The Basis for  Fire Prevention              Chapter 12nd Edition                          © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Objectives• Upon completion of this chapter, you will  be able to:  – Discuss the fire problem in the United States    and...
Objectives (cont’d.)– Name organizations that have been  instrumental in our nation’s fire prevention  efforts– Discuss th...
The Call for Fire Prevention—When              and Why• History of fire prevention/reduction: one of  reaction and inactio...
The American Fire Problem• U.S. fire record one of the worst in the  Western world• Documentation  – America Burning (1973...
The Current Trend• U.S. Fire Administration Statistics  – Downward trend     • Number of fires     • Number of injuries/fa...
Fire in the Early Days• Humans used fire for heat/light around  500,000 BC• Harnessing the power of fire  – Milestone in e...
Technological Progress in Making               Fire• Matches  – Primitive matches existed since Roman    Empire  – Frictio...
Fire Prevention in 300 BC• First fire prevention attempts  – Familia Publica: Rome• First municipal fire department  – Cor...
Fire Prevention in AD 1000• Early attempts traced to England• William the Conqueror, 1066  – Home fires to be extinguished...
Fire Prevention in AD 1500• English cities passed regulations for  bakers/candle makers, 1500s• Laws enacted to regulate w...
Fire Prevention in AD 1666• Great Fire of London, 1666  – Approximately 17,000 deaths/year at the time  – Parliament enact...
Fire in American History• Jamestown’s buildings destroyed, 1608• Nine fires before the American Revolution  – Boston• Most...
Early Prevention Efforts in the U.S.• Undertaken by state/local governments  – Usually in the aftermath of devastating fir...
FIGURE 1-4                                  FIGURE 1-6Governor Peter Stuyvesant instituted the    The Hand-in-Hand firemar...
Early Efforts of the Stock Insurance               Industry• Worked for uniformity in  commissions/rates• Attempted to sta...
The National Board of Fire    Underwriter’s Accomplishments• Failed at maintaining rates/commissions• National Fire Protec...
Efforts of the Factory Mutuals• Mill owners organized into mutual fire  insurance company• Mutual fire insurance: not-for-...
Fire Prevention Today• Approach and methods vary greatly• National Bureau of Industrial Protection  – Axioms that guided i...
Summary• Fire record one of worst in Western world• Annual losses from natural disasters  – A fraction of losses from fire...
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Fire Prevention Chapter 1

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Fire Prevention Chapter 1

  1. 1. The Basis for Fire Prevention Chapter 12nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Objectives• Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: – Discuss the fire problem in the United States and give reasons for its existence – Contrast the fire record of the United States with the records of other countries 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.)– Name organizations that have been instrumental in our nation’s fire prevention efforts– Discuss the effect that timing has on the adoption and enforcement, or lack of enforcement, of fire prevention regulations 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  4. 4. The Call for Fire Prevention—When and Why• History of fire prevention/reduction: one of reaction and inaction• Politics has not solved fire problem• Insurance industry has had an impact on fire prevention 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  5. 5. The American Fire Problem• U.S. fire record one of the worst in the Western world• Documentation – America Burning (1973): milestone – America at Risk (2000) • U.S. not applied/funded loss reduction strategies – Fire in the United States (2001) • 2 million fire calls/year 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  6. 6. The Current Trend• U.S. Fire Administration Statistics – Downward trend • Number of fires • Number of injuries/fatalities – Direct dollar loss • Increasing – Indirect loss • Difficult to quantify 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Fire in the Early Days• Humans used fire for heat/light around 500,000 BC• Harnessing the power of fire – Milestone in evolution• Impact of hostile fires on prehistoric civilization – Insignificant• With civilization, fire became a tool 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Technological Progress in Making Fire• Matches – Primitive matches existed since Roman Empire – Friction matches first available in early 1800s – Friction match later replaced by safety match• Fire used as weapon against other cities• Society made attempts to prevent fire disasters 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Fire Prevention in 300 BC• First fire prevention attempts – Familia Publica: Rome• First municipal fire department – Corps of Vigiles: Roman Emperor Augustus, 24 BC• Roman law assigned responsibility to “incendiaries” or arsonists 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Fire Prevention in AD 1000• Early attempts traced to England• William the Conqueror, 1066 – Home fires to be extinguished at bell ringing • Couvre feu -> “curfew” • England’s first curfew: Oxford in AD 872 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Fire Prevention in AD 1500• English cities passed regulations for bakers/candle makers, 1500s• Laws enacted to regulate wooden chimneys and thatched roofs• Differing levels of success 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Fire Prevention in AD 1666• Great Fire of London, 1666 – Approximately 17,000 deaths/year at the time – Parliament enacted London Building Act• Commissioners appointed to enforce regulations in 1774• Barbon promoted insurance of buildings – London Fire Office • Fire brigade 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Fire in American History• Jamestown’s buildings destroyed, 1608• Nine fires before the American Revolution – Boston• Most famous conflagration: Chicago 1871• Safeguarding the Home Against Fire – National Board of Fire Underwriters – Given to over two million schoolchildren, 1918• Effective prevention of fire not a tradition 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Early Prevention Efforts in the U.S.• Undertaken by state/local governments – Usually in the aftermath of devastating fires• Smoking outdoors prohibited, 1638 – Massachusetts• Efforts by nongovernmental organizations also occurred in the American Colonies• Friendly Society for the Mutual Insuring of Houses Against Fire, founded 1735 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  15. 15. FIGURE 1-4 FIGURE 1-6Governor Peter Stuyvesant instituted the The Hand-in-Hand firemark of“Rattle Watch,” fire wardens that carried the Philadelphiawooden rattles to sound an alarm of fire. Contributionship. (Courtesy of(Courtesy National Museum of American The Philadelphia Contributorship forHistory, Kenneth E. Behring Center, the Insurance of Houses from LossSmithsonian Institution) by Fire) 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  16. 16. Early Efforts of the Stock Insurance Industry• Worked for uniformity in commissions/rates• Attempted to standardize regulations in the U. S.• Attempted to force Congress to develop federal regulations 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  17. 17. The National Board of Fire Underwriter’s Accomplishments• Failed at maintaining rates/commissions• National Fire Protection formed in 1896• National Electrical Code published in 1896• Surveys of city fire departments after 1904 Baltimore conflagration• National Building Code published in 1905 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  18. 18. Efforts of the Factory Mutuals• Mill owners organized into mutual fire insurance company• Mutual fire insurance: not-for-profit company with policyholders as members• E. Atkinson presided Factory Mutual, 1877 – Applied scientific methods to study fire causes – Prohibited combustible void spaces – Developed the tin-clad fire door 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  19. 19. Fire Prevention Today• Approach and methods vary greatly• National Bureau of Industrial Protection – Axioms that guided inspectors still valid• Interests of business community in fire prevention goes directly to the bottom line• Businesses protect their financial interests – Success in protecting property/saving lives 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  20. 20. Summary• Fire record one of worst in Western world• Annual losses from natural disasters – A fraction of losses from fires• Failed to implant prevention of fire as individual’s obligation to the community• Costs associated with hostile fires – Increased insurance premiums, loss of jobs, and erosion of the tax base 2nd Edition © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning

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