver
Ellsworth of Conn...
37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Conflict over Slavery
How did the conflict over slavery shape the
debates of the Constitutional Convention?
38 Visions of ...
Filling out the Constitutional Design
How did the electoral college strengthen the
powers of the states and further the id...
40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Great Debate
A. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists
B. Ratification
C. The Creation of a Loyal Opposition
41 Visions o...
Federalists versus Anti-Federalists
Why did Federalist and Anti-Federalist
authors adopt names such as Publius and
Brutus?...
Federalists versus Anti-Federalists
Federalists – The name adopted by the
supporters of the Constitution who favored a
str...
Federalists versus Anti-Federalists
Anti-Federalists – The name applied to
opponents of the Constitution who insisted
that...
45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
The Anti-Federalist Brutus
defended the traditional
idea that a free republic
could survive only in a
small area in which ...
Ratification
Why did urban artisans support the
Constitution?
47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
Choices and Consequences
• By the time New York’s ratification convention
met, nine states had already ratified the
Consti...
Choices and Consequences
Choices Regarding Ratification
TO RATIFY OR NOT
52 Visions of America, A History of the United St...
Choices and Consequences
Decision and Consequences
• Melancton Smith chose to support the Constitution with the
promise of...
Choices and Consequences
Continuing Controversies
•Why did New York Anti-Federalists accept
the Constitution and wait for ...
The Creation of a Loyal Opposition
Why was there no anti-Constitution
movement after ratification?
55 Visions of America, ...
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Chapter 5: A Virtuous Republic

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Chapter 5: A Virtuous Republic- Creating a Workable Government 1783-1789

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Chapter 5: A Virtuous Republic

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER A Virtuous Republic Creating a Workable Government, 1783–1789 5 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. A Virtuous Republic I. Republicanism and the Politics of Virtue II. Life under the Articles of Confederation III. The Movement for Constitutional Reform IV. The Great Debate CREATING A WORKABLE GOVERNMENT, 1783–1789 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. Republicanism and the Politics of Virtue A. George Washington: The American Cincinnatus B. The Politics of Virtue: Views from the States C. Democracy Triumphant? D. Debtors versus Creditors 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  5. 5. George Washington: The American Cincinnatus Why did Americans believe Washington was the modern Cincinnatus? What was the Newburgh conspiracy? 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. How did change in furniture design reflect the influence of republican ideas? Why was education so important to the Founders of the American Republic? The Politics of Virtue: Views from the States 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  12. 12. How did republican ideas change notions about women’s roles? Images as History WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE The text that accompanied this image advised: “Keep within Compass and You shall be sure to avoid many troubles which others endure.” The woman stepping outside the compass (at bottom) faces arrest and imprisonment.
  14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History WOMEN’S ROLES: TRADITION AND CHANGE The large building at the top is The College of Rhode Island (today's Brown University). The central text reads: "Let Virtue be a Guide to Thee." The central image is the Rhode Island State House.
  15. 15. Democracy Triumphant? Why did many supporters of republicanism fear democracy? Why did William Smith’s portrait cast him as a country gentleman rather than an urban merchant? How did the composition of the state legislatures change after the American Revolution? 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  18. 18. Life under the Articles of Confederation A. No Taxation without Representation B. Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate C. Settling the Old Northwest D. Shays’s Rebellion 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  19. 19. Life under the Articles of Confederation Why did the Articles of Confederation fail to give the Confederation Congress the power to tax? 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  20. 20. Life under the Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation – America’s first constitutional government in effect from 1781–1788 – Created a weak decentralized form of government that lacked the power to tax and compel state obedience to treaties it negotiated 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States No Taxation without Representation
  22. 22. Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate What diplomatic frustrations hampered the new American nation? What was the theory of conquest, and how did it influence diplomatic relations with Native American peoples? 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  23. 23. Diplomacy: Frustration and Stalemate Old Northwest – The region of the new nation bordering on the Great Lakes 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  25. 25. Settling the Old Northwest What republican features distinguish the Northwest Ordinance? 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  26. 26. Settling the Old Northwest Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – One of several laws adopted by the Confederation Congress designed to provide a plan for the orderly settlement of the Northwest Territory (the area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania) – Provided a plan for self-governance – Prohibited slavery from the Northwest Territory 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  28. 28. Shays’s Rebellion What was Shays’s Rebellion? 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  29. 29. Shays’s Rebellion Shays’s Rebellion – Uprising in western Massachusetts in which farmers organized themselves as local militia units and closed down courts to prevent their farms from being seized by creditors 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  31. 31. The Movement for Constitutional Reform A. The Road to Philadelphia B. Large States versus Small States C. Conflict over Slavery D. Filling out the Constitutional Design 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Road to Philadelphia
  33. 33. Large States versus Small States What were the main features of the Virginia Plan? Why did small states oppose the Virginia Plan? 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  34. 34. Large States versus Small States Virginia Plan – A plan framed by James Madison and introduced in the Constitution Convention by Edmund Randolph that called on delegations to abandon the government of the Articles and create a new, strong national government 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  35. 35. Large States versus Small States New Jersey Plan – Proposal made by William Patterson of New Jersey as an alternative to the more nationalistic Virginia Plan that would have retained the principle of state equality in the legislature embodied in the Articles of Confederation 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  36. 36. Large States versus Small States Great Compromise – Compromise plan proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut that called for equal representation of each state in the upper house and a lower house based on population 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  38. 38. Conflict over Slavery How did the conflict over slavery shape the debates of the Constitutional Convention? 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  39. 39. Filling out the Constitutional Design How did the electoral college strengthen the powers of the states and further the ideals of republicanism? What were the most important differences between the federal Constitution and the typical state constitutions of this period? 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  41. 41. The Great Debate A. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists B. Ratification C. The Creation of a Loyal Opposition 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  42. 42. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists Why did Federalist and Anti-Federalist authors adopt names such as Publius and Brutus? How does The Looking Glass for 1787 portray the Anti-Federalists? 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  43. 43. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists Federalists – The name adopted by the supporters of the Constitution who favored a stronger centralized government 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  44. 44. Federalists versus Anti-Federalists Anti-Federalists – The name applied to opponents of the Constitution who insisted that they, not their opponents, were the true supporters of the ideal of federalism – Opposed weakening the power of the states – Feared that the Constitution yielded too much power to the new central government 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  46. 46. The Anti-Federalist Brutus defended the traditional idea that a free republic could survive only in a small area in which the people shared the same values, culture, and history. Why did Brutus and Publius differ about the relationship between size and republicanism? As Publius, James Madison argued that by increasing the number of factions and expanding the size of the republic, it would be less likely for any one faction to further its agenda and dominate politics. Competing Visions BRUTUS AND PUBLIUS DEBATE THE NATURE OF REPUBLICANISM 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  47. 47. Ratification Why did urban artisans support the Constitution? 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  51. 51. Choices and Consequences • By the time New York’s ratification convention met, nine states had already ratified the Constitution, making it the new law of the land. • If New York failed to ratify it would be excluded from the new nation surrounding it. • Moderate Anti-Federalists, such as Melancton Smith, were key swing voters in the ratification convention. TO RATIFY OR NOT 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  52. 52. Choices and Consequences Choices Regarding Ratification TO RATIFY OR NOT 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States Support the Constitution with the promise that the first Congress would amend it Support the Constitution provisionally until it was amended, but consider seceding from the Union if amendments were not made Block ratification
  53. 53. Choices and Consequences Decision and Consequences • Melancton Smith chose to support the Constitution with the promise of amendments. • New York ratified the Constitution and became the eleventh state in the Union. • The decision put more pressure on Rhode Island and North Carolina to ratify or become isolated. • The decision gave impetus to the move to amend the Constitution after ratification, and the First Congress enacted the Bill of Rights. TO RATIFY OR NOT Why did New York Anti-Federalists compromise on the question of amendments? 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  54. 54. Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •Why did New York Anti-Federalists accept the Constitution and wait for amendments? TO RATIFY OR NOT 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  55. 55. The Creation of a Loyal Opposition Why was there no anti-Constitution movement after ratification? 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States

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