INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY
18.104.22.168 Define ICT.
ICT is the technology required for information
processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers,
communication devices and software applications to
convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve
information from anywhere, anytime.
Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading,
investigation, study or research. The tools to transmit information are the
telephone, television and radio. Information is knowledge and helps us to
fulfill our daily tasks.
Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process
whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs
or verbal interactions. Communication is important in order to gain
Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and
resources to create processes products that fulfill human needs.
Technology is vital in communication
22.214.171.124 Evolution of computers.
First Generation (1940-1956)
SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)
THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)
FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT)
FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)
NEW ERA COMPUTER
126.96.36.199 The usage of ICT in everyday life
In education, teachers, students, researchers and school administrators benefits from the usage of
In the banking, customers, businessman & bank administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.
Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chain
management and to help in product design in the industrial sector. In the industrial sector, workers, researchers
and administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.
E-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient
and faster. For this application, computers, Internet and shared software are needed. In the e-commerce sector,
customers, suppliers and employees benefits from the usage of ICT.
188.8.131.52 Differences between computerised and non-computerised
more interesting & interactive depends on teachers & textbook
all transactions are done by banking was done manually
Computers and Production was slow because
telecommunications industry everything was done depended on
became very popular and profitable human labour.
since production can be increased
through an all day operation.
E-commerce plays an important Trading was made using the barter
role in the economic scene. It system and it was then later
includes distribution, buying, developed into currency.
selling and servicing products that
are done electronically
BORDERLESS RELIABLE MODE OF
Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or
values used as a guideline for computer users. It is
needed to stop the current technology products from
Ethics is a moral philosophy where a person makes a
specific moral choice and sticks to it. Code of ethics
in computing means moral guidelines to refer to when
using the computer and the Internet.
Intellectual property refers to any product of human intellect
that is unique and has value in the market place. This covers
ideas, inventions, unique name, computer program codes and
Privacy in IT refers to data and information privacy. In general,
data include texts, numbers, sounds, images and video.
Information privacy is described as the rights of individuals
and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of
information about them.
Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet
and other online communication technologies.
Guideline: As a guideline to Control: As a rule to control
computer users. computer users.
Moral Standards: Ethical behaviour Judicial Standards: Law is judged
is judged by moral standards. by judicial standards.
No Punishments: No punishment for Must Follow: Computer users must
anyone who violates ethics. follow the regulations and law.
Free To Follow: Computer users are Punishments: Penalties,
free to follow or ignore the code of imprisonments and other punishments
ethics. for those who break the law.
Immoral: Not honouring computer Depends On Country: Depends on
ethics means ignoring the moral country and state where the crime is
elements (immoral). committed.
Universals: Universal, can be Prevent Misusing Of Computers: To
applied anywhere, all over the world prevent misuse of computers.
Produce Ethical Computer Users: To Crime: Not honouring the law
produce ethical computer users means committing a crime.
Intellectual property laws are needed to
establish and safeguard the intellectual
property which refers to works created
by inventors, authors and artists. It is
also needed as businesses today
continue to expand globally. There are
four types of Intellectual Property
protection. They are patents for
invention, trademarks for brand identity,
designs for product appearance and
copyright for material.
•he privacy laws in Malaysia emphasises on the
•Security Services to review the security policy
Security Management to protect the resources
law Security Mechanism to implement the required
security services Security Objects, the important
entities within the system environment
Utilities •Example: anti-spam program, firewall, anti-
spyware and antivirus.
Methods of Authentication
There are two commonly used authentication methods, which are biometric
device and callback system. Biometric device is a device that translates
personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital
code stored in the database. Biometric devices include Fingerprint
Recognition, Facial Recognition, Hand Geogmetry, Iris Scanning, Retinal
Scanning, Voice Recognition and Signature Verification. Callback system
refers to the checking system that authenticates the user.
Methods of Verification
There are two methods used in verification, which are user identification
and processed object. User identification refers to the process of
validating the user. Processed object refers to something the user has
such as identification card, security token and cell phone.
Pornography: can lead to criminal acts such as
exploitation of women and children can lead to sexual
addiction or perversion can develop low moral value
towards other men, women or children can erode good
religious, cultural and social beliefs and behaviour
Slander: can develop into a society that disregards
honesty and truth can develop bad habit of spreading
untruths and rumours can lead to unnecessary argument
can cause people to have negative attitudes towards
Cyber Law is needed as in the recent years, many
concerns and issues were raised on the integrity
and security of information, legal status of online
transactions, privacy and confidentiality of
information, intellectual property rights and
security of government data placed on the Internet.
184.108.40.206 Computer crimes below
Computer security means protecting our computer systems
and the information they contain against unwanted access,
damage, destruction or modification. Three types of
computer security are: hardware security software
security/data security network security
1.3.2 .1 Security Threats