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The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792
It was the best of times,  it was the worst of times,  it was the age of wisdom,  it was the age of foolishness,  it was the epoch of belief,  it was the epoch of incredulity…   -- Charles Dickens   A Tale of Two Cities
The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
Marie  Antoinette  and the  Royal  Children
Queen Marie Antionette  ,[object Object]
Ancien Regime  Map, 1789
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XIV insisted that  the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Number of Representatives in the Estates General 300 300 648
Convening the Estates General  May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
“ The Third Estate Awakens” ,[object Object],[object Object]
“ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Storming the Bastille,  July 14, 1789 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26,  1789 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the baker’s wife  and the baker’s boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.
How to Finance the New Govt.? 1.   Confiscate Church Lands  (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
2.   Print Money ,[object Object],[object Object]
New Relations Between Church & State ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution  & the National Assembly. 1791
The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government (similar to the one found in Britain) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],GOAL     Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
The Royal Family Attempts  to Flee ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive   Le Patrie! ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1793-1794
The “Second” French Revolution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The  Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
The National Convention (September, 1792) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],When France sneezes,  all of Europe catches cold!
Louis XVI as a Pig ,[object Object],[object Object]
Louis XVI’s Head  (January 21, 1793) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793
Committee for Public Safety ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Maximillian Robespierre (1758 – 1794)
The  Levee en Masse: An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!
Legislation Passed by the  National Convention ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible.   -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! ,[object Object],[object Object]
The Guillotine: An “Enlightenment Tool”? Oh, thou charming guillotine,  You shorten kings and queens; By your influence divine, We have re-conquered our rights. Come to aid of the Country And let your superb instrument Become forever permanent To destroy the impious sect. Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents Fill your divine sack with heads of  tyrants.
Different Social Classes Executed  28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
Religious Terror: De-Christianization  (1793-1794) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The De-Christianization Program ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!!
The New Republican Calendar Vendemaire  (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire  (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose  (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose  (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal  (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor  (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor  (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor  (Fruit) 18 August-21 September New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
A New Republican Calendar Year The Gregorian System returned in 1806. Vendemaire  (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire  (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose  (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose  (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal  (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor  (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor  (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor  (Fruit) 18 August-21 September I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805
The De-Christianization Program ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple,  Become the goddess of the French people.
Backlash to the De-Christianization Program ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
The “ Thermidorean Reaction ,” 1794 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Arrest of Robespierre
The Revolution Consumed Its Own Leaders Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
The “Cultural Revolution”Brought About by the Convention ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Napoleon as “First Consul”
Napoleon’s Major Reforms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Napoleon Established the  Banque de France ,  1800
Concordat of 1801 ,[object Object],[object Object]
Code Napoleon, 1804
The Influence of the Napoleonic Code
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
Napoleonic Europe
“ Napoleon on His Imperial Throne” 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Napoleon’s Empire in 1810
Russia
Napoleon’s Retreat  from Moscow  (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
Napoleon Abdicates!
Napoleon in Exile on Elba
Louis XVIII  (r. 1814-1824)
The "Hundred Days" (March 20 - June 22, `1815)
Napoleon’s 100 Days 1815: Napoleon’s “100 Days”
Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian  General  Blücher
Napoleon  on His Way  to His Final Exile on St. Helena
 
Europe in 1812
The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna
Main Objectives
Key Players  at Vienna
Europe After the Congress of Vienna

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World History Unit9 French Revolution

  • 1. The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792
  • 2. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
  • 3. The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
  • 4. Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children
  • 5.
  • 6. Ancien Regime Map, 1789
  • 7. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
  • 8. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Number of Representatives in the Estates General 300 300 648
  • 9. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  • 10.
  • 11. “ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
  • 12. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  • 13.
  • 14. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
  • 15. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
  • 16. Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.
  • 20. How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  • 24. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1793-1794
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793
  • 37.
  • 39. The Levee en Masse: An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. The Guillotine: An “Enlightenment Tool”? Oh, thou charming guillotine, You shorten kings and queens; By your influence divine, We have re-conquered our rights. Come to aid of the Country And let your superb instrument Become forever permanent To destroy the impious sect. Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents Fill your divine sack with heads of tyrants.
  • 43. Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46. The New Republican Calendar Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
  • 47. A New Republican Calendar Year The Gregorian System returned in 1806. Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805
  • 48.
  • 49. The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, Become the goddess of the French people.
  • 50.
  • 51. The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
  • 52.
  • 53. The Arrest of Robespierre
  • 54. The Revolution Consumed Its Own Leaders Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
  • 55.
  • 56. Napoleon as “First Consul”
  • 57.
  • 58. Napoleon Established the Banque de France , 1800
  • 59.
  • 61. The Influence of the Napoleonic Code
  • 64. “ Napoleon on His Imperial Throne” 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
  • 67. Napoleon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
  • 69. Napoleon in Exile on Elba
  • 70. Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
  • 71. The "Hundred Days" (March 20 - June 22, `1815)
  • 72. Napoleon’s 100 Days 1815: Napoleon’s “100 Days”
  • 73. Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian General Blücher
  • 74. Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena
  • 75.  
  • 77. The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
  • 78. Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna
  • 80. Key Players at Vienna
  • 81. Europe After the Congress of Vienna