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Summer School History

Brooks Academy of Science and
     Engineering -- 2012



                                1
Unit 1:
Colonial
America
American Indians before 1492

• Arrived via a land bridge
  across the Bering Strait
  (between Siberia and Alaska)
  sometime between 30,000
  and 10,000 years ago
• Filtered down throughout the
  continent over the centuries
• created hundreds of separate
  tribes and societies
• Adapted to the environment
  wherever they went.
European Colonial Holdings in North
      America before 1763
European Colonization – Spain
 Spain – 1492
  ◦ Columbus
  ◦ Conquistadors
  ◦ Three Gs: God, Gold and Glory
  ◦ Nueva Espana – “New Spain” –
    huge super colony created to
    exploit the Indians
  ◦ Spanish missions set up in the
    American Southwest and along
    the California coast – idea was to
    convert the Indians to Christianity
    – led to a system of loosely held
    territories
  ◦ Colombian Exchange – movement
    of goods, food, disease, culture
    and people between the Old
    World and New World (be
    prepared to give examples)
New Spain




            6
Columbian Exchange




                     7
European Colonization – France
 France – Canada and Louisiana
  ◦ Quebec -- French speaking even today
  ◦ Louisiana -- Strong French influence,
    combined with Creole from the islands
  ◦ Big reason for colonization -- MONEY
    FROM FUR TRADERS
  ◦ Small settlements in Canada --
    Montreal and Quebec City centered on
    trade with the Indians
  ◦ Big missionary effort -- French will use
    the Indians as allies against the English
    -- this effort will be largely
    unsuccessful, but the French will try
  ◦ French trappers will eventually make it
    to the Great Lakes area and down the
    Mississippi
  ◦ Important to remember -- French
    colonies founded over money and
    TRADE. THEY'RE REALLY THE ONLY
    EUROPEAN POWER THAT TREATS THE
    INDIANS AS ALLIES
European Colonization – English
 Virginia (Southern Colonies)
   ◦ 1607 – Jamestown settled
   ◦ Important aspect of southern colonies -- started
     for Money. They quickly turn to crops and
     Mercantilism (tobacco, Rice, indigo)
   ◦ DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND TRIANGLE TRADE
     ON THE BOARD (Sugar -- Rum -- Slaves)
   ◦ 1619 -- Dutch ship blown off course by a storm
     lands in Jamestown. They trade Black Africans
     for supplies. The Africans are not slaves, but
     rather indentured servants -- slavery will not
     come to Virginia in full force until the 1640s.
 Massachusetts (New England)
   ◦ Religious descent -- Puritans unhappy with the
     Church of England -- it's too Catholic
   ◦ 1620 -- Pilgrims (separatists) settle Plymouth
     after crossing on the Mayflower
   ◦ Will bring the idea of the people
     ruling themselves – Mayflower
     Compact
   ◦ Thriving trade system takes hold -- only
     substance agriculture, but fishing and shipping
     create wealth
Mayflower Compact
• First time the colonists
  (Americans) came together
  to form their own
  government
• Gives us the idea of
  government being by the
  people and for the people
• Signed by all free men on
  board the Mayflower. Each
  man given equal weight to
  vote, regardless of class or
  social status.                 10
Mayflower Compact




                    11
Slavery in Virginia 1619
• Dutch ship is blown off course coming
  from the Caribbean – lands in
  Jamestown
• Traded black slaves for supplies to
  make it home
• Slaves – just another commodity to
  trade
• By 1640 – slavery in Virginia was based
  on race (slaves were then born into
  slavery)
• Slavery becomes a major part of the
  economy of the South
• From an economic standpoint – slavery
  worked. Remember, there were no
  machines to work plantations / farms
  like we have today
• Slavery was cheaper in the long run,
  but more expensive in the short term
• Slavery quickly spread to other
  colonies (even northern ones), but was
  critical to the success of the
  agricultural colonies of the South         12
More Original 13 Colonies
• New York – Originally
  settled by the Dutch
• Pennsylvania – Settled by
  the Quakers
• Maryland – Settled by Lord
  Baltimore for Catholics
• Georgia – originally a
  colony for prisoners (to
  relieve overcrowding in
  English prisons)

                                     13
Unit 2
The American
 Revolution

               14
Conflict between British and French
• French and Indian War (1754-
  63)
• French armed their Indian allies
  against the British colonists
  trying to move into the
  backcountry lands
• Starts as a North American war,
  but eventually spreads to other
  British and French colonies
  around the globe, such as India
  and Egypt
• Peace of Paris (1763) – France
  lost all of its North American
  possessions – British get
  Canada and everything east of
  the Mississippi River                     15
Proclamation Line of 1763
• British Crown said that lands
  west of the crest of the
  Appellations Mountains were
  closed to English settlement
• Problem – Ohio River Valley
  was great for farming and
  furs
• Colonists from the East Coast
  wanted to move into better
  lands
• King George’s decision to
  close those lands angered
  many colonists                      16
Revenue Acts
• Series of Acts passed by
  Parliament in England to tax the
  colonists
• Designed to help pay for the
  costs of running the empire
• Stamp Act (1765) – most famous
  – tax on printed materials
• Stamp Act led to protests across
  the colonies
• Colonists cried out
• “No Taxation Without
  Representation” – since the
  colonies had no representatives
  in Parliament, they believed that
  no taxes should be passed
  without their consent               17
Boston Tea Party




                   18
Boston Tea Party
• Sons of Liberty – mostly
  young unemployed young
  men
• Led by Sam Adams – Brewer,
  Patriot and Tavern Owner
• Angered over the Tea Act – a
  tax on tea – very important to
  the people of Boston
• After a night of heavy
  drinking – Sons of Liberty
  stormed onto a ship loaded
  with tea in Boston Harbor and
  dumped thousands of pounds
  of tea into the Harbor
• Problem – the tea was private
  property. It did not belong to
  the British government.
                                      19
Intolerable Acts
• King George III was furious
  over the Boston Tea Party
• Parliament passed 3 acts
  in response
   – Closed port of Boston
   – Suspended Massachusetts
     legislature
   – Quartering act: troops could
     be housed in private homes


                                       20
First Continental Congress
• Meeting of colonial
  representatives (12
  colonies attended) in
  Philadelphia
• In response to the
  Intolerable Acts
• Called for funding a
  continental army for
  defense


                                      21
First Continental Congress




                             22
Declaration of Independence
         04 Jul 1776




                              23
Declaration of Independence
• July 4, 1776 – Declaration of
  Independence signed
    – Written by Thomas Jefferson
      of Virginia
        • Men form governments
        • Governments must be
          responsive to men
        • If a government is not
          responsive to men, then
          men have the right to
          change the government
    – List of Grievances – what the
      king did to break the contract
      between the colonists and his
      government
Revolution in the Northern Colonies
• Lexington and Concord –
  first shots of the war –
  Outside Boston in 1775
• Bunker Hill – battle that
  drives the British Army out
  of Boston (they went to
  Nova Scotia)
• Saratoga (1777) – American
  victory that brings the
  French into the war on the
  American side
• Continental Army appointed
  George Washington of VA as
  the Army’s overall
  commander                               25
Revolution in the Southern Colonies
• Mostly back-county fighting
• American colonists held a
  huge advantage – they
  knew the terrain and
  refused to fight “like
  gentlemen”
• Colonists harassed the
  British army like gnats
• Very frustrating for the
  British commanders, who
  captured Charleston and
  Savannah easily, but
  couldn’t fight against the
  back-country militias
                                          26
Yorktown (1781)
• British General
  Cornwallis was
  trapped on the
  Yorktown
  Peninsula in
  Virginia
• Washington had
  him from the
  land
• French Navy had
  him from the sea
  – prevented his
  escape                          27
Peace of Paris (1783)
• Took 2 years to finally
  sign a peace treaty
• Treaty of Paris (1783)
   – independence to the
     United States
   – US given all land east of
     the Mississippi river –
     south of Canada and
     north of Florida
   – US granted fishing rights
     off Newfoundland in
     Canada (important
     fishing grounds for
     commercial fishermen)
                                       28
Unit 3

      The Constitution
and the Federal Government



                             29
Articles of Confederation
• 1st constitution of the
  United States
• Drafted by the
  Continental Congress
• Very limited in power
  to the national
  government
• Only one branch of
  government –
  Congress
• Most power left to the
  states                               30
National Achievements under the
        Articles of Confederation
• Running the Continental Army and government
  (with a lot of problems)
• Treaty with France in 1778 – French Alliance is
  critical to our success in the Revolution
• Signed peace treaty with Great Britain (1783)
• Northwest Ordinances (1785 and 1787) – set the
  pattern for statehood


                                               31
Problems with the Articles
• No real authority over the states
• No ability to tax
  – could only ask states for money
• Congress could not regulate trade
• Any changes to the articles had to be by
  unanimous consent of all the states
• Supposed to protect the individual states
• States saw themselves as independent of each
  other
• “These United States” not “The United States”   32
33
Northwest Ordinances of 1787
• Greatest achievement of the
  national government under the
  Articles of Confederation
• Allowed for Settlement in the
  Ohio River Valley
• Even set down laws for
  government and settlement
  patterns
• Sold land in 160 acre lots – small
  enough for a family to purchase
• Set a procedure for new states to
  join the union
• No colonies – all new areas
  would become states
• When 60,000 people settled an
  area, it could apply to Congress
  for statehood                        34
Constitutional Convention of 1787
• Eventually many
  people realized
  the Articles
  needed to be
  changed
• 55 delegates from
  12 states (not
  Rhode Island) met
  in Philadelphia and
  drew up a new
  constitution
• That Constitution
  is the one we live
  under today (with
  27 amendments)
                                    35
Two Different Plans for the Union were
     Presented at the Constitutional Convention
    Virginia Plan                      New Jersey Plan
•   Favored large states               • Designed to protect small states
•   Number of representatives in       • Really a revised version of the
    Congress determined by               Articles of Confederation
    population                         • Unicameral (1 house) Congress
                                         with each state getting the
•   Strong national government           same number of votes
•   Bi-cameral (2 house) Congress      • Weak Executive -- appointed by
•   Strong Executive (almost a king)     Congress
•   Strong Judicial (Courts)           • Weak Judicial – appointed by
                                         the Executive and approved by
                                         Congress
                                       • Did give Congress power to tax
                                         and control states
                                                                    36
Great Compromise
      written by James Madison of VA
• Legislature (Congress)
   – Bicameral (2 houses)
      • House of Reps – by population
      • Senate – each state has 2
   – Makes Laws
   – Power to tax and control money
   – Declare war
• Executive (the President)
   – Strong executive
   – Supposed to enforce the Laws
     Congress makes
• Judicial (Federal Courts)
   – Interprets / judges laws
   – Determines whether or not a law
     violates the Constitution and its
     Amendments                          37
3/5 -- A Compromise on Slavery
• Southern Position: slaves are
  people and should be
  counted for representation,
  but are also property and
  thus should not be counted
  for taxation
• Northern states (most had
  outlawed slavery by 1787) –
  wanted slaves counted as
  property for taxation
• Eventually a compromise was
  reached where 3/5 of the
  slaves would be counted for
  both taxation and
  representation                       38
Bill of Rights (1791)
• First 10 Amendments
• Mostly about personal
  freedoms




                                     39
Bill of Rights (1791)
1. Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly and
   petition
2. Right to bear arms
3. No quartering of soldiers
4. No unreasonable search and seizure (warrants)
5. Rights of people accused of a crime
6. Right to a speedy jury trial in criminal cases
7. Right to a jury trial in civil cases over $20
8. No cruel and unusual punishment
9. Rights not taken away by the Constitution are
   reserved to the people
10.Powers not taken away by the Constitution are
   reserved to the states                             40
Other important Amendments
• 13th – Abolished slavery
• 14th – gave citizenship to ex-slaves and also
  established that every citizen is entitled to due
  process under the law
• 15th – Black men are given the right to vote
• 19th – gave Women the right to vote
• 22nd – limits president to 2 terms
• 24th – eliminated poll taxes
• 26th – gave 18 year olds the right to vote
                                                      41

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Summer school history - american history

  • 1. Summer School History Brooks Academy of Science and Engineering -- 2012 1
  • 3. American Indians before 1492 • Arrived via a land bridge across the Bering Strait (between Siberia and Alaska) sometime between 30,000 and 10,000 years ago • Filtered down throughout the continent over the centuries • created hundreds of separate tribes and societies • Adapted to the environment wherever they went.
  • 4. European Colonial Holdings in North America before 1763
  • 5. European Colonization – Spain  Spain – 1492 ◦ Columbus ◦ Conquistadors ◦ Three Gs: God, Gold and Glory ◦ Nueva Espana – “New Spain” – huge super colony created to exploit the Indians ◦ Spanish missions set up in the American Southwest and along the California coast – idea was to convert the Indians to Christianity – led to a system of loosely held territories ◦ Colombian Exchange – movement of goods, food, disease, culture and people between the Old World and New World (be prepared to give examples)
  • 8. European Colonization – France  France – Canada and Louisiana ◦ Quebec -- French speaking even today ◦ Louisiana -- Strong French influence, combined with Creole from the islands ◦ Big reason for colonization -- MONEY FROM FUR TRADERS ◦ Small settlements in Canada -- Montreal and Quebec City centered on trade with the Indians ◦ Big missionary effort -- French will use the Indians as allies against the English -- this effort will be largely unsuccessful, but the French will try ◦ French trappers will eventually make it to the Great Lakes area and down the Mississippi ◦ Important to remember -- French colonies founded over money and TRADE. THEY'RE REALLY THE ONLY EUROPEAN POWER THAT TREATS THE INDIANS AS ALLIES
  • 9. European Colonization – English  Virginia (Southern Colonies) ◦ 1607 – Jamestown settled ◦ Important aspect of southern colonies -- started for Money. They quickly turn to crops and Mercantilism (tobacco, Rice, indigo) ◦ DEFINE MERCANTILISM AND TRIANGLE TRADE ON THE BOARD (Sugar -- Rum -- Slaves) ◦ 1619 -- Dutch ship blown off course by a storm lands in Jamestown. They trade Black Africans for supplies. The Africans are not slaves, but rather indentured servants -- slavery will not come to Virginia in full force until the 1640s.  Massachusetts (New England) ◦ Religious descent -- Puritans unhappy with the Church of England -- it's too Catholic ◦ 1620 -- Pilgrims (separatists) settle Plymouth after crossing on the Mayflower ◦ Will bring the idea of the people ruling themselves – Mayflower Compact ◦ Thriving trade system takes hold -- only substance agriculture, but fishing and shipping create wealth
  • 10. Mayflower Compact • First time the colonists (Americans) came together to form their own government • Gives us the idea of government being by the people and for the people • Signed by all free men on board the Mayflower. Each man given equal weight to vote, regardless of class or social status. 10
  • 12. Slavery in Virginia 1619 • Dutch ship is blown off course coming from the Caribbean – lands in Jamestown • Traded black slaves for supplies to make it home • Slaves – just another commodity to trade • By 1640 – slavery in Virginia was based on race (slaves were then born into slavery) • Slavery becomes a major part of the economy of the South • From an economic standpoint – slavery worked. Remember, there were no machines to work plantations / farms like we have today • Slavery was cheaper in the long run, but more expensive in the short term • Slavery quickly spread to other colonies (even northern ones), but was critical to the success of the agricultural colonies of the South 12
  • 13. More Original 13 Colonies • New York – Originally settled by the Dutch • Pennsylvania – Settled by the Quakers • Maryland – Settled by Lord Baltimore for Catholics • Georgia – originally a colony for prisoners (to relieve overcrowding in English prisons) 13
  • 14. Unit 2 The American Revolution 14
  • 15. Conflict between British and French • French and Indian War (1754- 63) • French armed their Indian allies against the British colonists trying to move into the backcountry lands • Starts as a North American war, but eventually spreads to other British and French colonies around the globe, such as India and Egypt • Peace of Paris (1763) – France lost all of its North American possessions – British get Canada and everything east of the Mississippi River 15
  • 16. Proclamation Line of 1763 • British Crown said that lands west of the crest of the Appellations Mountains were closed to English settlement • Problem – Ohio River Valley was great for farming and furs • Colonists from the East Coast wanted to move into better lands • King George’s decision to close those lands angered many colonists 16
  • 17. Revenue Acts • Series of Acts passed by Parliament in England to tax the colonists • Designed to help pay for the costs of running the empire • Stamp Act (1765) – most famous – tax on printed materials • Stamp Act led to protests across the colonies • Colonists cried out • “No Taxation Without Representation” – since the colonies had no representatives in Parliament, they believed that no taxes should be passed without their consent 17
  • 19. Boston Tea Party • Sons of Liberty – mostly young unemployed young men • Led by Sam Adams – Brewer, Patriot and Tavern Owner • Angered over the Tea Act – a tax on tea – very important to the people of Boston • After a night of heavy drinking – Sons of Liberty stormed onto a ship loaded with tea in Boston Harbor and dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the Harbor • Problem – the tea was private property. It did not belong to the British government. 19
  • 20. Intolerable Acts • King George III was furious over the Boston Tea Party • Parliament passed 3 acts in response – Closed port of Boston – Suspended Massachusetts legislature – Quartering act: troops could be housed in private homes 20
  • 21. First Continental Congress • Meeting of colonial representatives (12 colonies attended) in Philadelphia • In response to the Intolerable Acts • Called for funding a continental army for defense 21
  • 23. Declaration of Independence 04 Jul 1776 23
  • 24. Declaration of Independence • July 4, 1776 – Declaration of Independence signed – Written by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia • Men form governments • Governments must be responsive to men • If a government is not responsive to men, then men have the right to change the government – List of Grievances – what the king did to break the contract between the colonists and his government
  • 25. Revolution in the Northern Colonies • Lexington and Concord – first shots of the war – Outside Boston in 1775 • Bunker Hill – battle that drives the British Army out of Boston (they went to Nova Scotia) • Saratoga (1777) – American victory that brings the French into the war on the American side • Continental Army appointed George Washington of VA as the Army’s overall commander 25
  • 26. Revolution in the Southern Colonies • Mostly back-county fighting • American colonists held a huge advantage – they knew the terrain and refused to fight “like gentlemen” • Colonists harassed the British army like gnats • Very frustrating for the British commanders, who captured Charleston and Savannah easily, but couldn’t fight against the back-country militias 26
  • 27. Yorktown (1781) • British General Cornwallis was trapped on the Yorktown Peninsula in Virginia • Washington had him from the land • French Navy had him from the sea – prevented his escape 27
  • 28. Peace of Paris (1783) • Took 2 years to finally sign a peace treaty • Treaty of Paris (1783) – independence to the United States – US given all land east of the Mississippi river – south of Canada and north of Florida – US granted fishing rights off Newfoundland in Canada (important fishing grounds for commercial fishermen) 28
  • 29. Unit 3 The Constitution and the Federal Government 29
  • 30. Articles of Confederation • 1st constitution of the United States • Drafted by the Continental Congress • Very limited in power to the national government • Only one branch of government – Congress • Most power left to the states 30
  • 31. National Achievements under the Articles of Confederation • Running the Continental Army and government (with a lot of problems) • Treaty with France in 1778 – French Alliance is critical to our success in the Revolution • Signed peace treaty with Great Britain (1783) • Northwest Ordinances (1785 and 1787) – set the pattern for statehood 31
  • 32. Problems with the Articles • No real authority over the states • No ability to tax – could only ask states for money • Congress could not regulate trade • Any changes to the articles had to be by unanimous consent of all the states • Supposed to protect the individual states • States saw themselves as independent of each other • “These United States” not “The United States” 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. Northwest Ordinances of 1787 • Greatest achievement of the national government under the Articles of Confederation • Allowed for Settlement in the Ohio River Valley • Even set down laws for government and settlement patterns • Sold land in 160 acre lots – small enough for a family to purchase • Set a procedure for new states to join the union • No colonies – all new areas would become states • When 60,000 people settled an area, it could apply to Congress for statehood 34
  • 35. Constitutional Convention of 1787 • Eventually many people realized the Articles needed to be changed • 55 delegates from 12 states (not Rhode Island) met in Philadelphia and drew up a new constitution • That Constitution is the one we live under today (with 27 amendments) 35
  • 36. Two Different Plans for the Union were Presented at the Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan • Favored large states • Designed to protect small states • Number of representatives in • Really a revised version of the Congress determined by Articles of Confederation population • Unicameral (1 house) Congress with each state getting the • Strong national government same number of votes • Bi-cameral (2 house) Congress • Weak Executive -- appointed by • Strong Executive (almost a king) Congress • Strong Judicial (Courts) • Weak Judicial – appointed by the Executive and approved by Congress • Did give Congress power to tax and control states 36
  • 37. Great Compromise written by James Madison of VA • Legislature (Congress) – Bicameral (2 houses) • House of Reps – by population • Senate – each state has 2 – Makes Laws – Power to tax and control money – Declare war • Executive (the President) – Strong executive – Supposed to enforce the Laws Congress makes • Judicial (Federal Courts) – Interprets / judges laws – Determines whether or not a law violates the Constitution and its Amendments 37
  • 38. 3/5 -- A Compromise on Slavery • Southern Position: slaves are people and should be counted for representation, but are also property and thus should not be counted for taxation • Northern states (most had outlawed slavery by 1787) – wanted slaves counted as property for taxation • Eventually a compromise was reached where 3/5 of the slaves would be counted for both taxation and representation 38
  • 39. Bill of Rights (1791) • First 10 Amendments • Mostly about personal freedoms 39
  • 40. Bill of Rights (1791) 1. Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly and petition 2. Right to bear arms 3. No quartering of soldiers 4. No unreasonable search and seizure (warrants) 5. Rights of people accused of a crime 6. Right to a speedy jury trial in criminal cases 7. Right to a jury trial in civil cases over $20 8. No cruel and unusual punishment 9. Rights not taken away by the Constitution are reserved to the people 10.Powers not taken away by the Constitution are reserved to the states 40
  • 41. Other important Amendments • 13th – Abolished slavery • 14th – gave citizenship to ex-slaves and also established that every citizen is entitled to due process under the law • 15th – Black men are given the right to vote • 19th – gave Women the right to vote • 22nd – limits president to 2 terms • 24th – eliminated poll taxes • 26th – gave 18 year olds the right to vote 41