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Ict In Disaster Risk Reduction India Case


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Ict In Disaster Risk Reduction India Case

  1. 1. Information and Communication Technology in Disaster Risk Management Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India Sujit Mohanty Manager- Disaster information Systems GoI- UNDP Programme Date:30 April 2005
  2. 2. What is Disaster Management? Preparedness -- activities prior to a disaster. Examples: preparedness plans; emergency exercises/training; warning systems. Response -- activities during a disaster. Examples: public warning systems; emergency operations; search and rescue. Recovery -- activities following a disaster. Examples: temporary housing; claims processing and grants; long-term medical care and counseling. Mitigation - activities that reduce the effects of disasters. Examples: building codes and zoning; vulnerability analyses; public education.
  3. 3. India and Natural Disasters India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world . <ul><li>Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquake; </li></ul><ul><li>70% of land under cultivation prone to drought; </li></ul><ul><li>5% of land (40 million hectares) to floods; </li></ul><ul><li>8% of land (8,000 km coastline) to cyclones. </li></ul><ul><li>A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years; </li></ul><ul><li>50 million people affected annually </li></ul><ul><li>1 million houses damaged annually along with human,social and other losses </li></ul><ul><li>During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural disasters has been estimated at 70 million USD </li></ul>Source: Ministry of Agriculture, GOI: BMTPC, Ministry of Urban Development, GOI
  4. 7. Disaster Management in India <ul><li>Paradigm shift from relief and recovery to Risk & Vulnerability management </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing culture of preparedness at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen decentralized response capacity in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of vulnerable groups and ensuring livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from past disasters. </li></ul>
  5. 8. Role of Information & Communication Technology in Disaster Management <ul><li>To catalyze the process of preparedness, response and mitigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing access to vital information on Disaster preparedness to citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>GIS based decision support system for planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Designing early warning system. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency communication for timely relief & response measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Building Knowledge Warehouses to facilitate planning and policy making. </li></ul>
  6. 9. Information Management Cycle Institutional Memory Analyzing Data and Producing Information Gathering data Identifying Needs Disseminating Information
  7. 10. Emergency Information Management <ul><li>Defined as the collection, consolidation, analysis and dissemination of the information — requires that the emergency manager be fully cognizant of the needs of the eventual users of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective emergency information management requires concerted planning, organizing, controlling, and influencing of human, material, and information resources to endure that information is disseminated to the right decision-makers at the right time to satisfy those needs. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Role of Disaster information system in various phases of Disaster Management <ul><ul><li>A database of past disasters effects to determine the risks in particular geographic location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning of hazards using GIS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validating the disaster history database with hazard maps and other external data for accuracy in risk assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database of existing skilled human & material resources for emergency response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database on human resources trained on various aspects of disaster management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop preparedness plans based on risk, available skill & resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converting Disaster Management plans into electronic documents for easy accessibility and easy updating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation strategies, policies and legislation based on statistical facts & figures from various databases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a virtual knowledge net for creation of a network of institutions, developmental organizations and Government dept. for information sharing and preserving the research efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk & vulnerability identification </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness for response & recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation strategies and policies </li></ul>Prepare Identify Prevent
  9. 12. Information systems framework for Disaster Management Reducing disaster losses & conserving developmental gains 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 elements Knowledge base for disaster management Facilitating 5 5 Hazard mapping & Vulnerability Assessment Database of disaster history for trend & pattern analysis Database of disaster management plan. Awareness & training materials Inventory of legal, techno legal, administrative and institutional framework Planning & Policy decision for disaster preparedness & mitigation Human & material response resources database Database of Infrastructure, lifelines & critical facilities. Database of trained human resources. Demographic information GIS based information system Quick emergency response & recovery
  10. 13. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  11. 14. Online inventory of resources for disaster response preparedness
  12. 15. The biggest problem for disaster managers to respond to disasters is quickly mobilizing equipments, human resources and critical supplies to the emergency spot.
  13. 16. <ul><li>When disasters strike: </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster managers needs lot of specialized equipments and skilled human resources for quick response. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>When disasters strike: </li></ul><ul><li>Delay in response may result in increased loss of lives and livelihoods. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>When disasters strike: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lack of knowledge of whereabouts of these resources either in the neighboring District or State. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Online resource inventory for disaster management </li></ul><ul><li>National initiative under the Govt. of India-UNDP DRM programme in collaboration with National Informatics Center, Government of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Online database for capturing the countrywide inventory of equipments and skilled human resources for emergency response. </li></ul><ul><li>A database to minimize emergency response time by effective decision making on mobilization of human & material resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic data collection & collation from Govt. line departments ,Public Sector Units, Corporate sector etc at the district level. </li></ul>
  17. 20. CII- more than 5000 members BAI- more than 33000 members Corporate Sector
  18. 21. <ul><li>The Progress… </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized resource inventory being managed by the districts. </li></ul><ul><li>80000 records from 565 districts of 35 States/UTs already been captured. </li></ul><ul><li>Districts are updating their inventory quarterly. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with Builders’ Association of India (BAI) for Corporate Sector resource inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>The IDRN web portal has been extended to accommodate BAI members (33000 approx.) </li></ul>
  19. 22. Live Demonstration
  20. 23. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  21. 24. Disaster Inventory Database- Objectives <ul><li>A database of disasters to understand trends and patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing ‘Local’ level disaster data to understand the emerging risks at the local level. </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-referenced inventory of small, medium and large-scale disasters to understand trends and patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>To support planning & policy decisions for disaster preparedness and mitigation with statistical evidences. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an objective base for vulnerability assessment and priority setting. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Tools & Methodologies for Disaster Inventories </li></ul>DesInventar: A methodological tool to systematically build inventory of disasters. <ul><li>DesInventar: </li></ul><ul><li>A relational database through which parameters like events, causes, data sources, and effects are captured </li></ul><ul><li>DesConsultar: </li></ul><ul><li>A decision making tool which uses the DesInventar database to query and analyze the database through maps, tables and thematic maps. </li></ul>
  23. 26. India Process <ul><li>Implemented in Orissa, India. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected from 30 districts for 32 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected from media is compared with Government records. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization with Government for sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation and analysis of the data shows new dimensions of risk & vulnerabilities of the State. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Preliminary Findings-India <ul><li>Epidemics and cyclones are the greatest causes of deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemics are highly associated with floods, but also occur as independent incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire is the greatest cause of household destruction, comparable to Cyclone. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods affect people more than any other type of disaster. </li></ul>
  25. 28. Impact on Life Number of people killed in disasters in Orisa Epidemics (19,963 ) Cyclone (20,449)
  26. 29. Impact on Property Number of Houses Destroyed in Disasters- Orissa Fire (436,212) Cyclone (376,285) Floods (135,485)
  27. 30. Impact on Livelihood Number of people affected Flood ( 31’395,654) Cyclone(11’633,140) Drought(3’408,999) Rains (3’776,359)
  28. 31. Spatial Distribution of Disasters- Orissa
  29. 32. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  30. 33. Geography Information System in Disaster Management <ul><li>GIS allows disaster managers to quickly access and visually display critical information by location. </li></ul><ul><li>This information can be easily shared with disaster response personnel for the coordination and implementation of emergency efforts </li></ul>
  31. 34. GIS usage in Disaster Management <ul><li>Pre disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard zonation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability mapping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial/ non-spatial database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative boundaries(state, district, block/ taluka) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>River network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Road network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railway network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Airports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast Models (disaster wise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigilance system (observation & warning) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post Disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact study </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. Map Not to Scale – For demonstration purpose only
  33. 36. <ul><li>Community Contingency Plans linkages on GIS based system </li></ul>
  34. 37. Map Showing Natural Disaster Risk Management Programme States of India Click Here Clicking inside a state through Hyperlink tool will link to respective states details .
  35. 38. Map of Orissa showing the NDRM Districts. Click Here
  36. 39. Statistical Information of Puri District Source : District Disaster management Plan,Puri Click Here Every district is linked with respective block Maps. Click Here
  37. 40. Administrative Boundary of Puri District
  38. 41. <ul><li>Layers Taken for analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Health Centres </li></ul><ul><li>Multipurpose Cyclone shelters </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer zones </li></ul><ul><li>Location of Boats </li></ul><ul><li>River systems </li></ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be retrieved upto village level. </li></ul><ul><li>Block to Village can be zoomed in to view the geographical location of resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Details about item/resource can be seen and query based resources finding is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility of moving macro to micro level in a same window. </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage has been established to </li></ul><ul><li>District Disaster management Plan (DDMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Block Disaster Management Plan (BDMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Gram Panchayat Disaster Management Plan (GPDMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Village-CCP </li></ul>Description about the Analysis
  39. 42. Location of Health Centres [Block Level] NEXT Next Slide: Map extent zoomed further to a scale of 1: 1,50,000 and greater to obtain location of health centres in the GP Level
  40. 43. Location of Health Centres [GP Level] Zoomed in to a scale of NEXT Next Slide: Map extent zoomed further to a scale of 1: 40,000 or greater to obtain location of health centres in the Village Level
  41. 44. Location of Health Centres [Village Level] NEXT
  42. 45. Location of Multipurpose Cyclone Shelters [Block Level] NEXT One can view the location of existing resources in the block by clicking the layers ON .
  43. 46. NEXT Location of Multipurpose Cyclone Shelters [ GP Level]
  44. 47. NEXT Location of Multipurpose Cyclone Shelters [Village Level] Particular resource can be viewed from District to Village level by changing the scale in the same window. In case to obtain more than one resource select the desired layers as shown in the next slides.
  45. 48. NEXT Location of Storage Facilities, Boats and River system [Block Level]
  46. 49. NEXT Location of Storage Facilities, Boats and River system [GP Level]
  47. 50. NEXT Location of Storage Facilities, Boats and River system [Village Level]
  48. 51. NEXT Puri district - Coastal area Buffer Zone Buffer zones at a distance of 10,15,20,25 and 30Kms from Sea coast to locate the vulnerable villages under each zone. Resources can also be identified under each zone.
  49. 52. NEXT Location of resources in the respective Coastal area Buffer Zone [Block Level]
  50. 53. NEXT Location of resources in the respective Coastal area Buffer Zone [GP Level]
  51. 54. NEXT Location of resources in the respective Coastal area Buffer Zone [Village Level]
  52. 55. NEXT Database of resources can be obtained at all levels Database of boat
  53. 56. NEXT Database of cyclone shelters at various levels
  54. 57. Linkage of Disaster Management Plans NEXT
  55. 58. Linkage of District Disaster Management Plan NEXT
  56. 59. Linkage of District Disaster Management Plan Web-page showing the DDMP of Puri District. NEXT
  57. 60. Linkage of Block Disaster Management Plan NEXT
  58. 61. Linkage of Block Disaster Management Plan Web-page showing the BDMP of Puri District. NEXT
  59. 62. Linkage of GP Disaster Management Plan NEXT
  60. 63. Linkage of GP Disaster Management Plan Web-page showing the GPDMP of Puri District. NEXT
  61. 64. Linkage of Community Contingency Plan NEXT
  62. 65. The CCP document of a village can be linked to the geographical location in this way.
  63. 66. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  64. 67. Phase-I to be implemented in 6 months To establish communication between NEOC, MEOC, Concerned State EOC and NQRTs to be deployed at Disaster/Emergency sites <ul><li>Communication equipment at each EOC and NQRT : </li></ul><ul><li>VSAT terminal (Auto- tracking antenna for MEOC) </li></ul><ul><li>Video phone </li></ul><ul><li>Video Camera </li></ul><ul><li>GMPCS handheld phone </li></ul><ul><li>VHF handsets </li></ul><ul><li>PA System </li></ul>DISASTER SITE STATE HQ
  65. 68. Phase-II State Level : To be implemented in next 9 months To establish communication links between NEOC and all SEOCs through VSAT / ISDN Connectivity State Level Communication links: Basic links : NEOC <=> SEOC thro’ VSAT (POLNET) Back-up links : First back-up NEOC <=> SEOC thro’ VSAT (NICNET) Second back-up NEOC <=> SEOC thro’ ISDN POLNET HUB NEOC NIC HUB
  66. 69. Phase-II District level : To be completed in the next 15 months To link all DEOC & Medical teams/hospitals to the network with various back-up links thro’ ISDN, VSAT ( POLNET/NICNET) NEOC POLNET HUB SEOC HARYANA STATE DISTRICT EOC ISDN LINE POLNET CONNECTIVITY UPTO DEOCs MW LINK District level Communication links: Basic links : DEOC <=> SEOC & NEOC thro’ ISDN Medical Teams <=> Hospitals thro’ VSAT (POLNET) Back-up links: First back-up DEOC<=> SEOC & NEOC thro’ VSAT (POLNET) Second back-up DEOC<=> SEOC & NEOC–VSAT (NICNET)
  69. 72. Network Resources <ul><li>THE Network is proposed, to provide near 100% reliable communication links for Voice, Data, FTP, Video-conference and Video information dispatch between NEOC, MEOC, SEOC, DEOC & NQRT (EOC operating from Disaster/Emergency site) </li></ul><ul><li>The planned national network will use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite communication links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN public network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth and hub utilised will be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POLNET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NICNET </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPACENET of ISRO/DOS is also being expanded to provide VSAT terminals at identified locations </li></ul>
  70. 73. Network Reliability <ul><li>Reliability will be ensured by redundancy throughout the network to achieve near 100% availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VSAT based CUG between NEOC and SEOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN dial-up between DEOCs and SEOC/NEOC (optional connectivity via State wide area networks wherever available) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st back-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEOC <-> SEOC links : NICNET VSAT links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEOC <-> SEOC/NEOC: POLNET VSAT links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd back-up: Shared VSAT links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEOC <-> SEOC links : ISDN dial-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEOC <-> SEOC/NEOC: NICNET VSAT links </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional back-up: Portable VSAT (will be installed at the time of disaster) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional connectivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SPACENET ,the VSAT network of ISRO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GMPCS phones for anywhere voice and low-speed data connectivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HAM radio links between disaster sites and various EOCs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 74. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  72. 75. Case Studies : Community Level <ul><ul><li>73 information centers in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 districts of Orissa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early warning dissemination, information on disaster preparedness, agriculture, governance, health etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self sustaining models in partnership with Panchayats, NGOs, community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated by local volunteers and NYKS volunteers. </li></ul></ul>Orissa Experience
  73. 76. SETU Information Management System - Gujarat <ul><li>A nodal point for facilitation of the rehabilitation process underway in Kutch for a defined geographical cluster of 15-20 villages. </li></ul><ul><li>A network of 22 such centers across 10 talukas. </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a coordination cell for relief and rehab in a cluster </li></ul><ul><li>Village community uploading information and feedback about on going projects and activities, base line resource information etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing info. On schemes, entitlements, technical know how in various areas. </li></ul>Case Studies: Community Level
  74. 77. Case Studies <ul><li>India Disaster Resource Network </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>GIS in Disaster Management </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use of ICT at community level </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed incident surveillance system </li></ul>
  75. 80. Preliminary Data Collection Format Incident Server Research and analysis 3 rd Party Analysis Tool Maps Graphs Research and analysis of time series disaster data through 3 rd party analysis tools for trends, patterns of disasters and risk identification using graphs, maps etc. Archived > Situation Reports > Alerts > Damage Assessment > Need Assessment > Immediate Relief Requirements > Intervention Gap Analysis > Long term recovery and rehabilitation planning > Disaster Trends and patterns report > Risk identification Reports and Utility of the System
  76. 81. Knowledge Network <ul><li>Creating and connecting community of practitioners (CoP) in Disaster Management through a knowledge based portal. </li></ul><ul><li>A network of organizations, research institutions, Government agencies and DM practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating direct interaction, information sharing, virtual conferencing (e-mail/ video conferencing etc) </li></ul>
  77. 83. <ul><li>Together towards a safer world… </li></ul>