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Ch21 (473 487)


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Ch21 (473 487)

  1. 1. C H A P T E R Aerobic Endurance Exercise Training Jeffrey A. Potteiger 2 1
  2. 2. Chapter Outline  Physiological responses to aerobic endurance training  Special issues related to aerobic endurance training  Factors related to aerobic endurance performance  Designing an aerobic endurance program  Types of aerobic endurance training programs  Application of program design to training seasons
  3. 3. Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training: Respiratory  Enhanced oxygen exchange in the lungs  Decreased submaximal pulmonary ventilation  Improved blood flow throughout the lungs  Decreased submaximal respiratory rate
  4. 4. Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training: Cardiovascular  Increased cardiac output  Improved thermoregulation  Increased blood volume, red blood cell number, hemoglobin concentration  Enhanced blood flow to skeletal muscle  Reduced submaximal heart rate
  5. 5. Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training: Musculoskeletal  Increased mitochondrial size and density  Increased arteriovenous oxygen difference  Increased oxidative enzyme concentrations  Increased myoglobin concentration  Increased capillarization in muscle bed
  6. 6. Factors Related to Aerobic Endurance Performance  Maximal aerobic power  Fiber type characteristics  Lactate threshold  Exercise economy  Fuel utilization
  7. 7. Aerobic Endurance Training Program Design Variables  Exercise mode (the specific activity performed by the athlete)  Training intensity (the effort expended during a training session)  Training frequency (the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week)  Exercise duration (the length of time the training session is conducted)
  8. 8. T he regulation of exercise intensity is critical to designing an effective workout. Using heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, or pacing are common ways to assign and regulate intensity. 
  9. 9. Target Heart Rate Calculations  Karvonen method Age-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) = 220 – age Heart rate reserve (HRR) = APMHR – resting heart rate (RHR) Target heart rate (THR) = (HRR  exercise intensity) = RHR  Percentage of maximal heart rate method Age-predicted maximum heart rate (APMHR) = 220 – age Target heart rate (THR) = (APMHR  exercise intensity)
  10. 10. Types of Aerobic Endurance Training  Fartlek: 1 time a week; for approximately 20-60 min; between LSD and pace/tempo training intensities  Pace/tempo: 1-2 times a week; for approximately 20-30 min; lactate threshold (at or slightly above race pace)  Long, slow distance (LSD): 1-2 times a week; for approximately 30 to 120 min or longer; approximately 70% of VO 2 max .  Interval: 1-2 times a week; for 3-5 min (with a work:rest ratio of 1:1); close to VO 2 max .  Repetition: 1 time a week; for 30-90 s (with a work:rest ratio of 1:5); greater than VO 2 max .
  11. 11. E ach type of training induces different physiological responses. A sound training program should incorporate all types of training into the athlete’s weekly, monthly, and yearly training schedule. 
  12. 12. Sport Season Objectives  Off-season (base training): Develop sound conditioning base.  Postseason (active rest): Recover from competitive season.  Preseason: Improve factors important to aerobic endurance performance.  In-season (competition): Maintain factors important to aerobic endurance performance.
  13. 13. A sound year-round aerobic endurance training program should be divided into sport seasons with goals and objectives designed to improve performance gradually and progressively. 
  14. 14. Special Issues Related to Aerobic Endurance Training  Cross training is used to maintain general conditioning during periods of reduced training.  Water run training involves running in water with the aid of a flotation device that keeps the athlete in a prone position with the head above water.  Detraining occurs when the athlete reduces the train-ing duration or intensity or stops training altogether.  Tapering involves the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity combined with an increased emphasis on technique work.  Resistance training gives aerobic endurance athletes faster recovery from injuries, prevention of overuse injuries, and reduction of muscle imbalances.  Gender differences could affect the development of aerobic endurance training programs.
  15. 15. Physiological Differences Between Males and Females  Muscle mass  Force production  Peak power output  Body composition  Heart size  Hemoglobin concentration  Muscle enzyme activity  Relative use of carbohydrate and fat as fuels  Biomechanical differences  Running economy  Oxygen cost of running  Maximum aerobic, anaerobic power