C H A P T E R Training Variation Periodization Dan Wathen, Thomas R. Baechle, and Roger W. Earle 2 2
Chapter Outline Responses to training stress Example of a macrocycle Periodization cycles Periodization periods Applying sport seasons to the periodization periods Undulating (nonlinear) versus linear periodization models
Responses to Training Stress: General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Alarm Exhaustion Resistance
Periodization Cycles Macrocycle: typically constitutes an entire training year Microcycle: typically one week long but could last up to four weeks Mesocycle: several weeks to several months
P eriodization involves shifting training priorities from non-sport-specific activities of high volume and low intensity to sport-specific activities of low volume and high intensity over a period of many weeks to prevent overtraining and optimize performance.
Matveyev’s Model of Periodization Appropriate for Novice Athletes
Modification of Matveyev’s Model of Periodization Tailored for Advanced Athletes
Periodization Periods Preparatory period - Hypertrophy/endurance phase: very low to moderate intensity and very high to moderate volume - Basic strength phase: high intensity and moderate volume - Strength/power phase: high intensity and low volume First transition period - Competition period - Second transition period (active rest)
Applying Sport Seasons to the Periodization Periods Off-season: the period between the last contest and 6 weeks prior to the first contest of the next year’s season Postseason: the period after the final contest and before the start of the next year’s off-season Preseason: the period leading up to the first contest In-season: the period that contains all the contests scheduled for that year, including tournament games
Macrocycle for a Team Sport V = volume; I = intensity; blue line = emphasis on sport technique training or practice
Periodization Models The traditional model is commonly referred to as linear due to the gradually progressive microcycle increases in intensity over time. The undulating or nonlinear model involves large daily (i.e., within the week or microcycle) fluctuations in the load and volume assignments for core exercises.
Macrocycle Example for Resistance Training Component of Scenario A*: Preseason Mesocycle Period covers about 3 1/2 months (mid-August until the first game in mid-November). The resistance training portion is planned for three times per week and focuses primarily on strength and power outcomes. Goals are to increase the intensity of sport-specific training and the attention given to basketball drills and skills. *For a description of this athlete, see p. 396 of Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning.
Macrocycle Example for Resistance Training Component of Scenario A: In-Season Mesocycle (Competition Period) Period covers about 20 weeks (November to April). Resistance training may be limited to 30 min, one to two times per week, consisting of an undulating regime of varying volumes of relatively high intensities due to multiple games each week. Goals are to maintain and possibly improve strength, power, flexibility, and anaerobic conditioning.
Macrocycle Example for Resistance Training Component of Scenario A: Postseason Mesocycle (Active Rest Period) This transition period lasts a month (April). All activities are performed at low intensities with low volumes. Goal is to recuperate physically and psychologically from the long in-season.
Macrocycle Example for Resistance Training Component of Scenario A: Off-Season Mesocycle This preparatory period lasts about 14 weeks (the beginning of May to the beginning of August). During first week, testing should be performed to determine initial training loads for the exercises in the first microcycle. In later microcycles, when more exercises are added, training loads can be estimated from loads used in similar exercises or determined directly from RM testing. Goal is to establish a base level of conditioning to increase the athlete’s tolerance for more intense training in later phases and periods.