Chapter 14


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Chapter 14

  1. 1. Chapter 14 The ISO at Wildland and Interface Fires
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List and describe four incident types that can be applied to the wildland fire </li></ul><ul><li>List the three factors that influence fire spread, and define blow-up and flaring </li></ul><ul><li>List the leading stresses requiring rehab at the wildland fire, and describe the types of behaviors that would indicate effective rehab efforts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (con’t.) <ul><li>List four situations that may require the appointment of an ASO at the wildland fire </li></ul><ul><li>List the three common principal hazards at a wildland fire </li></ul><ul><li>Define LCES </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss a troubling issue that may arise when ground firefighters interface with aircraft </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Wildland and interface fires include a wide variety of incident types </li></ul><ul><li>Wildland and structural firefighters may have different perspectives when working on a wildland incident </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: relative importance of PPE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This chapter addresses initial ISO duties at Type V and Type IV wildland incidents </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction (con’t.) <ul><li>The Wildland Fire Typing Scheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type V: Local, agency, or jurisdiction specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type IV: Multiagency or jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type III: Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO functions may be transferred to a trained safety officer who is part of an IMT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type II: State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type I: National </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ISO General Duties at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Grasp potential for firefighters being overrun by fire upon arrival and assignment </li></ul><ul><li>General considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbursts, winds, tornadic activity, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slope, aspect, physical features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content, fuel type, continuity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ISO General Duties at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Hostile events at wildland fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blow-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden advancement and increase in fire intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to wind, prewarmed fuels, or topographic features </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sudden, short-lived rise in fire intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be warning sign of upcoming blow-up </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. ISO General Duties at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Wildland flame length interpretations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 4 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attack directly with hand lines and tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 to 8 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flanking attack, indirect firebreaks, and wet lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 to 11 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct attack dangerous; serious control problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 11 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major fire run likely; take defensive measures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Monitoring Issues at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims are prone to self-rescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IAP may change to reduced-risk profile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use roving ASOs for evaluation over geographical distances and terrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take tour in vehicle or helicopter </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Personal Safety System Issues at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Accountability systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult during initial stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters may disperse during attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO may need to close up ranks </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Personal Safety System Issues at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Control zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on descriptive parts of wildfire or geographical area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working between head/flanks and spots could be dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn (or black): portion of wildland where fire is already past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened structures generally classified as defensible or indefensible </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 14-1 Various parts of the fire or geographical descriptors are used to label zones at wildfires.
  13. 13. Figure 14-2 Generally speaking, the black is considered a safe zone, although CO exposure and reburn are risks..
  14. 14. Personal Safety System Issues at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Rehab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firefighters using structural PPE for wildland incidents are at extreme risk for heat stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid hydration and electrolyte replacement are essential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No releases should be given based on perceived comfort </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Defining Other Needs at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke obscuration major concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divert traffic away from smoke areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed small apparatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use radio safety message to remind drivers to use spotters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Defining Other Needs at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Need for ISO assistance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For fires that impact a widespread geographical area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a plans section is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASOs accomplish ISO field component </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For fires that are active for over four hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anytime a base camp is established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ASOs communicate action plan and safety briefings to incoming crews </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Risk evaluation at a wildland fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice intellectual aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculated risk-taking that favors firefighter safety while still aggressive in fire control efforts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge pace of incident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Making structures defensible against advancing fire could take 20-30 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help IC with cyclic thinking when fire is progressing faster than crew effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation at a wildland fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize vehicles, helicopter, and ASO field reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination is key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: climbing to high ground to get a good look at the fire can prove fatal </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the principal hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid fire spread, traffic issues, and physical exertion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining environmental integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather, smoke, flame spread, and hazardous energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining physical surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trip/fall hazards, animals, snags, power lines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Recon evaluation (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crew exposure to hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Principal hazard +- Integrity + Physical hazards + Crew activity = Crew exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Team versus task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid withdrawal options: LCES (lookout, communication methods, escape routes, safety zones) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Resource evaluation at wildland fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project on-scene time: advent of nightfall, weather changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel distances affect reflex time: multiple stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate number of responders, high spirits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy hose lays, water supply issues, Class-A foam, pump calculations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 14-3 The ISO should observe a sense of focus among crews.
  23. 23. Applying the ISO Action Model at Wildland Fires (con’t.) <ul><li>Report issues at wildland fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial operations: 15-minute rule for face-to-face communications with the IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss risk, recon, and resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Update checklists, forms, diagrams, and other documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amend schedule for prolonged incidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety briefing sheet is routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be passed to staging manager </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Unique Considerations at Wildland Fires <ul><li>Interface with aircraft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for water and retardant drops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO training available at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourage sliming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: trapped firefighters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident escalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type III incidents may be transferred to IMT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good notes and safety briefings help with transition </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 14-4 The use of aircraft at wildfires introduces unique hazards. If you do not have training in interfaces, seek it out!
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>ISO duties at wildland incidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge likelihood of firefighters being overrun by fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify magnitude of event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor risks, operational effectiveness, and personal safety systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate rehab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with traffic issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign ASOs as necessary </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Summary <ul><li>ISO duties at wildland incidents (con’t.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judge pace of working crews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define principal hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the use of LCES at crew level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast potential problems with timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch crew spirit to determine effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be trained in aircraft interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep good documentation for hand off to IMT </li></ul></ul>