Culture,Language,anld Globalization


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The paper was presented international conference in Uinversity of Kerela,Thiruvananthapuram,India regarding Culture,language,anld globalization.February,2008.

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Culture,Language,anld Globalization

  1. 1. International ConferenceInternational Conference on Malayalam and Globalizationon Malayalam and Globalization 25-2725-27thth Feb. 2008, Thiruvananthapuram.Feb. 2008, Thiruvananthapuram. CULTURE,LANGUAGECULTURE,LANGUAGE ANDAND GLOBALIZATIONGLOBALIZATION SEYED HOSSEIN FAZELI Department of Linguistics, University of Mysore, Mysore.
  2. 2. OutlineOutline IntroductionIntroduction 1. The history of vocabulary “Culture”1. The history of vocabulary “Culture” 2. Nature and reality of “culture”2. Nature and reality of “culture” 3. The categories of definitions of “culture”3. The categories of definitions of “culture” 4. Language, thought and culture4. Language, thought and culture 5. Language, Culture and Society5. Language, Culture and Society 6. Language learning6. Language learning 7. Culture, learning and communication7. Culture, learning and communication 8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and learninglearning 9.Globalization9.Globalization 10. Results10. Results English in GlobalizationEnglish in Globalization ReferencesReferences
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction Importance of relationship of language and cultureImportance of relationship of language and culture Culture and language are two unseperatable sides of humanCulture and language are two unseperatable sides of human communication systemcommunication system A language of one society reflects the culture of that society Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in various ways Language is human society’s most precious possession not only because of its communicative values, but also because language is the vehicle of culture Culture is the embodiment of all that a society believes produces Language becomes an integral part of culture Language and culture go hand in hand interacting with and shaping together CONTINUE ……
  4. 4. The acquisition of one language is done through or with culture Society and culture are more than background and even more than context Language and society are so inter-linked and so much apart each other that are cannot be thought of except in relation to the other Language for the individual is his tool for interaction with community as well as the community’s tool for interaction with the individual Language acquiring is just one aspect of acculturation The two languages are not translation of each others Globalization in a literal sense is international integration Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into single society The effects of globalization which work to linguistic homogenization and cultural homogenization is done through modernization, translation, standardization and the others.
  5. 5. 1. The history of word “Culture”1. The history of word “Culture” Origin of concept “culture”Origin of concept “culture” It is derived form the classical or may be pre-classical LatinIt is derived form the classical or may be pre-classical Latin (Cultura)(Cultura) In 1750, it was used to describe the human society for theIn 1750, it was used to describe the human society for the first time in Germany languagefirst time in Germany language In 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific definitionIn 1871,Tylore defined it as a clear scientific definition In 1926, ”Culture” was added to Webster dictionary (for theIn 1926, ”Culture” was added to Webster dictionary (for the same meaning)same meaning)
  6. 6. 2. Nature and reality of “culture”2. Nature and reality of “culture” It refers to some “property” of communityIt refers to some “property” of community culture is something that everybody hasculture is something that everybody has Material culture and Non-material cultureMaterial culture and Non-material culture Culture is knowledge includes “know-how “and “how-that”Culture is knowledge includes “know-how “and “how-that” (1957, Goodenough)(1957, Goodenough) Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural knowledge , Non-Cultural knowledge , Shared non-cultural knowledge , Non- shared non-cultural knowledge in one societyshared non-cultural knowledge in one society CultureCulture is general; however, it is general; however, it is particular. is dynamic, however, it is dynamic, however, it is static. is accepted through force, however, it is free willis accepted through force, however, it is free will Problems of the study of cultureProblems of the study of culture
  7. 7. 3.The categories of3.The categories of definitionsdefinitions of “culture”of “culture” The Descriptive type-The Descriptive type- The factorial elements of cultureThe factorial elements of culture -Tylor 1871-Tylor 1871 The Traditional typeThe Traditional type- The social heritage or tradition- The social heritage or tradition -Sapir 1921-Sapir 1921 The Normative typeThe Normative type-- The rule or wayThe rule or way -Young 1934-Young 1934 The values and ideasThe values and ideas -Sorokin 1947-Sorokin 1947 The Psychological typeThe Psychological type -- Culture as adjustmentCulture as adjustment -Small 1905-Small 1905 The learningThe learning -Opler 1947-Opler 1947 The habitsThe habits -Murdock 1941-Murdock 1941 The structural type-The structural type- The model, pattern or organization of cultureThe model, pattern or organization of culture -Willey 1926-Willey 1926 The Genetical type-The Genetical type- Culture is as a productionCulture is as a production - Falsom 1928- Falsom 1928 The ideas in cultureThe ideas in culture - Ward 1903- Ward 1903 The symbols of cultureThe symbols of culture - Whyite 1943- Whyite 1943
  8. 8. 4.Language, though and culture In language acquisition, cognitive development and linguistic development, go hand in hand, each interacting with and shaping the other Verbal labels can shape the way we store events for later recall culture as “socially acquired knowledge” culture is one part of memory Culture is really an integral part of the interaction between language and thought Meanings for every thing, are in the human
  9. 9. 5. Language, Culture and Society The facility of communication and interaction for social living, is as a result of social being and living in societies as characteristic of the human Language does not develop in a vacuum Language records the cultural history of a community A language is part of the culture of a people and the chief means by which the members of a society communicate Language is component of culture and central network through which the other components are expressed Differences in cultural meanings across language are a problem in learning a new language Contacting with people of another society, identifies some characteristics of the behavior ,that show they are as member of a different society
  10. 10. 6. Language learning and teaching Learning is as “acquiring or getting of knowledge of a subject or skill by study, experience, or instruction” The concept of learning, as it is understood today, has been generally influenced by the psychological study of the learning process Teaching is as" showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instruction, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand” Your understanding of how the learner learns, will determine the philosophy of education
  11. 11. 7. Culture, learning and communication To understand some materials and subject in one language, we should understand the meanings of the culture expressed by the words of the language There can be no real learning of a language, without understanding something of the patterns and values of the culture of which it is a part To become truly educated in language, it is necessary to absorb the full cultural meaning of the target language Breaking free of the elements meaning units of the learner’s native language, let him to achieve right communication through a second language CONTINUE…
  12. 12. If we suppose that: *M = “Meaning which exists in the mind of sender of message during the specific communication, as it is called Communication A.” *M′ = “Meaning which consist in the mind of receiver of message during the specific communication, as it is called Communication A.” **Among the two individuals communication, one of the below states, will occur: CONTINUE…
  13. 13. State one M'/M=1, Two individuals communicate each others completely. State two M'/M=0, Two individuals do not communicate each each others. State three M'/M <1, Two individuals communicative each others, but not completely. State four M'/M >1, Two results will occur: A-Complete communication B - Self communication
  14. 14. 8. The analysis of the social content of language teaching and learning The social content of language learning can be regarded as a set of factors that is likely to exercise a powerful influence on language learning Socio-cultural factors that bear upon motivation Sociolinguistic and socio cultural factors in learning environment Importance to the influence of interethnic relations upon ethno- linguistic attitudes and on language learning the social opportunities for contact with the second language Educational frame work in which the teaching normally occurs
  15. 15. 9.Globalization Globalization (generally written with a Z) has been defined by Giddens as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens, 1990) Globalization in a literal sense is international integration Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into single society Scholars from various disciplines such as sociology, political, science and geography have perceived globalization differently and tried to define it from various angles CONTINUE…
  16. 16. Commodity of chains whereby production is coordinated on a global scale Diffusion of practice, values and technology that have an influence on people’s life world wide Increasing technological scale and information flow Increasing broader flow of goods, services, money, information and culture we can find some of common concepts like mutual interdependence, exchange, and sharing the community around the world in all aspects such as social, economic, cultural and even linguistic aspects CONTINUE…
  17. 17. Although there seems to be a consensus that we are living in increasingly globalized world, there is by no means agreement about related issues Compression of space and time, shrinking of world Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways such as: 1.Industrial, 2) Financial, 3) Economic, 4) Political, 5) Informational, 6) Cultural, 7) Social and 8) Ecological In cultural aspects, there are many international exchanges such as: 1. Spreading of multiculturalism, 2) International travel and tourism, 3) Immigration, 4) formation or development of a set of universal values, 5) Development of a global telecommunications infrastructure, 6) Internet, Communication satellites and the other related tools, 7) Increase in the number of standards applied globally CONTINUE…
  18. 18. Globalization is the emergence that is common cross- culturally and across national boundaries The global communication leads to some extent functional homogenization of culture and language Homogenization of culture and homogenization of language, are particularly relevant for translating globalization as a reality The active responses of sub-national languages and cultures to the global force are also very important for their own survival and progress
  19. 19. 10.Results Language and culture go hand in hand, each interacting with and shaping together Language and culture are inter-linked to each others in various ways Language is an integral part of culture and the vehicle of culture Effects on every one of them, leads to affect the other as it can to be called directly or indirectly Globalization, through linguistic homogenization and cultural homogenization, affects on language and culture as modernization, translation, standardization and the others CONTINUE…
  20. 20. Globalization’s effects can be positive and negative effects The homogenization of culture due to globalization process results in the marginalization of indigenous cultures However, globalization through cultural homogenization, can be helpful in the progress and development of the cultures; if …. The members of one culture community should try to maintain their positive aspects of culture and replace negative aspects of their culture through positive aspects of globalization The members of one culture community should aware about outcomes of globalization CONTINUE…
  21. 21. At the language level , globalization leads to growth of many countries The technological and advanced communicational facilities make the world to shrink and pave way for homogenization many who believe their mother tongue does not have universal role , they waste their time to use their mother tongue or teach it to their children many others who believe such language (English) is as a language that can make the world as a peaceful unit world through understanding same language CONTINUE…
  22. 22. Some ideas as result of globalization and English or any language with such effect can be dangerous for national, local languages, specially endangered language which are understood to be moribund languages The industrialists, traders and their marketing techniques play a major role in shaping the languages It should be mentioned that, in fact the control over the language is not in the hands of scholar or academic institutions. It is shaped by the traders and marketing agencies
  23. 23. English in Globalization English is as a language of communication and official language in many countries English is not own language of particular community or country Since 1945 (after second world war), English became a lingua France More than 2/3 of scientists in the world, write their books and articles in English 3/4 of letters in the world are written in English 90 percent of all communications in Internet as international network, is in English CONTINUE…
  24. 24. The education English programs of English radios are used by more than 150 millions in the world More than 500 millions of children in elementary schools and more than 800 hundreds in secondary and high school (without china) are familiar with English as a second or foreign language However, there are some governments’ policies against English in countries such as France, German, Spain There are three circles regarding to English first circle, such as U.S and England, the second circle such as India, which English has much dominance and it is applied as a second language and the third circle ,such as china and Russia which English has special importance as a international language and for such countries is as first foreign language CONTINUE…
  25. 25. In 1994 , 1/3 of the press in the world, are printed in countries which English has special importance In 1995, 110 from 160 of linguistics journals(70 percent) were printed in English In 1995, there were 5000 radio station that 45 percent of them were in countries that English has special role It is estimated that English film serials in U.S. and England are watched in more than 120 countries In 1996, 80 percent of produced films were in English CONTINUE…
  26. 26. 85 percent of incomes of world’s cinemas are for English production of Hollywood In countries such as German and France, although, there are governments’ policies against English, but only, 25 percent of their cinemas incomes are for non-English movies In 1990, 549 from 557 of famous music groups act in English 1156 from 1219 of famous singers, sing in English language In 1998, U.S. had the first percentage of income of tourism (50 milliards dollars ) Around 80 percent of register of information in Internet, is in English .The users of Internet in 1990 had been one million and in 1993,Tthey became 20 millions and 40 millions in 1995. It is estimated that in 2020, Such numbers will be one milliard
  27. 27. ACKONWLEDGMENT I Acknowledge that I did main from work of the present work based on the work of Hossein Yaghobi.
  28. 28. References 1.Ashori, D. 2002. Definitions and concept of culture. Tehran: AAgah Publication. 2. Avanguren, J.L.1970. Human communication. World University Library. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co. 3.Bailey, C. 1982. English as a world language. London: CUP. 4.Basnett, s. 1990. Translation: History and culture. London. Pinter publishuers. 5..Brown, H.D.H. 1994. Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. 6.Crystal, D. 1997. The Cambridge Eneyclopedia of language. Newyork: Cambridge university press. 7.Crystal, D. 1`998. English as a global language. Newyork: Cambridge university press. 8.Eco.U. 1997. The search for the perfect language. London; Fontana press. 9.Finaly, F. 1971. Translating. London: Teach yourself books. 10.Fisiak, J. 1985. Contrastive linguistics and the language teacher. Great Britain: Pergamon Press Ltd. 11. Hilgard, E.R.1975.Introduction to Psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace. 12.Louis, D. 1915. Culture individuelle et culture de masse. (Translatd in Persian by: Baageri, A. 2005. Tehran: Ferouzan Publication). 13.Lyons, J. 1990. Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 14.Pei, M. 1958. One language for the world. Newyork: Dewn- Adaor. 15.Mohesiniaan Raad, M. 2005.Communicology: An innovative definition and model for communication process. Tehran: Soroush press. 16. Polman, R.1997.Behavioral Genetics. (Translated in Persian by:Nik KHo,M.R.2001.Tehran:Mehtab publication). 17.Roh Alamini, M. 2004. Background of Culturology. Tehran: Payaam nour University Pres. 18.Simmons, Tom. 1983. One language, one world. Newyork: Harper perennial. Edwards, J.L. 1985. Society and identity. Oxford: Blackwell. 19.Stern, H.H. 1991. Fundamental concept of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 20.Yaghobi. H. 2005. Language, translation, and the relationships of cultures. Tehran: Ghazal print.
  29. 29. THANK YOU