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Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

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Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

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Chapter 7: Jeffersonian America, 1800-1824

  1. 1. 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States CHAPTER 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America An Expanding Empire of Liberty, 1800–1824 7 1 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  2. 2. 2 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  3. 3. 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America I. Politics in Jeffersonian America II. An Expanding Empire of Liberty III. Dissension at Home IV. America Confronts a World at War V. The Republic Reborn: Consequences of the War of 1812 VI. Crises and the Collapse of the National Republican Consensus AN EXPANDING EMPIRE OF LIBERTY, 1800–1824 3 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  4. 4. 4 Visions of America, A History of the United States Politics in Jeffersonian America A. Liberty and Small Government B. The Jeffersonian Style C. Political Slurs and the Politics of Honor
  5. 5. 5 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Jeffersonian Style What does Monticello reveal about Thomas Jefferson’s ideas and values?
  6. 6. 6 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  7. 7. 7 Visions of America, A History of the United States Political Slurs and the Politics of Honor What role did slavery play in life at Monticello? What role did honor play in the political culture of Jeffersonian America?
  8. 8. 8 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  9. 9. 9 Visions of America, A History of the United States Envisioning Evidence THE WORLD OF SLAVERY AT MONTICELLO About 150 slaves allowed Jefferson to maintain his aristocratic lifestyle.
  10. 10. 10 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  11. 11. 11 Visions of America, A History of the United States An Expanding Empire of Liberty A. Dismantling the Federalist Program B. The Courts: The Last Bastion of Federalist Power C. The Louisiana Purchase D. Lewis and Clark E. Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism
  12. 12. 12 Visions of America, A History of the United States Dismantling the Federalist Program Was Jefferson’s election in 1800 a real revolution?
  13. 13. 13 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Courts: The Last Bastion of Federalist Power Judicial Review – The idea that courts might strike down acts of the legislature
  14. 14. 14 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences • Marbury, who sought political office, was denied his commission by Madison, Jefferson’s secretary of state • Marbury sued Madison and demanded his office • The case went to the Supreme Court, with Marshall as chief justice JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  15. 15. 15 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Marshall’s choices in Marbury v. Madison JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT Give Marbury his commission Deny Marbury the commission Acknowledge the legitimacy of Marbury’s claim while somehow avoiding a showdown between the court and executive branch
  16. 16. 16 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Decision and consequences • Marshall used a legal technicality to avoid conflict between executive and judicial branches • Marshall’s ruling: – Strengthened the idea of judicial review; and – Gave more power to the Supreme Court How did John Marshall avoid a showdown with Jefferson in Marbury v. Madison? JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  17. 17. 17 Visions of America, A History of the United States Choices and Consequences Continuing Controversies •What role should judicial review play in a democracy? JOHN MARSHALL’S PREDICAMENT
  18. 18. 18 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Louisiana Purchase Was the Louisiana Purchase consistent with Jefferson’s ideals?
  19. 19. 19 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase – The U.S. acquisition of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 –Secured control of the Mississippi River and nearly doubled the size of the nation
  20. 20. 20 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  21. 21. 21 Visions of America, A History of the United States Lewis and Clark What role did Sacagawea play in the Lewis and Clark expedition? What were the main goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition?
  22. 22. 22 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  23. 23. 23 Visions of America, A History of the United States Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism What were the central beliefs of Handsome Lake’s religious revival?
  24. 24. 24 Visions of America, A History of the United States Indian Responses to Jeffersonian Expansionism: Assimilation or Revivalism Pan-Indian Resistance Movement – Shawnee leaders Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh’s plan to unite Indian tribes to repel white encroachments in Ohio and Indiana
  25. 25. 25 Visions of America, A History of the United States Dissension at Home A. Jefferson’s Attack on the Federalist Judiciary B. The Controversial Mr. Burr
  26. 26. 26 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jefferson’s Attack on the Federalist Judiciary Why did Jefferson target the federal judiciary and seek to limit its power?
  27. 27. 27 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Controversial Mr. Burr
  28. 28. 28 Visions of America, A History of the United States America Confronts a World at War A. The Failure of Peaceable Coercion B. Madison’s Travails: Diplomatic Blunders Abroad and Tensions on the Frontier C. The War of 1812 D. The Hartford Convention
  29. 29. 29 Visions of America, A History of the United States America Confronts a World at War Impressment – The practice of forcing merchant seamen to serve in the British navy Chesapeake Affair – An 1807 incident when the British ship the Leopard fired at an American navy ship, the Chesapeake –Abducted four American sailors as deserters from the Royal Navy
  30. 30. 30 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Failure of Peaceable Coercion What was peaceable coercion?
  31. 31. 31 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Failure of Peaceable Coercion Embargo Act of 1807 – The cornerstone of peaceable coercion that attempted to block U.S. trade with England and France to force them to respect American neutrality
  32. 32. 32 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  33. 33. 33 Visions of America, A History of the United States Madison’s Travails: Diplomatic Blunders Abroad and Tensions on the Frontier How did British relations with Indians in the Northwest exacerbate political tensions with America?
  34. 34. 34 Visions of America, A History of the United States The War of 1812 Who were the War Hawks? What were the main military consequences of the War of 1812?
  35. 35. 35 Visions of America, A History of the United States The War of 1812 War Hawks – Young Republican congressmen from the South and the western regions who favored western expansion and war with Britain War of 1812 – The war between Britain and America over restrictions on American trade
  36. 36. 36 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  37. 37. 37 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  38. 38. 38 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions WAR HAWKS AND THEIR CRITICS Why did Westerners believe that the British were encouraging Indian violence against Americans? War Hawks accused British of arming Native Americans and inciting them to attack American settlers. Critics argued that conflicts with Native Americans resulted from settlers’ encroachment on their lands.
  39. 39. 39 Visions of America, A History of the United States Competing Visions Images like this one supported War Hawks’ claims. Critics dismissed the War Hawks’ idea of a British- Native American conspiracy. The issue pitted “Young” Republicans against “Old” Republicans. WAR HAWKS AND THEIR CRITICS
  40. 40. 40 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  41. 41. 41 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Hartford Convention What were the main goals of the Hartford Convention? How are the actions of New England states represented in the political cartoon on the Hartford Convention?
  42. 42. 42 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Hartford Convention Hartford Convention – A meeting of Federalists in Hartford, Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812 –Proposed several constitutional amendments intended to weaken the powers of the slave states and protect New England interests
  43. 43. 43 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  44. 44. 44 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Republic Reborn: Consequences of the War of 1812 A. The National Republican Vision of James Monroe B. Diplomatic Triumphs C. Economic and Technological Innovation D. Judicial Nationalism
  45. 45. 45 Visions of America, A History of the United States The National Republican Vision of James Monroe Why was Monroe’s presidency described as an “Era of Good Feelings”?
  46. 46. 46 Visions of America, A History of the United States The National Republican Vision of James Monroe Era of Good Feelings – A term coined to describe the absence of bitter partisan conflict during the presidency of James Monroe
  47. 47. 47 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  48. 48. 48 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  49. 49. 49 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Triumphs What were the major ideas associated with the Monroe Doctrine?
  50. 50. 50 Visions of America, A History of the United States Diplomatic Triumphs Monroe Doctrine – A foreign policy statement by President Monroe that declared that: –The Americas were no longer open to colonization –The U.S. would view any effort to control independent nations in the western hemisphere as a threat to America
  51. 51. 51 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History SAMUEL MORSE’S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN VISION Morse highlighted the multicolored stone columns (symbolized the ideal of Federalism). Native American figure in the gallery symbolized diplomacy and subjugation of native peoples.
  52. 52. 52 Visions of America, A History of the United States Images as History SAMUEL MORSE’S HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES AND THE NATIONAL REPUBLICAN VISION Morse focused on act of lighting the House’s chandelier, a symbol of progress. Why did Morse highlight architecture and minimize the people in his painting?
  53. 53. 53 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic and Technological Innovation What was the economic significance of Whitney’s cotton gin?
  54. 54. 54 Visions of America, A History of the United States Economic and Technological Innovation Cotton Gin – Machine invented by Eli Whitney that easily removed seeds from cotton
  55. 55. 55 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  56. 56. 56 Visions of America, A History of the United States Judicial Nationalism Which Marshall Court decisions best illustrate the Court’s nationalism?
  57. 57. 57 Visions of America, A History of the United States Crisis and the Collapse of the National Republican Consensus A. The Panic of 1819 B. The Missouri Crisis C. Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion D. Jeffersonian America and the Politics of Compromise
  58. 58. 58 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Panic of 1819 Panic of 1819 – A downturn in the American economy in 1819 that plunged the nation into depression and economic hardship
  59. 59. 59 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Missouri Crisis What was the Missouri crisis? What were the main provisions of the Missouri Compromise?
  60. 60. 60 Visions of America, A History of the United States The Missouri Crisis Missouri Compromise – The congressional compromise in which Missouri entered the Union as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state –Preserved the balance of slave and free states in Congress –Drew an imaginary line at 36° 30' through the Louisiana Territory –Slavery prohibited north of this line
  61. 61. 61 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  62. 62. 62 Visions of America, A History of the United States Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion How did the Missouri crisis contribute to the climate of fear in Charleston during the Vesey trial? Why did white residents of Charlestown blame northerners for the Vesey insurrection?
  63. 63. 63 Visions of America, A History of the United States Denmark Vesey’s Rebellion Denmark Vesey Uprising – An alleged plot led by a free black man, Denmark Vesey, to free slaves in Charleston and kill their masters
  64. 64. 64 Visions of America, A History of the United States
  65. 65. 65 Visions of America, A History of the United States Jeffersonian America and the Politics of Compromise What were some of the main political compromises of the Jeffersonian era?

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