Bring The Users: Selling UX in Your Organization was presented at Stir Trek 2012 in Columbus, Ohio by Carol Smith. You are convinced that UX work will not only save time and effort, but will also increase profits. Now you need to persuade your team to integrate UX activities into your work. This presentation will give you the facts to back up your convictions. Carol provides you with clear and compelling responses to tough questions about UX and usability methods. You’ll leave with facts about the Return on Investment (ROI) of UX, how to respond to UX skeptics, and how to turn your entire team into UX advocates.
BRING UX INTO PROJECTS - NOW •Add wireframing effort •Group process session (JAD) •Guerilla study with the uninvolved •Survey •Talk to users at lunchPage 5
O B S E R VAT I O N S & I N T E R V I E W S Learn about the User’s: • Goals • Environment • Real process • Interruptions • Attitudes and opinions • ProblemsPage 6
Artifacts! Collect, Copy, PhotographPage 7 http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ Actual Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/
CARD SORTING Use to determine: • Order of information • Relationships • Labels for navigation • Verify correct audiencePage 8 http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
USABILITY TESTING •Real users doing real tasks •Using prototypes or live products •Not guided, but observed http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/raphaelquinet/513351385/sizes/l/in/photostream/Page 9 http://www.flickr.com/photos/raphaelquinet/
YOU DID IT! http://www.flickr.com/photos/13010608@N02/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/13010608@N02/2441933336/sizes/z/in/photostreamPage 10 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/
SHARE WHAT YOU LEARN http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/garryknight/Page 12 http://www.flickr.com/photos/garryknight/5542172347/sizes/l/in/photostream/
GOALS OF SHARING •You learned something! •Help the team: • understand user’s point of view • identify new opportunities • prioritize content and solutions • design for user’s needs and behaviors • create new solutionsPage 13
Sam PetersonEditor, Math Specialist, 5 Years ExperienceTechnology Goal• Does personal banking, shopping • Improve the educational system by and email online making great courses for teachers and studentsConcerns Responsibilities• Needs a good tool for tracking all of the • Manages many different projects at once assets for each of his projects • Manages a great group of freelancers• Too much time is spent fixing previous allowing him to focus on other things projects instead of working on current ones • Keeps track of many separate assets for• Resigned to having to go back and forth each project with the publisher a few times to get • Checks work before passing it on to the everything just right publisherSam is 29 years old and lives in New Albany, OH. “I need helpHe has a BS in Mathematics from Ohio State University where he also took keeping track of organizational psychology courses and found that he enjoyed management all of the assets challenges. for each of myHe has never been interested in teaching, but wants to improve the educational projects.” system. When he saw a job opening at an educational company he felt that it would be a great opportunity to do just that.Sam says despite the frustrations, his company is great to work for and the benefits can’t be beat.He isn’t sure what is next for his career - he has taken some training that has been offered but is not currently interested in taking on new responsibilities.
I N F O R M AT I O N R A D I AT O R S Represent Your Research •Facilitate Communication •Decision Making: • Navigation • Features • DesignPage 15
SKEPTICS WILL ASK http://www.flickr.com/photos/cuppini/3211910657/sizes/o/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/cuppini/Page 16 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
“If you dedicate at least 10percent of your project budget tousability activities, you will see anaverage of 135 percentimprovement in usability"- Jakob Nielsen, principal, NielsenNorman Group, 2003http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/financial/5670570-1.html All Business. Dated:Jan. 8, 2003
Once a system is in development,correcting a problemcosts 10 times as muchas fixing the same problem in design.If the system had been released,it costs 100 times as muchrelative to fixing in design. -Gilb, 1988 -Bias, Randolph, G. and Deborah J. Mayhew. Cost-Justifying Usability: An Update for the Internet Age. 2005.
I N H O U S E A D VA N TA G E •Access to users •Access to data •Before and after Small # of Potentially huge increments of X employees = savings in time time and effort over time and moneyPage 20
ROI (CONTINUED) Small things can make a big difference • $300,000,000 Button • Can’t provide right recommendations without observing and talking with the customers Spool, Jared. The $300 Million Button. January 14, 2009.Page 21 http://www.uie.com/articles/three_hund_million_button/ Button: BD Create
We have that survey set upand are getting data from it.Why would we need anythingmore?
SURVEYS •Questions are an art-form •Words can have multiple meanings and un-intended meanings. •Self reporting cannot be trusted •People “save face” • Not that bad, my fault • I’m sure that’s great tooPage 23
OUR EMPLOYEES •Easy access •Know the users •Really invested in this projectPage 24
WHY NOT EMPLOYEES? •Know things others wouldn’t •Concerns about ego, job, co-workers, etc. •Not the intended user!Page 25
We’ve won awards! Why would we want to change the design?Page 26
WHY CHANGE? •Visual appearance is important •Must also be usable •Even the best visual design won’t succeed if: • Users can’t use it • Doesn’t help them complete their tasks (timely and efficiently)Page 27
Too many clicks on the newdesign?More than 83% of Internet users are likely toleave a Web site if…too many clicks to findw h a t t h e y ’ r e l o o k i n g f o r.-Arthur Andersen, 2001 Bias, Randolph, G. and Deborah J. Mayhew. Cost-Justifying Usability: An Update for the Internet Age. 2005.
Give them a “Scent” of information and they will happily keep clickingPage 29
FOCUS GROUP VS. USER RESEARCH http://www.flickr.com/photos/librarycommission/2840794254/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/librarycommission/Page 30 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
W H AT I S T H E D I F F E R E N C E ? Focus Group User Research • Recall what they did • Observe actual process, (may leave out steps step by step, including or miss-remember) successes and difficulties • One participant can skew • Equity among participants conversation • Finds patterns of behavior • Finds preferences of users, likes and dislikesPage 31
We Know it’s Difficult, We Have a Training Program! http://www.flickr.com/photos/kaptainkobold/5181464194/sizes/o/in/photostream/Page 32 http://www.flickr.com/photos/kaptainkobold/
TRAINING •Costs additional time and money •Less costly to find and correct issuesPage 33
TRAINING (CONTINUED) •How much is their time worth? • 1 Hour of training? • 1 Day of training? • 1 Week of training? •Company was able to eliminate training and save $140,000 •AT&T saved $2,500,000 in training expenses Bias & Mayhew, 1994Page 34 http://www.upassoc.org/usability_resources/usability_in_the_real_world/roi_of_usability.html
N U M B E R O F PA R T I C I PA N T S Studies have shown that testing 5-6 representative users of each user type will reveal 80% of usability issues. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000319.htmlPage 36 Jakob Nielsen’s Alertbox. Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users. March 19, 2000.
LET GO OF THE NUMBERS! Statistical significance is not feasible ROI would diminish entirely
L O O K F O R PAT T E R N S •Identify repetition •After pattern is found, continuation of study: • Adds cost • Delays reporting • Low probability of many new findingsPage 38
PURPOSE DETERMINES NUMBER Main Purpose # of Participants Convincing skeptics 3 (demonstration) Find serious problems 9-12 Find all serious problems Unknown Find all problems Unknown Measure key parameters >20 Molich, Rolf. A Critique of “How to Specify the Participant Group Size for Usability Studies: A Practitioner’s Guide”Page 39 by Macefield. Journal of Usability Studies. Vol. 5, Issue 3, May 2010. pg. 124-128.
W H AT T H I S M E A N S •Know your primary user(s) and recruit carefully • Very specific user group - 5 works • Less well defined - more (8-15 or more) •There is controversy •Study in 2001 was inconclusive due to study design (Spool and Schroeder)Page 40
DISCLAIMERS •Testing five users is not always enough •Must be well recruited – not just anyone •Smaller groups do not equate better findings •Low test quality - size doesn’t matter "Results of usability tests depend considerably on the evaluator" - Jacobsen and Hertzum, 2001 Molich, Rolf. A Critique of “How to Specify the Participant Group Size for Usability Studies: A Practitioner’s Guide”Page 41 by Macefield. Journal of Usability Studies. Vol. 5, Issue 3, May 2010. pg. 124-128.
WHO IS ALREADY THERE? •Pay attention to who approaches you •Look for your comrades •May not be in your area of the organization •Make time to chat with them • Share recent articles about UX • Invite to a UX event locally • Invite to join LinkedIn or other groups onlinePage 43
F I N D & C R E AT E N E W A D V O C AT E S •Use promotions •Remind everyone of successes •Provide templates for planning - include UX •Provide highlights and/or reports that will help them sell UXPage 44
B U I L D U X I N T H E O R G A N I Z AT I O N •Identify C-level person • Get their support for a small study • Invite them to sessions • Make sure they see benefits gained • Remind them of success next time • Help them become a promoter •Consider building department from withinPage 45
SEE SHARED GOALS •Increase sales •Save time and money •Create happy customersPage 46
T H E O R G A N I Z AT I O N B E N E F I T S F R O M U X •Sell more product •Discover unmet needs •Reduce: • Costs (support, training) • Need for updates and maintenance releasesPage 47 From A Practical Guide to Usability Testing by Joseph Dumas and Janice Redish, 1999. Page 18.
WHY YOU SHOULD CARE “Customers are the only stakeholders who are not represented in design meetings. If it hurts users and will cause customers to leave? Silence. Unless you speak up. So do it.” -Jakob Nielsen Usability Evangelism: Beneficial or Land Grab? By Jakob Nielsen, Ph.DPage 48 http://www.developer.nokia.com/Design/Usability_evangelism.xhtml
1 0 WAY S T O P R O M O T E U X 1. Invite everyone to observe via remote observation 2. Schedule testing at a regular time 3. Promote availability of testing internally 4. Network within organization and share what you do 5. Hold Brownbag sessions 6. Invite staff to local UX events 7. Share recommendations and successes widely 8. Post information radiators in shared locations 9. Hold a World Usability Day Event 10. Invite everyone to observe UX sessions in-personPage 49
REPRESENT YOUR USERS They are depending on you!
C O N TA C T C A R O L @carologic LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/caroljsmith slideshare.net/carologic speakerrate.com/speakers/15585-caroljsmithPage 52
REFERENCES •Cost-Justifying Usability: An Update for the Internet Age, Randolph G. Bias and Deborah J. Mayhew •The $300 Million Button by Jared Spool •Jakob Nielsen’s Alertbox. Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users. March 19, 2000. •Measuring the User Experience by Bill Albert and Tom Tullis •Usability Evangelism: Beneficial or Land Grab? by Jakob Nielsen, Ph.D •http://www.upassoc.org/usability_resources/usability_in_the_real_world/roi_of_ usability.html •Molich, Rolf. A Critique of “How to Specify the Participant Group Size for Usability Studies: A Practitioner’s Guide” by Macefield. Journal of Usability Studies. Vol. 5, Issue 3, May 2010. pg. 124-128.Page 53