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Chapter 12


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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 A Basic Approach to ISO Duties
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List two methods to achieve a systematic approach to ISO duties </li></ul><ul><li>List several advantages and disadvantages of using checklists, as well as four design considerations when creating them </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences between linear and cyclic thinking </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List the four components of the ISO Action Model </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the four steps that help an ISO become integrated into an incident </li></ul><ul><li>List the three ISO general duties applicable to all incident types </li></ul><ul><li>List the four personal safety systems that the ISO needs to evaluate </li></ul>
  4. 4. Getting Started Issues <ul><li>Biggest issue for ISOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritization of necessary physical and mental functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ISO must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive to the needs of the incident commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive in the prevention of injuries to firefighters </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Getting Started Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>ISOs can find it difficult to develop a starting place for addressing required functions </li></ul><ul><li>Two most common approaches to addressing ISO incident duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action models </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Getting Started Issues (con’t.) <ul><li>Qualities of good ISO checklists and action models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archive friendliness </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Checklists <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a quick reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help you get back on track when distracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lend themselves to uniformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archiving is relatively simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing checklist is relatively simple within fire department framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most formats are easy to understand </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Checklists (con’t.) <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one right way to perform ISO functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency to be overly simple or complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once an item is checked off, the ISO may forget to revisit it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have many checklists to cover a multitude of incident types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imply an order for task completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be subject to subpoena in legal matters </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Checklists (con’t.) <ul><li>Design considerations for checklists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formatted in simple columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to read in low light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Room for notes, diagrams, grease pencils, and water-resistant markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to differentiate from other similar ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder area for required postincident action </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Action Models <ul><li>Template that outlines a mental or physical process to be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furnishes a template in which to process multiple events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A good action model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminds ISOs to be cyclic in their thinking </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Action Models (con’t.) <ul><li>Linear thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined starting point and ending point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for IC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyclic thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recurring evaluation of multiple inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a high degree of situational awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary for ISO </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Action Models (con’t.) <ul><li>The ISO Action Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclic four-arena model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows ISO to mentally process the surveying and monitoring functions of typical incident activities and concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not imply a starting place or direction of flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four general arenas: the four Rs </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 12-1 Any of the Action Model components can cause the ISO to take action. Any action, however, leads the ISO to report to the incident commander.
  14. 14. Action Models (con’t.) <ul><li>The ISO Action Model (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconnaissance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory examination of the incident scene environment and operations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Action Models (con’t.) <ul><li>The ISO Action Model (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk: is it acceptable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timely appropriate communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety briefings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of incident action plans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The ISO Arrival Process <ul><li>Steps for ISO integration upon arrival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm ISO assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status of situation and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm communication links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radio channels, face-to-face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don appropriate identification and PPE </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. General ISO Duties <ul><li>Monitor the incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incident action plan, conditions, activities and operations should fall within risk management criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform repeated recon to judge the effectiveness of the incident action plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to adjust the incident action plan cited as a contributing factor in many firefighter fatality investigations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. General ISO Duties (con’t.) <ul><li>Address personnel safety systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel accountability systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for freelancing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for control zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identified and communicated to all members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio transmissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure it is functioning and effective </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 12-2 The solo firefighter presents the worst and potentially most dangerous form of freelancing.
  20. 20. Figure 12-3 Rehab efforts should also include provisions for quick medical checks of working firefighters.
  21. 21. General ISO Duties (con’t.) <ul><li>Define other needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate motor vehicle scene traffic hazards and apparatus placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey landing zone and interface with helicopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate to IC the need for ASOs due to the need, size, complexity, or duration of the incident </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 12-4 The ISO should evaluate the helicopter LZ to ensure that personnel will not be endangered if a mishap were to occur.
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>ISO assignment can be overwhelming due to the multitude of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Two most systematic approached to ISO functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action models </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>ISO Action Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages cyclic thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four component areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reconnaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>Upon arrival at an incident, the ISO gets dialed in with the following steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm ISO assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect incident information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm communication links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don appropriate PPE and position identification </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Summary (con’t.) <ul><li>ISO general duties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring risks and operational outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing personal safety systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio transmissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining other needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: traffic issues, ASO assistance </li></ul></ul></ul>