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Transformative organization and governance
BY:
SAMSON C. QUANICO
M.A.Ed, Educational Management
PCC School of Graduate Studies
FOUR WAYS TO INFLUENCE THE
CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
I. CHANGING CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION
1. Emphasize what’s important
2. Reward employees
3. Discourage behaviors that don’t reflect what’s
important
4. Model the behaviors that you want to see in the
workplace.
Type of School Culture
II. CULTURAL FIT BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND MEMBERS
1. Individualism
-in this schools, teachers view themselves as
working alone
2. Conservatism
-they employ educational approaches that
follow long traditions
3. Presentism
-they focus on immediate issues, not the long-term
development of the school.
According to Fullan and Hargreaves(1991) described three non-
collaborative cultures:
What type of school culture do you have?
Those who study school culture talk about the
following types:
4 Balkanized School Culture
-where collaboration and sharing among like-
minded groups or close friends. This culture has
subcultures that are strong and compete for position,
resources, and territory.
Balkanization of the teacher culture
5 Contrived Collegiality School Culture
formal specific bureaucratic
planning consultation forms
of working together.
III. COLLEGIAL RELATIONSHIPS
Effects of Collegiality
-Strong collegial relationships enhance productivity, staff
development, and school improvement efforts.
-increases the capacity for change and improvement
-provide powerful sources of stimulation, motivation,
and new ideas
Types of Collegial Relationships
1. Storytelling and scanning for ideas
2. Aid and assistance
3. Sharing
4. Joint work
The first three types are relatively weak in shaping deeper,
more productive professional relationships, although they involve
some interaction, while the fourth type joint work, provides ample
support and complex connections to improve staff relationships and
collaboration
Types of Collegial Relationships
1. Storytelling and scanning for ideas
teachers share incomplete anecdotes about practice,
complain, and gripe. Interchange is neither deep nor focused on
problem solving.
2. Aid and assistance
teachers help only when asked, offer little evaluation, and
do not interfere with the other teacher’s work. Deep relationships of
exchange are seldom established.
Types of Collegial Relationships
3. Sharing
teachers share much about themselves, use an expended pool of
resources and knowledge, and frequently share ideas and suggestions that can
lead to change in the other teacher’s practice. But teachers undertake little or
no actual work.
4. Joint Work
-provides the opportunity for teachers to develop deeper and
richer ties to fellow staff
-build more productive working relationships
-the highest and most extended form of collegiality
-team teaching, collaborative, planning, peer coaching,
mentoring, and at times, action research.
Joint Work identified by Little (1982, p330)
includes the following
1. Designing and preparing materials
2. Designing Curriculum units
3. Researching materials and ideas for curriculum
4. Writing curriculum
5. Preparing lesson plans
6. Reviewing and discussing plans
7. Crediting new ideas and programs
8. Persuading others to try an idea
9. Making collective agreements to test an idea
10.Inviting others to observe one’s teaching
11.Analyzing practices and effects
12.Teaching others in informal in service
13.Teaching others formally
14.Talking publicly about what one is learning
15.Designing in services for the school
Fostering Collegial Relationship
First, The school needs “good teachers” who cooperate in making it work.
“are committed and generous, open to change and eager to
learn, and who see beyond their own successes and failures.”
Second, often have organizational norms that overcome the uncertainties
and isolation of teaching by supporting collegial dialogue, debate over
issues and techniques
teachers in these schools show a tendency to cooperate rather than
to compete, and they work in a safe environment… free of criticism
Fostering Collegial Relationship
Third, collegiality fostered when reference groups that support dialogue, growth,
and experimentation are available to teachers.
in a small school; serve as a successful professional unit- supporting,
encouraging, and debating.
in a larger school; grade-level teams, interdisciplinary units, or
departments
Fourth , collegiality seems to wither or die when teachers are given
insufficient time to engage in the kinds of joint tasks that build
collegial relations and collaborative process (Johnson 1990)
teachers need time to meet, think, and interact
Fostering Collegial Relationship
Finally, collegiality is nurtured when administrators provide encouragement and
accommodation (Johnson 1990)
in this goal may require the principal to set agendas for meetings and to
do work on issues close to the classroom
Comfortable Collaboration
Teachers engage in conversations but do not ask the tough questions and
address the difficult issues facing the school.
How do you manage criticism?
Criticism is non-existent or minimal.
In schools with a culture of comfortable collaboration, the culture carefully
restricts collaboration; teachers stay out of deeper, more extended relationships
that could foster problem solving, exchange, and professional support.
Collaborative
Teachers development is facilitated through interdependence and the
majority of teachers agree on common values and a collective vision for the
school.
Openness, trust, respect, and continual conversations about educational
issues that are best for students.
Collaborative cultures are not balkanized, simply congenial, or only
structures of shared work. Rather, they are cultures that support
deeper, richer professional interchange.
Collaborative cultures contain the following
features:
• Regular opportunities for continuous improvement
• Opportunities for career-long learning
• Teachers who are more likely to trust, value, and legitimize sharing expertise; seek advice; and
help other teachers
• Decrease sense of powerlessness and increased sense of efficacy
• Reduced sense of uncertainty associated with teaching
• More team teaching and shared decision-making
• Sharing a “common sense of accomplishment” and a strong sense of efficacy
• Increased confidence in and commitment to improve of practice
• Teachers who regularly seek ideas from seminars, colleagues, conferences, and in-service
workshops
• Increased external professional networking with other teachers, schools, programs, and
restructuring associations
• A place where “ continuous self-renewal is defined, communicated, and experienced as a taken-
for-granted fact of everyday life
IV SHAPING COLLABORATIVE SCHOOL CULTURES
The process of shaping a collaborative school culture involves:
1. Reading the existing culture
2. Identifying aspects of the underlying norms and assumptions that
serve the core mission of the school and the needs of students
3. Reinforcing and celebrating those aspects that support
development of a collaborative culture and changing those aspects
that support development of a collaborative culture and changing
those folkways and norms that destroy collegiality and
collaboration
The general knowledge base regarding school
culture:
1. School culture does affect the behavior and achievement of
elementary and secondary school students
2. School culture does not fall from the sky; it is created and thus can
be manipulated by people within the school
3. School cultures are unique; whatever their commonalities, no two
schools will be exactly alike - - nor should they be
4. To the extent that it provides a focus and clear purpose for the
school,
5. Can be counterproductive and an obstacle to educational success;
6. Fundamental change
Working Together in Groups: Teamwork
Group roles
Stages of group development
Leadership in small groups
Effective communication
Trust building
Problem-Solving, planning and decision-making strategies
Effective ways to conduct meetings
Conflict resolution
Group process evaluation
V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE
LEADERSHIP
The five myths of leadership noted by Bennis and Nanus (1985) need
to be overcome in collaborative cultures:
 Every teacher can be a leader in collaborative schools
 Myth 1. Leadership is a rare skill.
in many schools, teachers have leadership skills, but
need the opportunities to use them.
In collaborative schools teachers, parents, and others enact
leadership.
V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE
LEADERSHIP
The five myths of leadership noted by Bennis and Nanus (1985) need
to be overcome in collaborative cultures:
 Every teacher can be a leader in collaborative schools
 Myth 2. Leaders are born, not made.
in many schools, teachers , parents, and others have
become leaders through support, trust, and specific
training.
In collaborative schools leaders nurture the skills and abilities of
others so they can become leaders.
V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE
LEADERSHIP
 Myth 3. Leaders are charismatic.
most collaborative leaders in groups are not
charismatic, but are skilled, talented motivators of
others.
In collaborative schools leadership takes on many forms and
emanates from many different people.
 Myth 4. Leadership exists only at the top.
Leaders are found in every role and position in the
school.
In collaborative schools, leadership is spread throughout the school.
 Myth 5. The leader controls, prods, directs, and
manipulates.
Effective leadership is not heavy-handed and pressuring
In collaborative schools, leaders facilitate, motivate, solve
problems, and build a shared sense of purpose.
BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT
All leaders find ways to increase the trust in the group and
rapport in working together.
DIAGNOSING THE ORGANIZATION
Teacher leaders in collaborative cultures support the
problem finding and problem solving work of colleagues
Diagnosis of educational problems models for others the kind
of deeper analysis that supports rich collaborative problem solving
and improvement efforts.
BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT
All leaders find ways to increase the trust in the group and
rapport in working together.
DEALING WITH THE COLLABORATIVE PROCESS
Collaboration is a complex and demanding activity. It
requires developing trusting, collegial relationships; dealing with
conflict; and maintaining clear focus.
USING RESOURCES AND MANAGING THE WORK
Any form of joint work needs resources and some
coordination.
COLLABOTRATIVE WORK ALSO REQUIRES PLANNING, ORGANIZING, AND
SCHEDULING
It requires coordination.
BUILDING SKILL AND CONFIDENCE IN OTHERS
Leaders also take on the key task of building greater skills
and deeper confidence in their coworkers.
Transformative organization and governance
Transformative organization and governance
Transformative organization and governance

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Transformative organization and governance

  • 1. Transformative organization and governance BY: SAMSON C. QUANICO M.A.Ed, Educational Management PCC School of Graduate Studies
  • 2. FOUR WAYS TO INFLUENCE THE CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION I. CHANGING CULTURE OF AN ORGANIZATION 1. Emphasize what’s important 2. Reward employees 3. Discourage behaviors that don’t reflect what’s important 4. Model the behaviors that you want to see in the workplace.
  • 3. Type of School Culture II. CULTURAL FIT BETWEEN ORGANIZATION AND MEMBERS 1. Individualism -in this schools, teachers view themselves as working alone 2. Conservatism -they employ educational approaches that follow long traditions 3. Presentism -they focus on immediate issues, not the long-term development of the school.
  • 4. According to Fullan and Hargreaves(1991) described three non- collaborative cultures: What type of school culture do you have?
  • 5. Those who study school culture talk about the following types:
  • 6. 4 Balkanized School Culture -where collaboration and sharing among like- minded groups or close friends. This culture has subcultures that are strong and compete for position, resources, and territory. Balkanization of the teacher culture
  • 7. 5 Contrived Collegiality School Culture formal specific bureaucratic planning consultation forms of working together.
  • 9. Effects of Collegiality -Strong collegial relationships enhance productivity, staff development, and school improvement efforts. -increases the capacity for change and improvement -provide powerful sources of stimulation, motivation, and new ideas
  • 10. Types of Collegial Relationships 1. Storytelling and scanning for ideas 2. Aid and assistance 3. Sharing 4. Joint work The first three types are relatively weak in shaping deeper, more productive professional relationships, although they involve some interaction, while the fourth type joint work, provides ample support and complex connections to improve staff relationships and collaboration
  • 11. Types of Collegial Relationships 1. Storytelling and scanning for ideas teachers share incomplete anecdotes about practice, complain, and gripe. Interchange is neither deep nor focused on problem solving. 2. Aid and assistance teachers help only when asked, offer little evaluation, and do not interfere with the other teacher’s work. Deep relationships of exchange are seldom established.
  • 12. Types of Collegial Relationships 3. Sharing teachers share much about themselves, use an expended pool of resources and knowledge, and frequently share ideas and suggestions that can lead to change in the other teacher’s practice. But teachers undertake little or no actual work. 4. Joint Work -provides the opportunity for teachers to develop deeper and richer ties to fellow staff -build more productive working relationships -the highest and most extended form of collegiality -team teaching, collaborative, planning, peer coaching, mentoring, and at times, action research.
  • 13. Joint Work identified by Little (1982, p330) includes the following 1. Designing and preparing materials 2. Designing Curriculum units 3. Researching materials and ideas for curriculum 4. Writing curriculum 5. Preparing lesson plans 6. Reviewing and discussing plans 7. Crediting new ideas and programs 8. Persuading others to try an idea 9. Making collective agreements to test an idea 10.Inviting others to observe one’s teaching 11.Analyzing practices and effects 12.Teaching others in informal in service 13.Teaching others formally 14.Talking publicly about what one is learning 15.Designing in services for the school
  • 14. Fostering Collegial Relationship First, The school needs “good teachers” who cooperate in making it work. “are committed and generous, open to change and eager to learn, and who see beyond their own successes and failures.” Second, often have organizational norms that overcome the uncertainties and isolation of teaching by supporting collegial dialogue, debate over issues and techniques teachers in these schools show a tendency to cooperate rather than to compete, and they work in a safe environment… free of criticism
  • 15. Fostering Collegial Relationship Third, collegiality fostered when reference groups that support dialogue, growth, and experimentation are available to teachers. in a small school; serve as a successful professional unit- supporting, encouraging, and debating. in a larger school; grade-level teams, interdisciplinary units, or departments Fourth , collegiality seems to wither or die when teachers are given insufficient time to engage in the kinds of joint tasks that build collegial relations and collaborative process (Johnson 1990) teachers need time to meet, think, and interact
  • 16. Fostering Collegial Relationship Finally, collegiality is nurtured when administrators provide encouragement and accommodation (Johnson 1990) in this goal may require the principal to set agendas for meetings and to do work on issues close to the classroom
  • 17. Comfortable Collaboration Teachers engage in conversations but do not ask the tough questions and address the difficult issues facing the school. How do you manage criticism? Criticism is non-existent or minimal. In schools with a culture of comfortable collaboration, the culture carefully restricts collaboration; teachers stay out of deeper, more extended relationships that could foster problem solving, exchange, and professional support.
  • 18. Collaborative Teachers development is facilitated through interdependence and the majority of teachers agree on common values and a collective vision for the school. Openness, trust, respect, and continual conversations about educational issues that are best for students. Collaborative cultures are not balkanized, simply congenial, or only structures of shared work. Rather, they are cultures that support deeper, richer professional interchange.
  • 19. Collaborative cultures contain the following features: • Regular opportunities for continuous improvement • Opportunities for career-long learning • Teachers who are more likely to trust, value, and legitimize sharing expertise; seek advice; and help other teachers • Decrease sense of powerlessness and increased sense of efficacy • Reduced sense of uncertainty associated with teaching • More team teaching and shared decision-making • Sharing a “common sense of accomplishment” and a strong sense of efficacy • Increased confidence in and commitment to improve of practice • Teachers who regularly seek ideas from seminars, colleagues, conferences, and in-service workshops • Increased external professional networking with other teachers, schools, programs, and restructuring associations • A place where “ continuous self-renewal is defined, communicated, and experienced as a taken- for-granted fact of everyday life
  • 20. IV SHAPING COLLABORATIVE SCHOOL CULTURES The process of shaping a collaborative school culture involves: 1. Reading the existing culture 2. Identifying aspects of the underlying norms and assumptions that serve the core mission of the school and the needs of students 3. Reinforcing and celebrating those aspects that support development of a collaborative culture and changing those aspects that support development of a collaborative culture and changing those folkways and norms that destroy collegiality and collaboration
  • 21. The general knowledge base regarding school culture: 1. School culture does affect the behavior and achievement of elementary and secondary school students 2. School culture does not fall from the sky; it is created and thus can be manipulated by people within the school 3. School cultures are unique; whatever their commonalities, no two schools will be exactly alike - - nor should they be 4. To the extent that it provides a focus and clear purpose for the school, 5. Can be counterproductive and an obstacle to educational success; 6. Fundamental change
  • 22. Working Together in Groups: Teamwork Group roles Stages of group development Leadership in small groups Effective communication Trust building Problem-Solving, planning and decision-making strategies Effective ways to conduct meetings Conflict resolution Group process evaluation
  • 23. V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP The five myths of leadership noted by Bennis and Nanus (1985) need to be overcome in collaborative cultures:  Every teacher can be a leader in collaborative schools  Myth 1. Leadership is a rare skill. in many schools, teachers have leadership skills, but need the opportunities to use them. In collaborative schools teachers, parents, and others enact leadership.
  • 24. V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP The five myths of leadership noted by Bennis and Nanus (1985) need to be overcome in collaborative cultures:  Every teacher can be a leader in collaborative schools  Myth 2. Leaders are born, not made. in many schools, teachers , parents, and others have become leaders through support, trust, and specific training. In collaborative schools leaders nurture the skills and abilities of others so they can become leaders.
  • 25. V. SHAPING AND NURTURING COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP  Myth 3. Leaders are charismatic. most collaborative leaders in groups are not charismatic, but are skilled, talented motivators of others. In collaborative schools leadership takes on many forms and emanates from many different people.  Myth 4. Leadership exists only at the top. Leaders are found in every role and position in the school. In collaborative schools, leadership is spread throughout the school.
  • 26.  Myth 5. The leader controls, prods, directs, and manipulates. Effective leadership is not heavy-handed and pressuring In collaborative schools, leaders facilitate, motivate, solve problems, and build a shared sense of purpose.
  • 27. BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT All leaders find ways to increase the trust in the group and rapport in working together. DIAGNOSING THE ORGANIZATION Teacher leaders in collaborative cultures support the problem finding and problem solving work of colleagues Diagnosis of educational problems models for others the kind of deeper analysis that supports rich collaborative problem solving and improvement efforts.
  • 28. BUILDING TRUST AND RAPPORT All leaders find ways to increase the trust in the group and rapport in working together. DEALING WITH THE COLLABORATIVE PROCESS Collaboration is a complex and demanding activity. It requires developing trusting, collegial relationships; dealing with conflict; and maintaining clear focus.
  • 29. USING RESOURCES AND MANAGING THE WORK Any form of joint work needs resources and some coordination. COLLABOTRATIVE WORK ALSO REQUIRES PLANNING, ORGANIZING, AND SCHEDULING It requires coordination. BUILDING SKILL AND CONFIDENCE IN OTHERS Leaders also take on the key task of building greater skills and deeper confidence in their coworkers.