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Chapter 1-introduction to ict

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Chapter 1-introduction to ict

  2. 2.  Define ICT. ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
  3. 3.  INFORMATION Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio. Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks.  COMMUNICATION Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Communication is important in order to gain knowledge.  TECHNOLOGY Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes products that fulfill human needs. Technology is vital in communication
  4. 4.  Evolution of computers. COMPUTER GENERATIONS  First Generation (1940-1956)  SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)  THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971)  FOURTH GENERATION (1971- PRESENT)   FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT & BEYOND)  NEW ERA COMPUTER
  5. 5.  The usage of ICT in everyday life ◊ EDUCATION In education, teachers, students, researchers and school administrators benefits from the usage of ICT. ◊ BANKING In the banking, customers, businessman & bank administrator benefits from the usage of ICT. ◊ INDUSTRY Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chain management and to help in product design in the industrial sector. In the industrial sector, workers, researchers and administrator benefits from the usage of ICT. ◊ E-COMMERCE E-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster. For this application, computers, Internet and shared software are needed. In the e-commerce sector, customers, suppliers and employees benefits from the usage of ICT.
  6. 6. Differences between computerised and non-computerised systems. Computerised Non-Computerised more interesting & interactive depends on teachers & textbook experiences all transactions are done by banking was done manually computers Computers and Production was slow because telecommunications industry everything was done depended on became very popular and profitable human labour. since production can be increased through an all day operation. E-commerce plays an important Trading was made using the barter role in the economic scene. It system and it was then later includes distribution, buying, developed into currency. selling and servicing products that are done electronically
  8. 8. COMPUTER ETHICS Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for computer users. It is needed to stop the current technology products from being exploited. Ethics is a moral philosophy where a person makes a specific moral choice and sticks to it. Code of ethics in computing means moral guidelines to refer to when using the computer and the Internet.
  9. 9. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Intellectual property refers to any product of human intellect that is unique and has value in the market place. This covers ideas, inventions, unique name, computer program codes and many more. PRIVACY Privacy in IT refers to data and information privacy. In general, data include texts, numbers, sounds, images and video. Information privacy is described as the rights of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. CYBER LAW Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the Internet and other online communication technologies.
  10. 10. ETHICS LAW  Guideline: As a guideline to  Control: As a rule to control computer users. computer users.  Moral Standards: Ethical behaviour  Judicial Standards: Law is judged is judged by moral standards. by judicial standards.  No Punishments: No punishment for  Must Follow: Computer users must anyone who violates ethics. follow the regulations and law.  Free To Follow: Computer users are  Punishments: Penalties, free to follow or ignore the code of imprisonments and other punishments ethics. for those who break the law.  Immoral: Not honouring computer  Depends On Country: Depends on ethics means ignoring the moral country and state where the crime is elements (immoral). committed.  Universals: Universal, can be  Prevent Misusing Of Computers: To applied anywhere, all over the world prevent misuse of computers.  Produce Ethical Computer Users: To  Crime: Not honouring the law produce ethical computer users means committing a crime.
  11. 11. Intellectual property laws are needed to establish and safeguard the intellectual property which refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists. It is also needed as businesses today continue to expand globally. There are four types of Intellectual Property protection. They are patents for invention, trademarks for brand identity, designs for product appearance and copyright for material.
  12. 12. •he privacy laws in Malaysia emphasises on the Privacy following: •Security Services to review the security policy Security Management to protect the resources law Security Mechanism to implement the required security services Security Objects, the important entities within the system environment Utilities •Example: anti-spam program, firewall, anti- spyware and antivirus. software
  13. 13. Methods of Authentication There are two commonly used authentication methods, which are biometric device and callback system. Biometric device is a device that translates personal characteristics into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the database. Biometric devices include Fingerprint Recognition, Facial Recognition, Hand Geogmetry, Iris Scanning, Retinal Scanning, Voice Recognition and Signature Verification. Callback system refers to the checking system that authenticates the user. Methods of Verification There are two methods used in verification, which are user identification and processed object. User identification refers to the process of validating the user. Processed object refers to something the user has such as identification card, security token and cell phone.
  14. 14. Pornography Pornography: can lead to criminal acts such as exploitation of women and children can lead to sexual addiction or perversion can develop low moral value towards other men, women or children can erode good religious, cultural and social beliefs and behaviour Slander Slander: can develop into a society that disregards honesty and truth can develop bad habit of spreading untruths and rumours can lead to unnecessary argument can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person
  15. 15.  Cyber Law is needed as in the recent years, many concerns and issues were raised on the integrity and security of information, legal status of online transactions, privacy and confidentiality of information, intellectual property rights and security of government data placed on the Internet. Computer crimes below Theft Fraud Attacks Copyright Infringement
  16. 16. Computer security means protecting our computer systems and the information they contain against unwanted access, damage, destruction or modification. Three types of computer security are: hardware security software security/data security network security 1.3.2 .1 Security Threats Malicious code Hacking Natural disaster
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