The cold war for u.s. history

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The cold war for u.s. history

  1. 1. Cold War 1945-1992 U.S. History Ch 22 & 24.2 #22
  2. 2. The End of WWII-East meets West April 25, 1945 Elbe River, Germ. American & Soviet Troops
  3. 3. agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones High Pt. of cooperation – but tensions existed The Big 3
  4. 4. Mistrust Existed Between America & The Soviet Union Reasons for Americans not to trust the Soviets? • We feared communism with its focus on world revolution Why wouldn’t they trust us? Am. Tried to undo the communist revolution of 1917 Stalin felt Am. didn‟t open a 2nd front sooner- let Soviets & Germans kill each other • Felt they couldn’t be trusted: 1917 – WWI 1939 WWII After FDR died – tensions boiled over
  5. 5. Potsdam Conference July 1945 • How to administer punishment to Nazi Germany / Japan • Truman mentioned an unspecified "powerful new weapon" to Stalin • Tensions grew between East & West
  6. 6. Soviet Dominated Europe This caused a fear in the West of Soviet Expansion The Red Army stayed in Eastern Europe after the war America had to decide how to deal with the Soviet threat
  7. 7. If you know NBA opponents approach to dealing with Michael Jordan, then you will understand American foreign policy towards the USSR during the Cold War “You can’t stop him, you can only hope to…………………..”
  8. 8. The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [―Iron Curtain‖] GOAL:spread world-wide Communism METHODS of each Side: US & the Western Democracies GOAL:―Containment‖ of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world George Kennan  Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]  The Arms Race [nuclear escalation]  Ideological Competition for the ―minds and hearts‖ of Third World peoples [Comm. govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] - the Space Race & Olympic Games, etc  Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
  9. 9. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)  United States  Luxemburg  Belgium  Netherlands  Britain  Norway  Canada  Portugal  Denmark  1952: Greece & Turkey  France  Iceland  Italy  1955: West Germany  1983: Spain
  10. 10. Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R. } East Germany } Albania } Hungary } Bulgaria } Poland } Czechoslovakia } Rumania
  11. 11. Truman Doctrine [1947] attempt to contain communism into its already established borders (Military & Economic Aid) 1. Civil War in Greece – U.S. gave $$ 2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions: Dardanelles – U.S. gave $$ 3. The U.S. should support free peoples desire for (self-Determination) against communists
  12. 12. The Three Worlds ―Hearts & Minds‖
  13. 13. European Cities were destroyed following WWII Dresden, Germany London, Great Britain Would they turn to the Communists for Support?
  14. 14. Marshall Plan [1948] 1. ―European Recovery Program‖ 2. Sec. of State/George Marshall 3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it ―This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos‖ George Marshall $12.5 billion of US aid to W. Europe / & to E. Europe & USSR [but this was rejected] Why?
  15. 15. The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948-1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
  16. 16. First Major Cold War Crisis Berlin Blockade • June 1948 – May 1949 • Stalin attempted to cut off the 2 mill. residents of West Berlin • Truman & the Allies responded with the Berlin Airlift • Tensions increased between the U.S. & Soviets
  17. 17. Berlin Blockade & Airlift: 4 minutes 1948-49
  18. 18. The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  19. 19. Assignment
  20. 20. The Arms Race: } The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949 } Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
  21. 21. The Nuclear Age Atomic Bomb A-Bomb USA Hydrogen Bomb H-Bomb 1945 1952 USSR 1949 1953 Sputnik launched - 1957
  22. 22. Ivy Mike H-Bomb Test November 1, 1952
  23. 23. Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
  24. 24. Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exists. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956
  25. 25. McCarthyism / 1950’s Red Scare • McCarthy (R) Wisconsin - February 9, 1950 Claimed to have a list of 205 at State Dept. who were members of the Communist Party • Made wild accusations • Finally Discredited in 1954
  26. 26. FCDA – Federal Civilian Defense Adm. Atomic Anxieties: ―Duck-and-Cover Generation‖ Atomic Testing: 1946-1962 : U. S. exploded 217 nuclear weapons over Pacific and in Nevada
  27. 27. The Paranoia of a possible WW III led many Americans to build Fallout Shelters
  28. 28. Inspired by Sputnik & Wernher von Braun NASA is Created in 1958
  29. 29. NASA created in 1958 - Ike Manned Missions into space • Project Mercury – 1958 Could Man Survive in Space? • Project Gemini – 1965 Space Walks and Docking w/other vehicles • The Apollo Program – 1969 • Sky Lab – 1973 • Space Shuttle – 1981 to 2011 • International Space Station – 1998 • Mission to Mars?
  30. 30. The Space Race Heats up The Soviets beat America again Yuri Gargarin soviet cosmonaut • 1st Human to orbit the earth April 12, 1961
  31. 31. America starts to catch up to the Soviets - Project Mercury – 1 min 1961 – Alan Shepard 1st American in Space 1962 – John Glenn 1st American to Orbit the Earth
  32. 32. John F. Kennedy Speech at Rice University, Houston Sept. 12, 1962 We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win. Then America took the lead in the Space Race…….
  33. 33. “The Eagle has Landed” July, 20 1969 • Apollo 11- 1 min “That’s one small step for a man, one giant • The 1st humans " landed on the Moon leap for mankind.”. - Neil Armstrong Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins
  34. 34. Major Cold War Incidents Both Concern Territories Controlled by Japan during WWII - After the Japanese were defeated - What side would they turn to? • Korean Conflict “The Forgotten War” • Vietnam “The Ten Thousand Day War” Also Incidents in: Cuba & The Berlin Wall
  35. 35. The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee ―Domino Theory‖
  36. 36. Vietnam War: 1965-1973 Vietnam represented a Failure in American Containment of Communism
  37. 37. The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie
  38. 38. Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
  39. 39. The Cold War Spilled over into the Olympic Games Boycotts – ‟80 & „84 Miracle on Ice / ESPN poll Greatest Sporting Event in U.S. History
  40. 40. The Collapse of the USSR • 1989 – The Berlin Wall Comes Down • 1990 – Republics Begin Breaking Away • 1991 – The Dissolution of the USSR Dec. 26, 1991
  41. 41. Part II: Cuba Kennedy Castro Khrushchev
  42. 42. Khrushchev Embraces Castro, 1961
  43. 43. Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
  44. 44. Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be pushed around.
  45. 45. U-2 Spy Incident Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
  46. 46. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  47. 47. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  48. 48. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

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