C H A P T E R Principles of Test Selection and Administration Everett Harman and Clay Pandorf 1 4
Chapter Outline Reasons for testing Testing terminology Evaluation of test quality Test selection Test administration
Reasons for Testing Assessment of athletic talent Identification of physical abilities in need of improvement Setting of realistic goals Evaluation of progress
Testing Terminology Test Field test Measurement Evaluation Pretest Midtest Formative evaluation Posttest
Evaluation of Test Quality Validity is the degree to which a test or test item measures what it is intended to measure; this is the most important characteristic of testing. Reliability is a measure of the degree of consistency or repeatability of a test. A test must be reliable to be valid; highly variable results have little meaning.
Types of Validity Construct validity—ability of a test to represent the underlying construct Face validity—the appearance that the test measures what it is purported to measure Content validity—the assessment that the testing covers all relevant subtopics Criterion-referenced validity—the extent to which test scores are associated with some other measure of the same ability
Reliability Factors that produce measurement error include the following: Instrasubject variability—lack of consistent performance by the person tested Interrater reliability—the degree to which different raters agree Failure of the test itself to provide consistent results Intrarater variability—the lack of consistent scores by a given tester
Test Selection Factors Metabolic specificity Sport specificity Experience and training status Age and sex Environmental factors
Test Administration Staff should ensure health and safety of athletes. Testers should be carefully selected and trained. Tests should be well organized and administered efficiently. Athletes should be properly prepared and instructed.
Aerobic Endurance Testing in the Heat Use an indoor facility, or test during the morning or early evening. Ask athletes to drink plenty of fluids before, during, and after exercise. Watch for symptoms of heatstroke or heat exhaustion. Discourage use of salt tablets. Keep the athlete’s bodily stores of magnesium and potassium high. Monitor athletes’ heart rates during and immediately following exercise. Allow athletes to acclimatize to the heat by starting with shorter workouts. Do not test on an unusually warm day.
Table 14.1 Temperature Limits at Various Ranges of Relative Humidity for Strenuous Exercise Testing Relative humidity (%) Temperature limit (°F) 0 95 1-20 90 21-50 85 51-90 80 91-100 75
T ests requiring high-skill movements, such as reaction and coordination tests, should be administered before tests that are likely to produce fatigue and confound the results of subsequent tests.
Sequence of Tests Nonfatiguing tests Agility tests Maximum power and strength tests Sprint tests Local muscular endurance tests Fatiguing anaerobic capacity tests Aerobic capacity tests
T he clarity and simplicity of instructions have a direct bearing on the reliability and objectivity of a test.