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Web Usability (Slideshare version)
                               Carles Farré
Agenda
   Introducing Usability
   Usability Testing
   Usability vs Aesthetics
   Usability & Accessibilty
   Online Services: Beyond Usability
   References




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Firmitas · Vtilitas · VenVstas
                                                   De Architectura
                                        Marcus Vitruvius Pollio
                                   (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC)




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ISO/IEC 9126-1 Software Quality Model




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Usability
   Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user
   interfaces are to use. Also refers to methods for improving
   ease-of-use during the design process.
   Usability is defined by five quality components:
     ▫ Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic
       tasks the first time they encounter the design?
     ▫ Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how
       quickly can they perform tasks?
     ▫ Memorability: When users return to the design after a
       period of not using it, how easily can they reestablish
       proficiency?
     ▫ Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are
       these errors, and how easily can they recover from the
       errors?
     ▫ Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design?
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Why Usability matters (www.usabilitynet.org/management/c_cost.htm)
   62% of web shoppers gave up looking for an item.
   (Zona study)
   50% of web sales are lost because visitors can’t easily
   find content. (Gartner Group)
   40% of repeat visitors do not return due to a negative
   experience. (Zona study)
   85% of visitors abandon a new site due to poor
   design. (cPulse)
   Only 51% of sites complied with simple web usability
   principles. (Forrester study of 20 major sites)

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Why people fail
                                                  Search

                                                  Findability (IA, Category names,
                                                  Navigation, Links)

                                                  Page design (Readability,
                                                  Layout, Graphics, Amateur,
                                                  Scrolling)

                                                  Information (Content, Product
                                                  info, Corporate info, Prices)

                                                  Task support (Workflow, Privacy,
                                                  Forms, Comparison, Inflexible)

                                                  Fancy design (Multimedia, Back
                                                  button, PDF/Printing, New
                                                  window, Sound)

                                                  Other (Bugs, Presence on Web,
                                                  Ads, New site, Metaphors)
  Usability problems weighted by how frequently
      they caused users to fail a task [NL06]
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Top Ten (Usability) Mistakes in Web Design
1. Bad search
2. Pdf files for online reading
3. Not changing the color of visited links
4. Non-scannable text
5. Fixed font size
6. Page titles with low search engine visibility
7. Anything that looks like an advertisement
8. Violating design conventions
9. Opening new browser windows
10. Not answering users' questions
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Assessing Usability
   Two major types of assessing methods:
    ▫ Usability evaluations:
              • Evaluators and no users
              • Techniques: surveys/questionnaires, observational
                evaluations, guideline based reviews, cognitive
                walkthroughs, expert reviews, heuristic evaluations
       ▫ Usability tests: focus on users working with the
           product
   Usability testing is the only way to know if the Web
   site actually has problems that keep people from
   having a successful and satisfying experience.
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Usability Testing & User-Centered Design (UCD)
   Usability testing fits in as one part of the UCD process.
   Usability testing is best implemented after completing earlier
   steps in the UCD process (It's better to have clearly defined
   objectives and risks before testing).
   UCD, aka. usability engineering, is a structured approach to
   producing a Web site that involves users throughout the entire
   design process.
   UCD applies several methods at appropriate times:
     ▫ defining business and user goals and objectives
     ▫ gathering requirements
     ▫ evaluating design alternatives, building and testing
       prototypes
     ▫ analyzing usability problems, testing a site with users, and
       proposing solutions to problems

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UCD: Usability.gov’s Step-by-Step Guide




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Agenda
   Introducing Usability
   Usability Testing
   Usability vs Aesthetics
   Usability & Accessibilty
   Online Services: Beyond Usability
   References




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Usability Testing
   Usability testing is a methodology that employs
   potential users to evaluate the degree to which a
   website/software meets predefined usability criteria.
   Basic Process:
    1. Watch Customers
    2. They Perform Tasks
    3. Note Their Problems
    4. Make Recommendations
    5. Iterate


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Measures of Usability
   Effectiveness (Ability to successfully accomplish tasks)
       ▫ Percentage of goals/tasks achieved (success rate)
       ▫ Number of errors
   Efficiency (Ability to accomplish tasks with speed and ease)
       ▫   Time to complete a task
       ▫   Frequency of requests for help
       ▫   Number of times facilitator provides assistance
       ▫   Number of times user gives up




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Measures of Usability
   Satisfaction (Pleasing to users)
       ▫   Positive and negative ratings on a satisfaction scale
       ▫   Percent of favorable comments to unfavorable comments
       ▫   Number of good vs. bad features recalled after test
       ▫   Number of users who would use the system again
       ▫   Number of times users express dissatisfaction or
           frustration
   Learnability (Ability to learn how to use site and remember it)
       ▫ Ratio of successes to failures
       ▫ Number of features that can be recalled after the test

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Usability Testing Roles
   Facilitator:
       ▫ Oversees the entire test process
       ▫ Plan, test, and report.
   Participant:
       ▫ Actual or potential customer.
       ▫ Representative users (marketing, designers) avoided.
   Observer (optional):
       ▫ Records events as they occur.
       ▫ Limits interaction with the customer.
       ▫ Does contribute to the report.

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Testing Methods & Tools

        Method/Tool                            Short description
   Usability laboratory A room with computer equipment, a place for
                                   an observer to sit and a special observation
                                   area.
   Web-based                       Online evaluation with live feedback from
                                   users.
   Thinking Aloud                  A test subject thinks aloud while navigating the
                                   site.
   Observation                     Visiting the users and observing them work.

   Questionnaires                  Site or email questionnaires are an effective
                                   way of measuring user satisfaction.


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Testing Methods & Tools

        Method/Tool                            Short description
   Interviews                      Well suited to exploratory studies where one
                                   does not know yet what one is looking for.
   Focus groups                    Users are brought together to discuss new
                                   concepts and identify important issues.
   Heuristic evaluation Looking at an interface and trying to come up
                                   with an opinion about pros and cons about it.
   Log file analysis               The computer automatically collect statistics
                                   about the detailed use of the system.
   User feedback                   Shows the immediate and pressing concerns, is
                                   an ongoing process and is adapts quickly.


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Usability Testing Process
Step 1: Planning The Usability Test
       ▫   Define what to test
       ▫   Define which customers should be tested
       ▫   Define what tasks should be tested
       ▫   Write usability scenarios and tasks
       ▫   Select participants
Step 2: Conducting The Usability Test
       ▫ Conduct a test
       ▫ Collect data
Step 3: Analyzing and Reporting The Usability Test
       ▫ Compile results
       ▫ Make recommendations

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People – Context – Activities
Step 1: Planning The Usability Test
       ▫ Define what to test
          • → Activities (Use Cases)
       ▫ Define which customers (user profiles) to be tested
          • → People (Actors)
       ▫ Provide a background for the activities to test
          • → Context




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Usability Scenarios and Tasks
   Provide the participant with motivation and context
   to make the situation more realistic
   Include several tasks:
       ▫ Make the first task simple
       ▫ Give a goal, without describing steps
   Set some success criteria, examples:
       ▫ N% of test participants will be able to complete x% of tasks
         in the time allotted.
       ▫ Participants will be able to complete x% of tasks with no
         more than one error per task.
       ▫ N% of test participants will rate the system as highly usable
         on a scale of x to x.

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Example of Scenario with Tasks
   Context:
       ▫ You want to book a sailing on Royal Caribbean International for
           next June with your church group. The group is called “Saint
           Francis Summer 2010”. The group is selling out fast, so you
           want to book a cabin, which is close to an elevator because your
           leg hurts from a recent injury.
   Tasks to perform:
       1. Open your browser
       2. Click the link labeled “Royal Caribbean”
       3. Tell me the available cabins in the “Saint Francis Summer
          2010” group
       4. Tell me a cabin number closest to an elevator
       5. Book the cabin the best suits your needs

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Selecting Participants
   Recruit participants
       ▫ In-house
       ▫ recruitment firms, databases, conferences
   Match participants with user profiles
   Numbers: of participants, floaters
   Schedule test sessions
   Incentives:
       ▫ Gift checks ($100 per session)
       ▫ Food or gift cards


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How Many Test Participants Are Required?
   The number of usability problems found in a usability test
   with n participants is: N(1-(1-L)n)
       ▫ N : total number of usability problems in the design
       ▫ L : the proportion of usability problems discovered while testing
           a single participant.

                                                            For L = 31%




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How Many Test Participants Are Required?
   It seems that you need to test with at least 15 participants
   to discover all the usability problems
   However, is better to perform 3 tests with 5 participants
   than to perform one with 15 participants:
      ▫ After the first test with 5 participants has found 85% of the
           usability problems, you will want to fix them in a redesign.
       ▫   After creating the new design, you need to test again.
       ▫   The second test with 5 users will discover most of the
           remaining 15% of the original usability problems that were
           not found in the first test (and some new one).
       ▫   The new test will be able to uncover structural usability
           problems that were obscured in initial studies as users
           were stumped by surface-level usability problems.
       ▫   Fix the new problems, and test …
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Usability Labs … Not Necessary




The testing room contains office     The observer side contains a powerful
furniture, video tape equipment, a   computer to collect the usability data
microphone and a computer with       and analyze it. A one-way mirror
appropriate software.                separates the rooms.
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Usability Labs … Not Necessary?




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Test Side-by-Side




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Conducting Tests: Facilitator’s Role
   Start with an easy task to build confidence
   Sit beside the person not behind the glass
   Use “think-out-loud” protocol
   Give participants time to think it through
   Offer appropriate encouragement
   Lead participants, don’t answer questions (being an
   enabler)
   Don’t act knowledgeable (treat them as the experts)
   Don’t get too involved in data collection
   Don’t jump to conclusions
   Don’t solve their problems immediately

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Collecting Data
   Performance
       ▫ Objective (what actually happened)
       ▫ Usually Quantitative
              •   Time to complete a task
              •   Time to recover from an error
              •   Number of errors
              •   Percentage of tasks completed successfully
              •   Number of clicks
              •   Pathway information
   Preference
       ▫ Subjective (what participants say/thought)
       ▫ Usually Qualitative
              • Preference of versions
              • Suggestions and comments
              • Ratings or rankings (can be quantitative)

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Report findings and recommendations
   Make report usable for your users
   Include quantitative data (success rates, times, etc.)
   Avoid words like “few, many, several”. Include counts
   Use quotes
   Use screenshots
   Mention positive findings
   Do not use participant names, use P1, P2, P3, etc.
   Include recommendations
   Make it short
Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis                            31
Agenda
   Introducing Usability
   Usability Testing
   Usability vs Aesthetics
   Usability vs Accessibilty
   Online Services: Beyond Usability
   References




Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis       32
The evolution of culture marches with the
elimination of ornament from useful objects
                                   Ornament und Verbrechen
                                                Adolf Loos
                                                 (1870 - 1933)




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Agenda
   Introducing Usability
   Usability Testing
   Usability vs Aesthetics
   Usability & Accessibilty
   Online Services: Beyond Usability
   References




Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis       34
Usability & Accessibility
   Usability means designing websites to be effective, efficient,
   and satisfying for most people
   Accessibility makes sure it is effective, efficient, and satisfying
    ▫ for more people — especially people with disabilities —
    ▫ in more situations — including with assistive technologies,
      mobile devices, and more.
   The W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
   2.0, Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0,
   and User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0 provide a
   stable set of accessibility requirements that can be met using
   different techniques


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Agenda
   Introducing Usability
   Usability Testing
   Usability vs Aesthetics
   Usability & Accessibilty
   Online Services: Beyond Usability
   References




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A Service Science Perspective for
Interfaces of Online Service Applications [Pin08]




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Online Services: Defining Features
   The user does not control most means of production.
   (resources, capital, and labor), therefore she cannot
   determine
       ▫   when and how intensively resources are used
       ▫   where her information is stored and who can access it
       ▫   how much effort is put on a given task or goal
       ▫   what the cost of the service is and how it changes
   The user (self, belongings, information) is a significant
   part of the input to the production process,
       ▫ therefore the application behave as a service rather than a
           manufacture.
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Online Services: Beyond “Classical” Usability
   “Classical”HCI evaluation and usability:
     ▫ determines typical usage scenarios of the device/product
     ▫ recreates in the laboratory meaningful test procedures.
   Web applications required HCI practitioners to change some
   techniques to cope with their special needs
   Taking one step further, recognizing the specific characteristics
   of online services in contrast to generic web applications will
   allow the development of more appropriate tools
   A new framework is proposed by considering 6 common
   characteristics of services reported in the SSME literature:
   customer-as-input, heterogeneity, simultaneity, perishability,
   coproduction, and intangibility.
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Online Services: Important Issues (To Test)




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References
   [NH06] Nielsen, J. and Loranger, H. 2006 Prioritizing Web
   Usability. New Riders Publishing.
   [Pin08] Pinhanez, C. 2008. A service science perspective for
   interfaces of online service applications. In Proceedings of the
   VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing
   Systems
   www.useit.com (Jakob Nielsen)
   www.usability.gov




Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis                                      41

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Web Usability (Slideshare Version)

  • 1. Web Usability (Slideshare version) Carles Farré
  • 2. Agenda Introducing Usability Usability Testing Usability vs Aesthetics Usability & Accessibilty Online Services: Beyond Usability References Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 2
  • 3. Firmitas · Vtilitas · VenVstas De Architectura Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC) Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 3
  • 4. ISO/IEC 9126-1 Software Quality Model Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 4
  • 5. Usability Usability is a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use. Also refers to methods for improving ease-of-use during the design process. Usability is defined by five quality components: ▫ Learnability: How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design? ▫ Efficiency: Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? ▫ Memorability: When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they reestablish proficiency? ▫ Errors: How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors? ▫ Satisfaction: How pleasant is it to use the design? Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 5
  • 6. Why Usability matters (www.usabilitynet.org/management/c_cost.htm) 62% of web shoppers gave up looking for an item. (Zona study) 50% of web sales are lost because visitors can’t easily find content. (Gartner Group) 40% of repeat visitors do not return due to a negative experience. (Zona study) 85% of visitors abandon a new site due to poor design. (cPulse) Only 51% of sites complied with simple web usability principles. (Forrester study of 20 major sites) Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 6
  • 7. Why people fail Search Findability (IA, Category names, Navigation, Links) Page design (Readability, Layout, Graphics, Amateur, Scrolling) Information (Content, Product info, Corporate info, Prices) Task support (Workflow, Privacy, Forms, Comparison, Inflexible) Fancy design (Multimedia, Back button, PDF/Printing, New window, Sound) Other (Bugs, Presence on Web, Ads, New site, Metaphors) Usability problems weighted by how frequently they caused users to fail a task [NL06] Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 7
  • 8. Top Ten (Usability) Mistakes in Web Design 1. Bad search 2. Pdf files for online reading 3. Not changing the color of visited links 4. Non-scannable text 5. Fixed font size 6. Page titles with low search engine visibility 7. Anything that looks like an advertisement 8. Violating design conventions 9. Opening new browser windows 10. Not answering users' questions Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 8
  • 9. Assessing Usability Two major types of assessing methods: ▫ Usability evaluations: • Evaluators and no users • Techniques: surveys/questionnaires, observational evaluations, guideline based reviews, cognitive walkthroughs, expert reviews, heuristic evaluations ▫ Usability tests: focus on users working with the product Usability testing is the only way to know if the Web site actually has problems that keep people from having a successful and satisfying experience. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 9
  • 10. Usability Testing & User-Centered Design (UCD) Usability testing fits in as one part of the UCD process. Usability testing is best implemented after completing earlier steps in the UCD process (It's better to have clearly defined objectives and risks before testing). UCD, aka. usability engineering, is a structured approach to producing a Web site that involves users throughout the entire design process. UCD applies several methods at appropriate times: ▫ defining business and user goals and objectives ▫ gathering requirements ▫ evaluating design alternatives, building and testing prototypes ▫ analyzing usability problems, testing a site with users, and proposing solutions to problems Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 10
  • 11. UCD: Usability.gov’s Step-by-Step Guide Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 11
  • 12. Agenda Introducing Usability Usability Testing Usability vs Aesthetics Usability & Accessibilty Online Services: Beyond Usability References Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 12
  • 13. Usability Testing Usability testing is a methodology that employs potential users to evaluate the degree to which a website/software meets predefined usability criteria. Basic Process: 1. Watch Customers 2. They Perform Tasks 3. Note Their Problems 4. Make Recommendations 5. Iterate Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 13
  • 14. Measures of Usability Effectiveness (Ability to successfully accomplish tasks) ▫ Percentage of goals/tasks achieved (success rate) ▫ Number of errors Efficiency (Ability to accomplish tasks with speed and ease) ▫ Time to complete a task ▫ Frequency of requests for help ▫ Number of times facilitator provides assistance ▫ Number of times user gives up Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 14
  • 15. Measures of Usability Satisfaction (Pleasing to users) ▫ Positive and negative ratings on a satisfaction scale ▫ Percent of favorable comments to unfavorable comments ▫ Number of good vs. bad features recalled after test ▫ Number of users who would use the system again ▫ Number of times users express dissatisfaction or frustration Learnability (Ability to learn how to use site and remember it) ▫ Ratio of successes to failures ▫ Number of features that can be recalled after the test Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 15
  • 16. Usability Testing Roles Facilitator: ▫ Oversees the entire test process ▫ Plan, test, and report. Participant: ▫ Actual or potential customer. ▫ Representative users (marketing, designers) avoided. Observer (optional): ▫ Records events as they occur. ▫ Limits interaction with the customer. ▫ Does contribute to the report. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 16
  • 17. Testing Methods & Tools Method/Tool Short description Usability laboratory A room with computer equipment, a place for an observer to sit and a special observation area. Web-based Online evaluation with live feedback from users. Thinking Aloud A test subject thinks aloud while navigating the site. Observation Visiting the users and observing them work. Questionnaires Site or email questionnaires are an effective way of measuring user satisfaction. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 17
  • 18. Testing Methods & Tools Method/Tool Short description Interviews Well suited to exploratory studies where one does not know yet what one is looking for. Focus groups Users are brought together to discuss new concepts and identify important issues. Heuristic evaluation Looking at an interface and trying to come up with an opinion about pros and cons about it. Log file analysis The computer automatically collect statistics about the detailed use of the system. User feedback Shows the immediate and pressing concerns, is an ongoing process and is adapts quickly. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 18
  • 19. Usability Testing Process Step 1: Planning The Usability Test ▫ Define what to test ▫ Define which customers should be tested ▫ Define what tasks should be tested ▫ Write usability scenarios and tasks ▫ Select participants Step 2: Conducting The Usability Test ▫ Conduct a test ▫ Collect data Step 3: Analyzing and Reporting The Usability Test ▫ Compile results ▫ Make recommendations Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 19
  • 20. People – Context – Activities Step 1: Planning The Usability Test ▫ Define what to test • → Activities (Use Cases) ▫ Define which customers (user profiles) to be tested • → People (Actors) ▫ Provide a background for the activities to test • → Context Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 20
  • 21. Usability Scenarios and Tasks Provide the participant with motivation and context to make the situation more realistic Include several tasks: ▫ Make the first task simple ▫ Give a goal, without describing steps Set some success criteria, examples: ▫ N% of test participants will be able to complete x% of tasks in the time allotted. ▫ Participants will be able to complete x% of tasks with no more than one error per task. ▫ N% of test participants will rate the system as highly usable on a scale of x to x. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 21
  • 22. Example of Scenario with Tasks Context: ▫ You want to book a sailing on Royal Caribbean International for next June with your church group. The group is called “Saint Francis Summer 2010”. The group is selling out fast, so you want to book a cabin, which is close to an elevator because your leg hurts from a recent injury. Tasks to perform: 1. Open your browser 2. Click the link labeled “Royal Caribbean” 3. Tell me the available cabins in the “Saint Francis Summer 2010” group 4. Tell me a cabin number closest to an elevator 5. Book the cabin the best suits your needs Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 22
  • 23. Selecting Participants Recruit participants ▫ In-house ▫ recruitment firms, databases, conferences Match participants with user profiles Numbers: of participants, floaters Schedule test sessions Incentives: ▫ Gift checks ($100 per session) ▫ Food or gift cards Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 23
  • 24. How Many Test Participants Are Required? The number of usability problems found in a usability test with n participants is: N(1-(1-L)n) ▫ N : total number of usability problems in the design ▫ L : the proportion of usability problems discovered while testing a single participant. For L = 31% Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 24
  • 25. How Many Test Participants Are Required? It seems that you need to test with at least 15 participants to discover all the usability problems However, is better to perform 3 tests with 5 participants than to perform one with 15 participants: ▫ After the first test with 5 participants has found 85% of the usability problems, you will want to fix them in a redesign. ▫ After creating the new design, you need to test again. ▫ The second test with 5 users will discover most of the remaining 15% of the original usability problems that were not found in the first test (and some new one). ▫ The new test will be able to uncover structural usability problems that were obscured in initial studies as users were stumped by surface-level usability problems. ▫ Fix the new problems, and test … Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 25
  • 26. Usability Labs … Not Necessary The testing room contains office The observer side contains a powerful furniture, video tape equipment, a computer to collect the usability data microphone and a computer with and analyze it. A one-way mirror appropriate software. separates the rooms. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 26
  • 27. Usability Labs … Not Necessary? Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 27
  • 29. Conducting Tests: Facilitator’s Role Start with an easy task to build confidence Sit beside the person not behind the glass Use “think-out-loud” protocol Give participants time to think it through Offer appropriate encouragement Lead participants, don’t answer questions (being an enabler) Don’t act knowledgeable (treat them as the experts) Don’t get too involved in data collection Don’t jump to conclusions Don’t solve their problems immediately Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 29
  • 30. Collecting Data Performance ▫ Objective (what actually happened) ▫ Usually Quantitative • Time to complete a task • Time to recover from an error • Number of errors • Percentage of tasks completed successfully • Number of clicks • Pathway information Preference ▫ Subjective (what participants say/thought) ▫ Usually Qualitative • Preference of versions • Suggestions and comments • Ratings or rankings (can be quantitative) Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 30
  • 31. Report findings and recommendations Make report usable for your users Include quantitative data (success rates, times, etc.) Avoid words like “few, many, several”. Include counts Use quotes Use screenshots Mention positive findings Do not use participant names, use P1, P2, P3, etc. Include recommendations Make it short Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 31
  • 32. Agenda Introducing Usability Usability Testing Usability vs Aesthetics Usability vs Accessibilty Online Services: Beyond Usability References Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 32
  • 33. The evolution of culture marches with the elimination of ornament from useful objects Ornament und Verbrechen Adolf Loos (1870 - 1933) Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 33
  • 34. Agenda Introducing Usability Usability Testing Usability vs Aesthetics Usability & Accessibilty Online Services: Beyond Usability References Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 34
  • 35. Usability & Accessibility Usability means designing websites to be effective, efficient, and satisfying for most people Accessibility makes sure it is effective, efficient, and satisfying ▫ for more people — especially people with disabilities — ▫ in more situations — including with assistive technologies, mobile devices, and more. The W3C’s Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0, and User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0 provide a stable set of accessibility requirements that can be met using different techniques Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 35
  • 36. Agenda Introducing Usability Usability Testing Usability vs Aesthetics Usability & Accessibilty Online Services: Beyond Usability References Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 36
  • 37. A Service Science Perspective for Interfaces of Online Service Applications [Pin08] Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 37
  • 38. Online Services: Defining Features The user does not control most means of production. (resources, capital, and labor), therefore she cannot determine ▫ when and how intensively resources are used ▫ where her information is stored and who can access it ▫ how much effort is put on a given task or goal ▫ what the cost of the service is and how it changes The user (self, belongings, information) is a significant part of the input to the production process, ▫ therefore the application behave as a service rather than a manufacture. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 38
  • 39. Online Services: Beyond “Classical” Usability “Classical”HCI evaluation and usability: ▫ determines typical usage scenarios of the device/product ▫ recreates in the laboratory meaningful test procedures. Web applications required HCI practitioners to change some techniques to cope with their special needs Taking one step further, recognizing the specific characteristics of online services in contrast to generic web applications will allow the development of more appropriate tools A new framework is proposed by considering 6 common characteristics of services reported in the SSME literature: customer-as-input, heterogeneity, simultaneity, perishability, coproduction, and intangibility. Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 39
  • 40. Online Services: Important Issues (To Test) Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 40
  • 41. References [NH06] Nielsen, J. and Loranger, H. 2006 Prioritizing Web Usability. New Riders Publishing. [Pin08] Pinhanez, C. 2008. A service science perspective for interfaces of online service applications. In Proceedings of the VIII Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems www.useit.com (Jakob Nielsen) www.usability.gov Seminari d'Enginyeria de Serveis 41