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The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792
It was the best of times,  it was the worst of times,  it was the age of wisdom,  it was the age of foolishness,  it was the epoch of belief,  it was the epoch of incredulity…   -- Charles Dickens   A Tale of Two Cities
The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
Marie  Antoinette  and the  Royal  Children
Queen Marie Antionette  “ The Austrian Whore”
Ancien Regime  Map, 1789
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XIV insisted that  the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Number of Representatives in the Estates General 300 300 648
Convening the Estates General  May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
“ The Third Estate Awakens” The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” They proclaimed themselves the  “National Assembly”  of France.
“ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Storming the Bastille,  July 14, 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. 18 died. 73 wounded. 7 guards killed. It held 7 prisoners  [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26,  1789 Liberty! Property! Resistance to oppression! Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen  Did women have equal rights with men? What about free blacks in the colonies? How could slavery be justified if all men were born free? Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?
March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the baker’s wife  and the baker’s boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.
How to Finance the New Govt.? 1.   Confiscate Church Lands  (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
2.   Print Money Issued by the National Constituent Assembly. Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.
New Relations Between Church & State Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. The church was reorganized: Parish priests    elected by the district assemblies. Bishops    named by the  department assemblies. The pope had NO  voice in the  appointment of  the French clergy. It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution  & the National Assembly. 1791
The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government (similar to the one found in Britain) The king got the  veto  [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws. His ministers were responsible for their own actions. A permanent, elected, single chamber  National Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation. An independent judiciary.
The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government “ Active” Citizen  [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs.  “Passive” Citizen . 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. A newly elected  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY . GOAL     Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
The Royal Family Attempts  to Flee June, 1791 Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Headed toward the  Luxembourg border. The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border
French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive   Le Patrie! The French armies  were ill-prepared for the conflict w/Austria. ½ of the officer corps had emigrated (they were nobles). Many men disserted. New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained. French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.
The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1793-1794
The “Second” French Revolution The National Convention: Girondin Rule:  1792-1793 Jacobin Rule:  1793-1794 [“Reign of Terror”] The Directory    1795-1799
The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House They held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. Started as a debating society. Membership mostly middle class. Created a vast network of clubs.
The  Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
The National Convention (September, 1792) Its first act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. The  Year I  of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes,  all of Europe catches cold!
Louis XVI as a Pig For the radicals, the king was a traitor. The moderates felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].
Louis XVI’s Head  (January 21, 1793) The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. The National Convention voted 387 to 334  to execute the monarchs.
Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793
Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.
Maximillian Robespierre (1758 – 1794)
The  Levee en Masse: An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!
Legislation Passed by the  National Convention Law of General Maximum September 5, 1793. Limited prices of grain & other essentials to 1/3 above the 1790 prices & wages to ½ of 1790 figures. Prices would be strictly enforced. Hoarders rooted out and punished. Food supplies would be secured by the army! Law of Suspects September 17, 1793. This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone not expressing enthusiastic support for the  republic could be placed under arrest!
The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible.   -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. The total number of victims nationwide was over 100,000!
The Guillotine: An “Enlightenment Tool”? Oh, thou charming guillotine,  You shorten kings and queens; By your influence divine, We have re-conquered our rights. Come to aid of the Country And let your superb instrument Become forever permanent To destroy the impious sect. Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents Fill your divine sack with heads of  tyrants.
Different Social Classes Executed  28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
Religious Terror: De-Christianization  (1793-1794) The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime  and superstitious practices. Very popular among the  sans-culottes . Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!
The De-Christianization Program The adoption of a new  Republican  Calendar : abolished Sundays & religious holidays. months named after seasonal features. 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day  decades. the yearly calendar was dated from the creation of the Republic  [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!!
The New Republican Calendar Vendemaire  (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire  (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose  (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose  (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal  (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor  (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor  (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor  (Fruit) 18 August-21 September New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
A New Republican Calendar Year The Gregorian System returned in 1806. Vendemaire  (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire  (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose  (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose  (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal  (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor  (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor  (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor  (Fruit) 18 August-21 September I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805
The De-Christianization Program The public exercise of religion was banned. The Paris Commune supported the: destruction of religious & royal statues. ban on clerical dress. encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris  was turned into the  “Temple of Reason.” The deportation of priests denounced by six citizens.
The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple,  Become the goddess of the French people.
Backlash to the De-Christianization Program It alienated most of the population (especially in the rural areas). Robespierre never supported it. he persuaded the Convention to reaffirm the principle of religious toleration.
The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
The “ Thermidorean Reaction ,” 1794 July 26    Robespierre gives a   speech illustrating new   plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS & CGS.  many felt threatened by his implications. July 27    the Convention arrests Robespierre. July 28    Robespierre is tried &   guillotined!
The Arrest of Robespierre
The Revolution Consumed Its Own Leaders Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
The “Cultural Revolution”Brought About by the Convention It was premised upon Enlightenment principles of rationality. The metric system of weights and measures Was defined by the French Academy of Sciences in 1791 and enforced in 1793. It replaced weights and measures that had their origins in the Middle Ages. The abolition of slavery within France in 1791 and throughout the French colonies in 1794. The Convention legalized divorce and enacted shared inheritance laws [even for illegitimate offspring] in an attempt to eradicate inequalities.
Napoleon as “First Consul”
Napoleon’s Major Reforms Establishment of a national bank and central monetary system Nationalized the Educational System Napoleonic Code
Napoleon Established the  Banque de France ,  1800
Concordat of 1801 Napoleon wanted to heal the divisions within the Catholic Church that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. But, Napoleon’s clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime.
Code Napoleon, 1804
The Influence of the Napoleonic Code
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
Napoleonic Europe
“ Napoleon on His Imperial Throne” 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Napoleon’s Empire in 1810
Russia
Napoleon’s Retreat  from Moscow  (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
Napoleon Abdicates!
Napoleon in Exile on Elba
Louis XVIII  (r. 1814-1824)
The "Hundred Days" (March 20 - June 22, `1815)
Napoleon’s 100 Days 1815: Napoleon’s “100 Days”
Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian  General  Blücher
Napoleon  on His Way  to His Final Exile on St. Helena
 
Europe in 1812
The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna
Main Objectives
Key Players  at Vienna
Europe After the Congress of Vienna

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World History Unit9 French Revolution

  • 1. The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792
  • 2. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
  • 3. The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
  • 4. Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children
  • 5. Queen Marie Antionette “ The Austrian Whore”
  • 6. Ancien Regime Map, 1789
  • 7. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Voting by Estates 1 1 1 Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
  • 8. Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate Number of Representatives in the Estates General 300 300 648
  • 9. Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
  • 10. “ The Third Estate Awakens” The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
  • 11. “ The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
  • 12. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  • 13. Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789 A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly. 18 died. 73 wounded. 7 guards killed. It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].
  • 14. National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!
  • 15. The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!
  • 16. Revolutionary Symbols Cockade Revolutionary Clock La Republic Liberté
  • 17. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 Liberty! Property! Resistance to oppression! Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.
  • 18. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Did women have equal rights with men? What about free blacks in the colonies? How could slavery be justified if all men were born free? Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?
  • 19. March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.
  • 20. How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
  • 21. 2. Print Money Issued by the National Constituent Assembly. Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.
  • 22. New Relations Between Church & State Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. The church was reorganized: Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies. Bishops  named by the department assemblies. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]
  • 23. Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution
  • 24. Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
  • 25. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government (similar to the one found in Britain) The king got the veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws. His ministers were responsible for their own actions. A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation. An independent judiciary.
  • 26. The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government “ Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen . 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY . GOAL  Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
  • 27. The Royal Family Attempts to Flee June, 1791 Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border
  • 28. French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict w/Austria. ½ of the officer corps had emigrated (they were nobles). Many men disserted. New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained. French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.
  • 29. The French Revolution "Radical" Phase: 1793-1794
  • 30. The “Second” French Revolution The National Convention: Girondin Rule: 1792-1793 Jacobin Rule: 1793-1794 [“Reign of Terror”] The Directory  1795-1799
  • 31. The Jacobins Jacobin Meeting House They held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. Started as a debating society. Membership mostly middle class. Created a vast network of clubs.
  • 32. The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
  • 33. The National Convention (September, 1792) Its first act was the formal abolition of the monarchy on September 22, 1792. The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!
  • 34. Louis XVI as a Pig For the radicals, the king was a traitor. The moderates felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].
  • 35. Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) The trial of the king was hastened by the discovery in a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.
  • 36. Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793
  • 37. Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.
  • 39. The Levee en Masse: An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!
  • 40. Legislation Passed by the National Convention Law of General Maximum September 5, 1793. Limited prices of grain & other essentials to 1/3 above the 1790 prices & wages to ½ of 1790 figures. Prices would be strictly enforced. Hoarders rooted out and punished. Food supplies would be secured by the army! Law of Suspects September 17, 1793. This law was so widely drawn that almost anyone not expressing enthusiastic support for the republic could be placed under arrest!
  • 41. The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. The total number of victims nationwide was over 100,000!
  • 42. The Guillotine: An “Enlightenment Tool”? Oh, thou charming guillotine, You shorten kings and queens; By your influence divine, We have re-conquered our rights. Come to aid of the Country And let your superb instrument Become forever permanent To destroy the impious sect. Sharpen your razor for Pitt and his agents Fill your divine sack with heads of tyrants.
  • 43. Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%
  • 44. Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793-1794) The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices. Very popular among the sans-culottes . Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!
  • 45. The De-Christianization Program The adoption of a new Republican Calendar : abolished Sundays & religious holidays. months named after seasonal features. 7-day weeks replaced by 10-day decades. the yearly calendar was dated from the creation of the Republic [Sept. 22, 1792] The Convention symbolically divorced the state from the Church!!
  • 46. The New Republican Calendar Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21
  • 47. A New Republican Calendar Year The Gregorian System returned in 1806. Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805
  • 48. The De-Christianization Program The public exercise of religion was banned. The Paris Commune supported the: destruction of religious & royal statues. ban on clerical dress. encouragement of the clergy to give up their vocations. The Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris was turned into the “Temple of Reason.” The deportation of priests denounced by six citizens.
  • 49. The “Temple of Reason” Come, holy Liberty, inhabit this temple, Become the goddess of the French people.
  • 50. Backlash to the De-Christianization Program It alienated most of the population (especially in the rural areas). Robespierre never supported it. he persuaded the Convention to reaffirm the principle of religious toleration.
  • 51. The Radical’s Arms: No God! No Religion! No King! No Constitution!
  • 52. The “ Thermidorean Reaction ,” 1794 July 26  Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS & CGS. many felt threatened by his implications. July 27  the Convention arrests Robespierre. July 28  Robespierre is tried & guillotined!
  • 53. The Arrest of Robespierre
  • 54. The Revolution Consumed Its Own Leaders Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.
  • 55. The “Cultural Revolution”Brought About by the Convention It was premised upon Enlightenment principles of rationality. The metric system of weights and measures Was defined by the French Academy of Sciences in 1791 and enforced in 1793. It replaced weights and measures that had their origins in the Middle Ages. The abolition of slavery within France in 1791 and throughout the French colonies in 1794. The Convention legalized divorce and enacted shared inheritance laws [even for illegitimate offspring] in an attempt to eradicate inequalities.
  • 56. Napoleon as “First Consul”
  • 57. Napoleon’s Major Reforms Establishment of a national bank and central monetary system Nationalized the Educational System Napoleonic Code
  • 58. Napoleon Established the Banque de France , 1800
  • 59. Concordat of 1801 Napoleon wanted to heal the divisions within the Catholic Church that had developed after the confiscation of Church property and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. But, Napoleon’s clear intent was to use the clergy to prop up his regime.
  • 61. The Influence of the Napoleonic Code
  • 64. “ Napoleon on His Imperial Throne” 1806 By Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
  • 67. Napoleon’s Retreat from Moscow (Early 1813) 100,000 French troops retreat—40,000 survive!
  • 69. Napoleon in Exile on Elba
  • 70. Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824)
  • 71. The "Hundred Days" (March 20 - June 22, `1815)
  • 72. Napoleon’s 100 Days 1815: Napoleon’s “100 Days”
  • 73. Napoleon’s Defeat at Waterloo (June 18, 1815) Duke of Wellington Prussian General Blücher
  • 74. Napoleon on His Way to His Final Exile on St. Helena
  • 75.  
  • 77. The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
  • 78. Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna
  • 80. Key Players at Vienna
  • 81. Europe After the Congress of Vienna