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User	
  Experience	
  Design	
  	
  
   &	
  Paper	
  Prototyping	
  	
  	
  
              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  
User	
  Experience	
  &	
  Usability	
  Consultant	
  
           www.ilonaposner.com	
  

           Mobile	
  Accelerator	
  Program	
  (MAP)	
  
        Mobile	
  Experience	
  InnovaJon	
  Centre	
  (MEIC)	
  
                     OCADU,	
  Toronto,	
  ON	
  

                        February	
  14,	
  2013	
  


                          ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
            1	
  
Bio	
  -­‐	
  	
  ILONA	
  POSNER	
  
                User	
  Experience	
  &	
  Usability	
  Consultant	
  
•  Industries:	
  Telecom,	
  Financial,	
  Web,	
  Mobile,	
  SoTware,	
  
   Hardware,	
  Healthcare,	
  TransportaJon,	
  EducaJon	
  

•  Clients:	
  	
  AMD,	
  Autodesk,	
  Apple,	
  Bell,	
  CIBC,	
  DB,	
  MicrosoT,	
  
   Pitney	
  Bowes,	
  LA	
  Metro	
  Transit	
  Authority,	
  Human	
  Factors	
  
   InternaJonal,	
  NaJonal	
  Research	
  Council	
  of	
  Canada,	
  Canada	
  
   Health	
  Infoway,	
  CIBC,	
  RBC,	
  ScoJa,	
  TD,	
  Visa,	
  &	
  Yahoo!	
  

•  Teaching:	
  University	
  of	
  Toronto,	
  Canadian	
  Film	
  Centre,	
  	
  
   OCADU,	
  Professional	
  Development	
  Courses	
  

•  Research:	
  University	
  of	
  Toronto,	
  Computer	
  Science,	
  Human	
  
   Computer	
  InteracJon,	
  Dynamic	
  Graphics	
  Project	
  

•  Educa=on:	
  M.Sc.	
  &	
  B.Sc.	
  Computer	
  Science,	
  U.	
  of	
  Toronto	
  
                                    ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                         2	
  
Points	
  of	
  View	
  

 “A	
  point	
  of	
  view	
  is	
  worth	
  80	
  points	
  of	
  IQ.”	
  
                 	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  -­‐	
  Alan	
  Kay	
  




“You	
  are	
  NOT	
  the	
  User!”	
  


                                                                                                                                                  ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                                3	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Source	
  www.openmuseum.org/objet/show/1835	
  
Keyhole	
  Impact	
  




                                                “I	
  am	
  NOT	
  the	
  User!”	
  
                                                               ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                4	
  
Source	
  hfp://s125.beta.photobucket.com/user/alongway99/media/Halloween%20AnimaJons/Scary%20Eye%20AnimaJons/EyeLooksKeyhole.gif.html?sort=4&o=47	
  
History	
  of	
  User	
  Experience	
  
•    Human	
  Factors	
  &	
  Ergonomics	
  
•    Human	
  Computer	
  InteracJon	
  
•    Usability	
  
•    User	
  Experience	
  




                            ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     5	
  
1940’s	
  




ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     6	
  
1950’s	
  




ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     7	
  
1980’s	
  




ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     8	
  
And	
  Now…	
  	
  




   ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     9	
  
Human	
  Impact	
  of	
  Technology	
  

Human Impact
Devices	
  
ApplicaJons	
  
Input	
  forms	
  	
  
Features	
  
InformaJon	
  
Time	
  of	
  use	
  
Dependence	
  
Interdependence	
  	
  
Sociability	
  
Environmental	
  impact	
  
                                                                         Human Capacities




                                      ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                10	
  
What	
  is	
  User	
  Experience?	
  
Interna=onal	
  Standards	
  Organiza=on	
  	
  
•    ISO	
  defines	
  user	
  experience	
  as	
  "a	
  person's	
  percep=ons	
  and	
  responses	
  that	
  result	
  from	
  the	
  use	
  or	
  
     an=cipated	
  use	
  of	
  a	
  product,	
  system	
  or	
  service".	
  So,	
  user	
  experience	
  is	
  subjec=ve	
  and	
  focuses	
  on	
  
     the	
  use.	
  
•    The	
  addiJonal	
  notes	
  for	
  the	
  ISO	
  definiJon	
  explain	
  that	
  user	
  experience	
  includes	
  all	
  the	
  users'	
  
     emo=ons,	
  beliefs,	
  preferences,	
  percep=ons,	
  physical	
  and	
  psychological	
  responses,	
  behaviors	
  and	
  
     accomplishments	
  that	
  occur	
  before,	
  during	
  and	
  aMer	
  use.	
  The	
  notes	
  also	
  list	
  the	
  three	
  factors	
  that	
  
     influence	
  user	
  experience:	
  system,	
  user	
  and	
  the	
  context	
  of	
  use.	
  
•    Note	
  3	
  of	
  the	
  standard	
  hints	
  that	
  usability	
  addresses	
  aspects	
  of	
  user	
  experience,	
  e.g.	
  "usability	
  
     criteria	
  can	
  be	
  used	
  to	
  assess	
  aspects	
  of	
  user	
  experience".	
  Unfortunately,	
  the	
  standard	
  does	
  not	
  go	
  
     further	
  in	
  clarifying	
  the	
  relaJon	
  between	
  user	
  experience	
  and	
  usability.	
  Clearly,	
  the	
  two	
  are	
  
     overlapping	
  concepts,	
  with	
  usability	
  including	
  pragma=c	
  aspects	
  (geNng	
  a	
  task	
  done)	
  and	
  user	
  
     experience	
  focusing	
  on	
  users’	
  feelings	
  stemming	
  both	
  from	
  pragma=c	
  and	
  hedonic	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
  
     system.	
  

       ISO	
  FDIS	
  9241-­‐210:2009.	
  Ergonomics	
  of	
  human	
  system	
  interacJon	
  -­‐	
  Part	
  210:	
  Human-­‐centered	
  design	
  for	
  
               interacJve	
  systems	
  (formerly	
  known	
  as	
  13407).	
  InternaJonal	
  OrganizaJon	
  for	
  StandardizaJon	
  (ISO).	
  
                                                                 Switzerland.	
  	
  	
  	
  hfp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_experience	
  




                                                              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                           11	
  
User	
  Experience	
  	
  
Everything	
  that	
  the	
  user	
  sees,	
  hears,	
  &	
  touches!	
  




                                    Share	
  




                                                    Customize	
  



                            ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                  12	
  
**	
  Balloon	
  Image	
  **	
  




      ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     13	
  
User	
  Experience	
  =	
  Product	
  




              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     14	
  
User	
  Experience	
  =	
  Brand	
  




             ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     15	
  
User	
  Experience	
  
                                         UX	
  Honeycomb,	
  Peter	
  Moreville	
  	
  	
  




      ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                              16	
  
Buying	
  Pop	
  with	
  a	
  Cell	
  Phone	
  




                                    IDEO	
  researchers	
  test	
  i-­‐mode	
  leading	
  edge	
  
                                        mobile	
  services	
  plavorm,	
  2003	
  


Bill	
  Moggridge,	
  Designing	
  InteracJons,	
  February	
  2,	
  2007	
  lecture	
  by	
  Bill	
  Moggridge	
  for	
  the	
  Stanford	
  University	
  
Human	
  Computer	
  InteracJon	
  Seminar	
  (CS	
  547).	
  	
  	
  	
  hfp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVkQYvN4_HA	
  
                                                              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                                  17	
  
User	
  Experience	
  Example	
  …	
  



                           hfp://www.switched.com/2010/12/28/aol-­‐free-­‐trial-­‐cds-­‐cost-­‐300-­‐million/	
  




              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                        18	
  
UX	
  Problem	
  




    ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     19	
  
Cost	
  of	
  UX	
  Problem	
  
                    •  Bush	
  won	
  by	
  537	
  of	
  5.8	
  million	
  votes	
  
                    •  Buchanan	
  5x	
  >	
  votes	
  in	
  Palm	
  Beach	
  
                    •  19,120	
  ballots	
  registered	
  2	
  votes,	
  
                       20,000	
  disqualified	
  ballots	
  
                    •  Law	
  suit	
  claimed:	
  
                       “Ballots	
  were	
  decepJve,	
  misleading,	
  
                       and	
  confusing.”	
  	
  
                    •  Results	
  delayed	
  37	
  days!	
  	
  Nov	
  7	
  -­‐	
  Dec	
  13 	
  
                                                                                              	
  




                                                       hfp://costofwar.com/	
  


       ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                        20	
  
How	
  to	
  Maximize	
  UX?	
  




           ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     21	
  
Trinity	
  for	
  Success	
  

                                      Users	
  




 Business	
  
                                     Technology
                                               	
  




                ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
        22	
  
Research	
  Focus	
  
Problem	
  Space	
  
-­‐ Environment	
  
-­‐ Market	
  
-­‐ LegislaJon	
  
                                                                                                             Users	
  	
  
                      Business	
                                                            Users	
          -­‐ Goals,	
  Needs	
  
                                                                                                             -­‐ AcJviJes,	
  Tasks	
  
                      -­‐ Vision	
  &	
  Goals	
  
                      -­‐ Requirements	
                                                                     -­‐ Requirements	
  
                      -­‐ CompeJJon	
  




                                                     Business	
  
                                                                                ?	
                          Technology	
  
                                                                                            Technology       -­‐ Constraints	
  
                                                                                                      	
     -­‐ Requirements	
  




                                                               ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                             23	
  
UX	
  Success	
  Stories	
  




    Mazda	
  Miata,	
  1989	
  -­‐	
  present	
  


              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
        24	
  
$300	
  Million	
  Bufon	
  
	
  eCommerce	
  website	
  changed	
  one	
  bufon	
  label	
  	
  


                            ✗	
  
                 REGISTER	
                   CONTINUE	
  
                                                                   ✓
+	
  45%	
  sales	
  up	
  aTer	
  renaming	
  of	
  bufon	
  	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  &	
  removal	
  of	
  forced	
  registraJon	
  


+	
  $300	
  Million/year	
  revenue	
  




                                                Source:	
  www.uie.com/ar,cles/three_hund_million_bu(on	
  


                                ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                25	
  
$12	
  Million	
  –	
  OpJonal	
  Field	
  
             •  Expedia.com	
  makes	
  $12	
  Million	
  profit,	
  
                aTer	
  removing	
  opJonal	
  field	
  “Company”	
  from	
  
                online	
  purchase	
  form	
  
             •  Prior,	
  customers	
  who	
  clicked	
  the	
  Buy	
  Now	
  did	
  not	
  
                complete	
  transacJons…	
  	
  




            Source:	
  	
  hfp://www.silicon.com/management/sales-­‐and-­‐markeJng/2010/11/01/
            expedia-­‐	
  on-­‐how-­‐one-­‐extra-­‐data-­‐field-­‐can-­‐cost-­‐12m-­‐39746554/	
  




                      ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                26	
  
iPod	
  vs	
  Zune	
  




     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     27	
  
How	
  to	
  Maximize	
  UX?	
  




           ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     28	
  
Five	
  D’s	
  of	
  User	
  Experience	
  Design	
  

                                Discover	
  



           Deploy	
                                               Define 	
  	
  




                  Develop	
                               Design	
  


                           ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                          29	
  
Five	
  D’s	
  of	
  	
  
                                                             DISCOVER                           DEFINE                               DESIGN                                DEVELOP                             DEPLOY

                                                            !"#$%&##'
                                                            Business stakeholder interviews     Business objectives                 Review concepts & designs often
                                                            Business goals, mission, vision     Market Positioning                  Attend usability testing sessions      Attend usability testing sessions   Monitor usage & metrics
                                                            Concept                             Success metrics                                                                                                Future features list




 UX	
  Design	
  
                                                            Product SWOT Analysis
                                                            Marketing Mix(four P's)
                                                            Market Positioning
                                                            Market Segmentation
                                                            Demographic Research
                                                            Design Guidelines / Standards?

                                                            ()*+",-'
                                                            Product reports & surveys           Concept prototype/video             Review concepts & designs often
                                                            Critical incident analysis          Project definition/Concept           Attend usability testing sessions      Attend usability testing sessions   Monitor usage & metrics
                                                            Weblogs & analytics                 Deliverables defined                                                                                            Future features list
                                                            Competitive Analysis                Use cases
                                                            Quantitative Research               Initial design exploration
                                                            Qualitative Research                Visualization
                                                            Expert heuristic evaluation         Flowchart (tasks)
                                                            Design research                     Success metrics

                                                            -&,.%*/*01'
                                                            Current technology used             Technical requirements              !"#$%&'()*+,+-.&-#(/$0&(#((+1$(        DEVELOP with input from UX          SUPPORT deployed product
                                                            Limitation of old technology        Success metrics                     2#3+#4&51$5#6-(&7&%#(+0$(&18#$         !"#$%&'()*+,+-.&-#(/$0&(#((+1$(
                                                            Opportunities for new tech
                                                            Research tech constraints

                                                            2$#"3/'+&#$0%
                                                            Brand & Design Guidelines           Develop Strategy, explore look &      Design Direction, agree on chosen    Style Guide - Pixel placements
                                                                                                feel                                  direction                            definition
                                                            Frames of reference, analagous      Generate Initial Ideas, style frames, Iterations of Hi-Fidelity Designs    Graphic Production - Icons,
                                                            examples                            initial concepts, mock-ups            before user testing                  graphics, page elements
                                                            Future Design Direction                                                                                        Developer Toolkit - Examples,
                                                                                                                                                                           sample code, wiki

                                                                                                                                                                           THESE ABOVE MAY NEED TO
                                                                                                                                                                           HAPPEN SOONER!?!?




                                                            "#&)'&4(&)$&%,&'5'"#3!$/$-1
                                                            Business stakeholder interviews     Concept prototype/video
                                                            Call centre reports                 User stories                        Brainstorm concepts & metaphors        Work closely with development       User Surveys

                                                            User community feedback             User profiles                        Modules requirements & designs         Beware: Last minute design changes Monitor social networks & user
                                                                                                                                                                           done without UX Input              communities
                                                            Field studies                       Usability goals & objectives        Screen flow, functions, fields                                              Field studies of actual use
                                                            User surveys                        User performance requirements       Navigation/site map
                                                            User interviews                     User experience goals               Review early design concepts        Conduct heuristic evaluations of       Usage metrics, & performance
                                                                                                                                    (including graphic treatment)       evolving product                       measurements
                                                            Expert heuristic evaluation         Persona's                           Prototypes Low-Fidelity (multiples) Usability test evolving product as     Future features list
                                                                                                                                                                        soon as possible
                                                            Usability testing current product   Storyboarding                       Wireframes Low-Fidelity             Confirm success metrics and
                                                                                                                                    (multiples)                         objectives are being met
                                                            Design research                     User scenarios                      Usability Test Low-Fidelity
                                                                                                                                    Prototypes & Wireframes
                                                                                                Task Analysis                       Prototypes High-Fidelity (includes Final Usability Testing before
                                                                                                                                    graphic treatment)                  Deployement
                                                            Competitive Analysis                Success metrics                     Detailed Designs
                                                            Quantitative Research                                                   Usability Test Designs & High-Fi    Project Process Debrief & Lessons
                                                                                                                                    Prototypes                          Learned
                                                            Qualitative Research                                                                                        Update Design Guidelines

                                                            Task Analysis                                                           Update detailed designs & functional
                                                                                                                                    specifications for development

                                                            User Goal Analysis                                                      Document Design Rationale
                                                                                                                                    Update Design Guidelines/Standards




ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     Five	
  D’s	
  of	
  UX	
  Design	
  –	
  Discover,	
  	
  Define,	
  Design,	
  Develop,	
  Deploy	
  
                                                                    ILONA	
  POSNER	
  © 2013	
                                                                                                                                                30	
  
hfp://www.uxmafers.com/mt/archives/2011/09/images/EffecJveUIJourneyMapExample.jpg	
  




Customer	
  Journey	
  




            ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                    31	
  
Vision	
  




ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     32	
  
Samsung	
  vs	
  iPhone	
  Comparison	
  -­‐	
  Memo	
  




                                                                     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
  
     Samsung,	
  RelaJve	
  EvaluaJon	
  Report	
  on	
  S1,	
  iPhone,	
  Product	
  Engineering	
  Team,	
  SW	
  VefiricaJon	
  Group	
  March	
  2,	
  2010	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                 33	
  
     PlainJff’s	
  Exhibit	
  No.	
  44,	
  United	
  States	
  District	
  Court,	
  Northern	
  District	
  of	
  California,	
  Apple	
  Inc.	
  v.	
  Samsung	
  Elecs.	
  
iTunes	
  Usability	
  Challenges	
  




                       hfp://www.nngroup.com/arJcles/disrupJve-­‐workflow-­‐design/	
  

             ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                              34	
  
iTunes	
  Usability	
  Challenges	
  




             ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     35	
  
iTunes	
  User	
  Experience	
  Challenges	
  




                  ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     36	
  
User	
  Research	
  




     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     37	
  
360	
  Degree	
  View	
  of	
  Customer	
  
•    Call	
  centre	
                                                                              •    Field	
  Studies	
  
•    Customer	
  support	
  emails	
                                                               •    Interviews	
  
•    User	
  forums	
                                                                              •    Surveys	
  
•    AnalyJcs	
                                                                                    •    Diary	
  studies	
  
•    Web	
  logs	
                                                                                 •    Focus	
  groups	
  
•    3rd	
  party	
  review	
  sites	
                                                             •    Card	
  sorJng	
  
                                                                                                   •    Usability	
  tesJng	
  




      Lean	
  UX	
  -­‐	
  Applying	
  Lean	
  Principles	
  to	
  Improve	
  User	
  Experience,	
  Jeff	
  Gothelf	
  &	
  Josh	
  Seiden,	
  2013	
  

                                                                ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                            38	
  
User	
  Research	
  

                 ObservaJons	
  




Interviews	
                                         QuesJonnaires	
  

                  ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                         39	
  
Example:	
  Research	
  QuesJon	
  
Research	
  QuesJon:	
  
      	
  What	
  is	
  the	
  weather?	
  


How	
  would	
  you	
  conduct	
  this	
  research?	
  
List	
  several	
  different	
  ways	
  you	
  could	
  try	
  to	
  
   answer	
  this	
  quesJon?	
  



                                   ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
      40	
  
Example:	
  Weather	
  1	
  	
  




          ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     41	
  
Example:	
  Weather	
  2	
  




         ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     42	
  
ObservaJons	
  or	
  Field	
  Studies	
  




               ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     43	
  
Field	
  Study	
  




   ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     44	
  
Field	
  Studies	
  
✗	
     I would use a
        drop-down menu
        rather than using
                                                                   I find it difficult to
                                                                   keep track of my
                                                                   knitting patterns.
                                                                                            ✓
        check boxes.




                                ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                  45	
  
Nokia	
  Mobile	
  Phone	
  Study	
  




           Metro	
  car	
                        CHI	
  2005	
  	
  




              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                    46	
  
Wells	
  Fargo	
  Mobile	
  Research	
  




        Answerlab.com	
  &	
  Wells	
  Fargo	
  Research	
  PresentaJon,	
  UPA	
  2011	
  

                                 ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                               47	
  
Users’	
  Profiles	
  
•  Demographics	
  
   –  Age,	
  gender,	
  family,	
  educaJon,	
  
      job,	
  HHI,	
  technology,	
  geography,	
  
      language,	
  culture,	
  preferences,	
  
      etc…	
  
•  Behavior	
  paferns	
  
   –  Where,	
  when,	
  how,	
  why	
  



                              ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     48	
  
Personas	
  
Persona	
  
    A	
  hypotheJcal	
  user	
  archetype	
  used	
  throughout	
  design	
  
How	
  
    Compiled	
  from	
  ethnographic	
  interviews	
  with	
  real	
  
    people	
  
    Defined	
  by	
  goals,	
  moJvaJons,	
  behaviors,	
  of	
  real	
  target	
  
    users	
  
Why	
  
    Designing	
  for	
  archetype	
  can	
  saJsfy	
  bigger	
  user	
  group	
  
    Helps	
  focus	
  on	
  users	
  &	
  context,	
  assist	
  in	
  decision-­‐
    making	
  &	
  communicaJon	
  	
  




                                  www.cooper.com/newslefers/2002_02	
  


                                                     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     49	
  
Persona	
  Types	
  
Primary	
  
              	
  If	
  the	
  design	
  fails	
  for	
  the	
  primary	
  persona	
  	
  
                  then	
  the	
  product	
  is	
  a	
  failure	
  
Secondary	
  
An,	
  

•  Examples:	
  	
  
                                                                                                              	
  
         –  Extreme	
  Ed,	
  CauJous	
  Carl,	
  Businessman	
  Brad,	
  Mobile	
  Mike,	
  Mainstream	
  Mary



ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                                                       50	
  
Build	
  -­‐	
  Prototypes	
  
                   Early	
  Design	
                                  Late	
  Design	
                                Development	
  




Costs	
  of	
  Making	
  Changes:	
  	
  	
  
       	
      	
  $1   	
     	
     	
        	
     	
     	
         	
        	
  $10              	
     	
     	
     	
     	
     	
  $100 	
  	
  




                                                                     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                   51	
  
Prototype	
  PalmPilot	
  




                    Bill	
  Buxton,	
  Sketching	
  User	
  Experiences,	
  2007	
  


        ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                 52	
  
Physical	
  Device	
  	
  




hfp://www.sketchingtomorrow.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/2010/06/cardboard.jpg	
  



                        ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                           53	
  
InteracJve	
  Paper	
  Prototype	
  




hfp://graphics.csail.mit.edu/classes/6.893/F03/PaperPrototypePhotos/pic2_0018.JPG	
  

                                 ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                         54	
  
Prototype	
  of	
  GPS	
  System	
  




            ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     55	
  
Mobile	
  Phone	
  Paper	
  Prototypes	
  




www.liliamanguy.com/iBuyRight_webdocs/	
  




                                           www.nngroup.com/reports/prototyping/tesJng_handheld.jpg	
  
                                     ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                               56	
  
Paper	
  in	
  Screen	
  Prototype	
  




    hfp://uxmag.com/arJcles/paper-­‐in-­‐screen-­‐prototyping	
  




                          ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
            57	
  
Paper	
  Prototyping	
  

“Without paper prototyping these decisions would likely have
taken 6 to 12 months longer.”


“85% of usability practitioners find Paper Prototyping useful &
essential.”

“Any mid-sized design project will probably get an ROI of several
thousand percent from following the advice in this book.”
                                                                Jakob Nielsen



                     www.paperprototyping.com	
  	
  


                            ©	
  ILONA	
  POSNER,	
  2011	
                     58	
  
Paper	
  Prototype	
  Design	
  Exercise	
  




                 ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     59	
  
Usability	
  TesJng	
  –	
  Kids	
  Using	
  Rotary	
  Phone	
  


                                                            hfp://youtu.be/j6ArmonNCi8	
  	
  




                         ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                          60	
  
UX	
  TesJng	
  Myths	
  
          Hard	
  
     Expensive	
  
  Time	
  Consuming	
  




       ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     61	
  
Lean	
  UX	
  
            Declare	
  AssumpJons	
  
 Create	
  Minimal	
  Viable	
  Product	
  (MVP)	
  
      Run	
  an	
  Experiment	
  (GOOB)	
  
     Feedback	
  &	
  Research	
  (Pivot)	
  



Lean	
  UX	
  -­‐	
  Applying	
  Lean	
  Principles	
  to	
  Improve	
  User	
  Experience,	
  Jeff	
  Gothelf	
  &	
  Josh	
  Seiden,	
  2013	
  

                                                          ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                                            62	
  
Wizard	
  of	
  Oz	
  Technique	
  
                                               ParJcipants’	
  Roles	
  
                                               • User(s)	
  
                                               • Facilitator	
  
                                               • Computer	
  
                                               • Observer(s)	
  




            ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
                                 63	
  
User	
  Test	
  
                               	
  




Product	
  Demo	
  

      ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     64	
  
Usability	
  TesJng	
  of	
  Paper	
  Prototypes	
  
    “Debugging	
  before	
  wriJng	
  any	
  code!”	
  
                     Layout	
  
                   Workflow	
  
                  Terminology	
  
               Requirements	
  
                    Content	
  
                      Help	
  

                       ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2013	
     65	
  
All	
  Technology	
  is	
  User	
  Tested!	
  
         The	
  only	
  ques=ons	
  are:	
  
                       When?	
  
                  By	
  Whom?	
  
                At	
  What	
  Cost!?	
  




                   ILONA	
  POSNER	
  ©	
  2012	
  
                                            013	
     66	
  

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User Experience Design & Paper Prototyping

  • 1. User  Experience  Design     &  Paper  Prototyping       ILONA  POSNER   User  Experience  &  Usability  Consultant   www.ilonaposner.com   Mobile  Accelerator  Program  (MAP)   Mobile  Experience  InnovaJon  Centre  (MEIC)   OCADU,  Toronto,  ON   February  14,  2013   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   1  
  • 2. Bio  -­‐    ILONA  POSNER   User  Experience  &  Usability  Consultant   •  Industries:  Telecom,  Financial,  Web,  Mobile,  SoTware,   Hardware,  Healthcare,  TransportaJon,  EducaJon   •  Clients:    AMD,  Autodesk,  Apple,  Bell,  CIBC,  DB,  MicrosoT,   Pitney  Bowes,  LA  Metro  Transit  Authority,  Human  Factors   InternaJonal,  NaJonal  Research  Council  of  Canada,  Canada   Health  Infoway,  CIBC,  RBC,  ScoJa,  TD,  Visa,  &  Yahoo!   •  Teaching:  University  of  Toronto,  Canadian  Film  Centre,     OCADU,  Professional  Development  Courses   •  Research:  University  of  Toronto,  Computer  Science,  Human   Computer  InteracJon,  Dynamic  Graphics  Project   •  Educa=on:  M.Sc.  &  B.Sc.  Computer  Science,  U.  of  Toronto   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   2  
  • 3. Points  of  View   “A  point  of  view  is  worth  80  points  of  IQ.”                                                                                -­‐  Alan  Kay   “You  are  NOT  the  User!”   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   3   Source  www.openmuseum.org/objet/show/1835  
  • 4. Keyhole  Impact   “I  am  NOT  the  User!”   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   4   Source  hfp://s125.beta.photobucket.com/user/alongway99/media/Halloween%20AnimaJons/Scary%20Eye%20AnimaJons/EyeLooksKeyhole.gif.html?sort=4&o=47  
  • 5. History  of  User  Experience   •  Human  Factors  &  Ergonomics   •  Human  Computer  InteracJon   •  Usability   •  User  Experience   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   5  
  • 6. 1940’s   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   6  
  • 7. 1950’s   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   7  
  • 8. 1980’s   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   8  
  • 9. And  Now…     ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   9  
  • 10. Human  Impact  of  Technology   Human Impact Devices   ApplicaJons   Input  forms     Features   InformaJon   Time  of  use   Dependence   Interdependence     Sociability   Environmental  impact   Human Capacities ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   10  
  • 11. What  is  User  Experience?   Interna=onal  Standards  Organiza=on     •  ISO  defines  user  experience  as  "a  person's  percep=ons  and  responses  that  result  from  the  use  or   an=cipated  use  of  a  product,  system  or  service".  So,  user  experience  is  subjec=ve  and  focuses  on   the  use.   •  The  addiJonal  notes  for  the  ISO  definiJon  explain  that  user  experience  includes  all  the  users'   emo=ons,  beliefs,  preferences,  percep=ons,  physical  and  psychological  responses,  behaviors  and   accomplishments  that  occur  before,  during  and  aMer  use.  The  notes  also  list  the  three  factors  that   influence  user  experience:  system,  user  and  the  context  of  use.   •  Note  3  of  the  standard  hints  that  usability  addresses  aspects  of  user  experience,  e.g.  "usability   criteria  can  be  used  to  assess  aspects  of  user  experience".  Unfortunately,  the  standard  does  not  go   further  in  clarifying  the  relaJon  between  user  experience  and  usability.  Clearly,  the  two  are   overlapping  concepts,  with  usability  including  pragma=c  aspects  (geNng  a  task  done)  and  user   experience  focusing  on  users’  feelings  stemming  both  from  pragma=c  and  hedonic  aspects  of  the   system.   ISO  FDIS  9241-­‐210:2009.  Ergonomics  of  human  system  interacJon  -­‐  Part  210:  Human-­‐centered  design  for   interacJve  systems  (formerly  known  as  13407).  InternaJonal  OrganizaJon  for  StandardizaJon  (ISO).   Switzerland.        hfp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_experience   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   11  
  • 12. User  Experience     Everything  that  the  user  sees,  hears,  &  touches!   Share   Customize   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   12  
  • 13. **  Balloon  Image  **   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   13  
  • 14. User  Experience  =  Product   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   14  
  • 15. User  Experience  =  Brand   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   15  
  • 16. User  Experience   UX  Honeycomb,  Peter  Moreville       ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   16  
  • 17. Buying  Pop  with  a  Cell  Phone   IDEO  researchers  test  i-­‐mode  leading  edge   mobile  services  plavorm,  2003   Bill  Moggridge,  Designing  InteracJons,  February  2,  2007  lecture  by  Bill  Moggridge  for  the  Stanford  University   Human  Computer  InteracJon  Seminar  (CS  547).        hfp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVkQYvN4_HA   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   17  
  • 18. User  Experience  Example  …   hfp://www.switched.com/2010/12/28/aol-­‐free-­‐trial-­‐cds-­‐cost-­‐300-­‐million/   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   18  
  • 19. UX  Problem   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   19  
  • 20. Cost  of  UX  Problem   •  Bush  won  by  537  of  5.8  million  votes   •  Buchanan  5x  >  votes  in  Palm  Beach   •  19,120  ballots  registered  2  votes,   20,000  disqualified  ballots   •  Law  suit  claimed:   “Ballots  were  decepJve,  misleading,   and  confusing.”     •  Results  delayed  37  days!    Nov  7  -­‐  Dec  13     hfp://costofwar.com/   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   20  
  • 21. How  to  Maximize  UX?   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   21  
  • 22. Trinity  for  Success   Users   Business   Technology   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   22  
  • 23. Research  Focus   Problem  Space   -­‐ Environment   -­‐ Market   -­‐ LegislaJon   Users     Business   Users   -­‐ Goals,  Needs   -­‐ AcJviJes,  Tasks   -­‐ Vision  &  Goals   -­‐ Requirements   -­‐ Requirements   -­‐ CompeJJon   Business   ?   Technology   Technology -­‐ Constraints     -­‐ Requirements   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   23  
  • 24. UX  Success  Stories   Mazda  Miata,  1989  -­‐  present   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   24  
  • 25. $300  Million  Bufon    eCommerce  website  changed  one  bufon  label     ✗   REGISTER   CONTINUE   ✓ +  45%  sales  up  aTer  renaming  of  bufon              &  removal  of  forced  registraJon   +  $300  Million/year  revenue   Source:  www.uie.com/ar,cles/three_hund_million_bu(on   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   25  
  • 26. $12  Million  –  OpJonal  Field   •  Expedia.com  makes  $12  Million  profit,   aTer  removing  opJonal  field  “Company”  from   online  purchase  form   •  Prior,  customers  who  clicked  the  Buy  Now  did  not   complete  transacJons…     Source:    hfp://www.silicon.com/management/sales-­‐and-­‐markeJng/2010/11/01/ expedia-­‐  on-­‐how-­‐one-­‐extra-­‐data-­‐field-­‐can-­‐cost-­‐12m-­‐39746554/   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   26  
  • 27. iPod  vs  Zune   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   27  
  • 28. How  to  Maximize  UX?   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   28  
  • 29. Five  D’s  of  User  Experience  Design   Discover   Deploy   Define     Develop   Design   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   29  
  • 30. Five  D’s  of     DISCOVER DEFINE DESIGN DEVELOP DEPLOY !"#$%&##' Business stakeholder interviews Business objectives Review concepts & designs often Business goals, mission, vision Market Positioning Attend usability testing sessions Attend usability testing sessions Monitor usage & metrics Concept Success metrics Future features list UX  Design   Product SWOT Analysis Marketing Mix(four P's) Market Positioning Market Segmentation Demographic Research Design Guidelines / Standards? ()*+",-' Product reports & surveys Concept prototype/video Review concepts & designs often Critical incident analysis Project definition/Concept Attend usability testing sessions Attend usability testing sessions Monitor usage & metrics Weblogs & analytics Deliverables defined Future features list Competitive Analysis Use cases Quantitative Research Initial design exploration Qualitative Research Visualization Expert heuristic evaluation Flowchart (tasks) Design research Success metrics -&,.%*/*01' Current technology used Technical requirements !"#$%&'()*+,+-.&-#(/$0&(#((+1$( DEVELOP with input from UX SUPPORT deployed product Limitation of old technology Success metrics 2#3+#4&51$5#6-(&7&%#(+0$(&18#$ !"#$%&'()*+,+-.&-#(/$0&(#((+1$( Opportunities for new tech Research tech constraints 2$#"3/'+&#$0% Brand & Design Guidelines Develop Strategy, explore look & Design Direction, agree on chosen Style Guide - Pixel placements feel direction definition Frames of reference, analagous Generate Initial Ideas, style frames, Iterations of Hi-Fidelity Designs Graphic Production - Icons, examples initial concepts, mock-ups before user testing graphics, page elements Future Design Direction Developer Toolkit - Examples, sample code, wiki THESE ABOVE MAY NEED TO HAPPEN SOONER!?!? "#&)'&4(&)$&%,&'5'"#3!$/$-1 Business stakeholder interviews Concept prototype/video Call centre reports User stories Brainstorm concepts & metaphors Work closely with development User Surveys User community feedback User profiles Modules requirements & designs Beware: Last minute design changes Monitor social networks & user done without UX Input communities Field studies Usability goals & objectives Screen flow, functions, fields Field studies of actual use User surveys User performance requirements Navigation/site map User interviews User experience goals Review early design concepts Conduct heuristic evaluations of Usage metrics, & performance (including graphic treatment) evolving product measurements Expert heuristic evaluation Persona's Prototypes Low-Fidelity (multiples) Usability test evolving product as Future features list soon as possible Usability testing current product Storyboarding Wireframes Low-Fidelity Confirm success metrics and (multiples) objectives are being met Design research User scenarios Usability Test Low-Fidelity Prototypes & Wireframes Task Analysis Prototypes High-Fidelity (includes Final Usability Testing before graphic treatment) Deployement Competitive Analysis Success metrics Detailed Designs Quantitative Research Usability Test Designs & High-Fi Project Process Debrief & Lessons Prototypes Learned Qualitative Research Update Design Guidelines Task Analysis Update detailed designs & functional specifications for development User Goal Analysis Document Design Rationale Update Design Guidelines/Standards ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   Five  D’s  of  UX  Design  –  Discover,    Define,  Design,  Develop,  Deploy   ILONA  POSNER  © 2013   30  
  • 32. Vision   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   32  
  • 33. Samsung  vs  iPhone  Comparison  -­‐  Memo   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   Samsung,  RelaJve  EvaluaJon  Report  on  S1,  iPhone,  Product  Engineering  Team,  SW  VefiricaJon  Group  March  2,  2010   33   PlainJff’s  Exhibit  No.  44,  United  States  District  Court,  Northern  District  of  California,  Apple  Inc.  v.  Samsung  Elecs.  
  • 34. iTunes  Usability  Challenges   hfp://www.nngroup.com/arJcles/disrupJve-­‐workflow-­‐design/   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   34  
  • 35. iTunes  Usability  Challenges   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   35  
  • 36. iTunes  User  Experience  Challenges   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   36  
  • 37. User  Research   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   37  
  • 38. 360  Degree  View  of  Customer   •  Call  centre   •  Field  Studies   •  Customer  support  emails   •  Interviews   •  User  forums   •  Surveys   •  AnalyJcs   •  Diary  studies   •  Web  logs   •  Focus  groups   •  3rd  party  review  sites   •  Card  sorJng   •  Usability  tesJng   Lean  UX  -­‐  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience,  Jeff  Gothelf  &  Josh  Seiden,  2013   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   38  
  • 39. User  Research   ObservaJons   Interviews   QuesJonnaires   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   39  
  • 40. Example:  Research  QuesJon   Research  QuesJon:    What  is  the  weather?   How  would  you  conduct  this  research?   List  several  different  ways  you  could  try  to   answer  this  quesJon?   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   40  
  • 41. Example:  Weather  1     ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   41  
  • 42. Example:  Weather  2   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   42  
  • 43. ObservaJons  or  Field  Studies   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   43  
  • 44. Field  Study   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   44  
  • 45. Field  Studies   ✗   I would use a drop-down menu rather than using I find it difficult to keep track of my knitting patterns. ✓ check boxes. ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   45  
  • 46. Nokia  Mobile  Phone  Study   Metro  car   CHI  2005     ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   46  
  • 47. Wells  Fargo  Mobile  Research   Answerlab.com  &  Wells  Fargo  Research  PresentaJon,  UPA  2011   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   47  
  • 48. Users’  Profiles   •  Demographics   –  Age,  gender,  family,  educaJon,   job,  HHI,  technology,  geography,   language,  culture,  preferences,   etc…   •  Behavior  paferns   –  Where,  when,  how,  why   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   48  
  • 49. Personas   Persona   A  hypotheJcal  user  archetype  used  throughout  design   How   Compiled  from  ethnographic  interviews  with  real   people   Defined  by  goals,  moJvaJons,  behaviors,  of  real  target   users   Why   Designing  for  archetype  can  saJsfy  bigger  user  group   Helps  focus  on  users  &  context,  assist  in  decision-­‐ making  &  communicaJon     www.cooper.com/newslefers/2002_02   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   49  
  • 50. Persona  Types   Primary    If  the  design  fails  for  the  primary  persona     then  the  product  is  a  failure   Secondary   An,   •  Examples:       –  Extreme  Ed,  CauJous  Carl,  Businessman  Brad,  Mobile  Mike,  Mainstream  Mary ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   50  
  • 51. Build  -­‐  Prototypes   Early  Design   Late  Design   Development   Costs  of  Making  Changes:          $1                $10            $100     ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   51  
  • 52. Prototype  PalmPilot   Bill  Buxton,  Sketching  User  Experiences,  2007   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   52  
  • 53. Physical  Device     hfp://www.sketchingtomorrow.com/wp-­‐content/uploads/2010/06/cardboard.jpg   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   53  
  • 54. InteracJve  Paper  Prototype   hfp://graphics.csail.mit.edu/classes/6.893/F03/PaperPrototypePhotos/pic2_0018.JPG   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   54  
  • 55. Prototype  of  GPS  System   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   55  
  • 56. Mobile  Phone  Paper  Prototypes   www.liliamanguy.com/iBuyRight_webdocs/   www.nngroup.com/reports/prototyping/tesJng_handheld.jpg   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   56  
  • 57. Paper  in  Screen  Prototype   hfp://uxmag.com/arJcles/paper-­‐in-­‐screen-­‐prototyping   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   57  
  • 58. Paper  Prototyping   “Without paper prototyping these decisions would likely have taken 6 to 12 months longer.” “85% of usability practitioners find Paper Prototyping useful & essential.” “Any mid-sized design project will probably get an ROI of several thousand percent from following the advice in this book.” Jakob Nielsen www.paperprototyping.com     ©  ILONA  POSNER,  2011   58  
  • 59. Paper  Prototype  Design  Exercise   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   59  
  • 60. Usability  TesJng  –  Kids  Using  Rotary  Phone   hfp://youtu.be/j6ArmonNCi8     ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   60  
  • 61. UX  TesJng  Myths   Hard   Expensive   Time  Consuming   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   61  
  • 62. Lean  UX   Declare  AssumpJons   Create  Minimal  Viable  Product  (MVP)   Run  an  Experiment  (GOOB)   Feedback  &  Research  (Pivot)   Lean  UX  -­‐  Applying  Lean  Principles  to  Improve  User  Experience,  Jeff  Gothelf  &  Josh  Seiden,  2013   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   62  
  • 63. Wizard  of  Oz  Technique   ParJcipants’  Roles   • User(s)   • Facilitator   • Computer   • Observer(s)   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   63  
  • 64. User  Test      Product  Demo   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   64  
  • 65. Usability  TesJng  of  Paper  Prototypes   “Debugging  before  wriJng  any  code!”   Layout   Workflow   Terminology   Requirements   Content   Help   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2013   65  
  • 66. All  Technology  is  User  Tested!   The  only  ques=ons  are:   When?   By  Whom?   At  What  Cost!?   ILONA  POSNER  ©  2012   013   66