SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Study report on the Environmental
And Socio economic condition
Of Saint Martin’s Island
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT
JAHANGIRNAGAR UNIVERSITY
SAVAR, DHAKA, 1342
1 | P a g e
Study report on the Environmental and
Socio economic condition of Saint
Martin’s Island
Course No. 312
Submitted By
Md. Fazla Rabby
Exam Roll: 131494
Reg. No: 35494
Session : 2012-13
Submission date : 07th
May, 2016
2 | P a g e
Abstract
Geography and Environment is a kind of subject where only theoretical lessons cannot provide
hundred percent of knowledge. The earth is a mysterious planet and to gain knowledge about
the earth, visual observation through tour is must. Geography and Environment is the scientific
investigation of human interactions with natural systems. The department of Geography and
Environment of Jahangirnagar University runs a course on field work as an academic study
course each year. For the students of Geography and Environment, field work is a part and
parcel of academic study. It plays a very significant role in understanding complicated
environmental concepts and their impact on biodiversity and sustainability. To evaluate the
natural and artificial processes of the study areas and finding it’s role on environment.
As a student of 3rd
year of Geography and Environment of Jahangirnagar University in the
session 2012-2013 carried out a field work for 3 days from 22th January 2016 to 25th January
2016 in Saint Martin. St. Martin’s Island the only coral reef of Bangladesh, has enormous
geological and biological resources to identify, understand and need to protect from
anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic threats. As an ecologically critical area (ECA), it needs
more study to gather knowledge about these beautiful sites. Heavy minerals along the coastline
are an excellent source of so called ‘Black Gold’ of Bangladesh.
We try to analyze everything’s in the view of geography. It includes how physical features
influence or affect tourism sites and what types of physical features are available on those areas
with which morphological processes are occurring there. Here we tried to link up between
physical features and social structure as well as culture. These three things are happening in a
system. A complete overview putted here through a geographical concept. We applied our
common senses and geographical knowledge that makes the things more computable and
interesting. We also collected primary data from the field and analyze it by using different
methods and put some findings and recommendation for the development of Saint Martins
island.
3 | P a g e
Acknowledgements
First of all, I would like to pay my great thanks to almighty Allah for giving me a chance to go
in such an instructive field work with my friends and teachers. I would like to pay my profound
gratitude to the authority of the department of Geography and environment of Jahangirnagar
University for arranging the fieldwork program and making necessary arrangements.
I would like to express my best regards to my honorable teacher Khandakar Hasan Mahmud,
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and environment, Jahangirnagar University for
his scholarly guidance, sincere inspiration and generous support.
I want to give special and heartiest thanks and also acknowledge the excellent support from my
honorable teacher Professor Sheikh Tawhidul Islam, Assistant professor Md.Saifuzzaman, Bibi
Hafsa (lecturer), Alamgir Hossen Bhuiyan (lecturer), Anarul Haque Mondol (lecturer),
Ebadullha khan of Department of Geography and environment, Jahangirnagar University.
And, thanks to the Office Assistance of the Department of geography and environment. I also
want to give heartiest thanks are extended to our seniors.
Finally heartiest thanks are extended to all of my classmates for their friendly and Co-operative
behavior in the tour to complete the task successfully.
4 | P a g e
Table of Contents
Chapter-1 Introduction 01
1.1 Background of the study tour 01
1.2 Study area selection 01
1.3 Aim and objectives 02
1.4 Scope & Limitations of the study 03
1.5 Tour schedule 04
Chapter-2 Data collection and Methodology 06
2.1 Methodolgy 06
2.2 Data collection and data sources 07
2.3 Supporting instruments 08
Chapter-3 Coastal geomorphology of Saint Martins island 09
3.1 Introduction 09
3.2 Geological structure 09
3.3 Geomorphology of Saint Martin 10
3.4 Sea water 11
3.5 Fresh water 16
Chapter-4 Climate and Ecosystem of Saint Martins island 17
4.1 Introduction 17
4.2 Climate of Saint Martin 17
4.3 Ecosystem of Saint Martins island 19
5 | P a g e
4.4 Biodiversity of Saint Martins island 20
Chapter-5 People & community infrastructure 23
5.1 People of Saint Martins island 23
5.2 community infrastructure 23
5.3 Data collection
Chapter-6 Economy of Saint Martins island 26
6.1 Introduction 26
6.2 Economic activities of saint martin 26
6.3 Market economoy of Saint Martin 32
6.4 Market management of Saint Martin 33
Chapter-7 Waste management of Saint Martins island 34
7.1 Introduction 34
7.2 Waste 34
7.3 Impacts of waste management on Saint Martins 36
7.4 waste management on Saint Martins 37
Chapter-8 Government policies and planning on Saint Martin’s Island 38
8.1 Administration 38
8.2 Policies and laws 38
8.3 Zoning of Saint Martin 39
8.4 Laws applicable to the island 40
Chapter-9 Conclusion & Recommendation 41
6 | P a g e
9.1 Conclusion 41
9.2 Recommendation 41
Chapter-10 References 42
10.1 References 42
7 | P a g e
Chapter- 1
Introduction
1.1 Background of the study tour
Due to the Environmental significance of Saint Martin we have visited this area for our field
tour this year.
Saint Martins is generally known as Narikel Zinzira in Bengali and it is only coral relief island
in Bangladesh. It is a small island in the north eastern part of the Bay of Bengal created the
southern part of our country. During the British occupation the island was named as St. Martine
island. The first land use of Saint Martine started about 250 years ago with the come of Arabian
sailors. But land use of Saint Martine is unplanned today. St. Martin's Island is a small island
(area only 8 km2
) in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, about 9 km south of the tip of
the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf peninsula. It is about 8 km west of the northwest coast of Myanmar, at
the mouth of the Naf River. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh. The distance between the
island and Teknaf is about 34 km. The north portion of the island is called “Cheradia Dwip”
because during high tide, this portion of the island is separated from the other and also
considered as the last southern landmark of Bangladesh.
Absolute Location :
Latitude : 20⁰0′34″ -20⁰0′38″ N
Longitude: 92⁰0′18″-92⁰0′22″ E
Relative Location :
Saint Martins is sorrounded by the Bay of Bengal. It is located
about 35 km far away from Teknaf.
1 | P a g e
1.2 Study area selection
Study area selection is a very important fact for a study tour. Because, which kind of knowledge
we want to learn, fully depends on the site of the tour. So I would like to thank our honorable
teachers because before starting our tour they selected our tour site. Our main site was Saint
Martins island & adjacent area. The sites of this tour were-
 Saint Martin
 Chera Deep
St. Martin's Island is a small island in the northeast part of the Bay of Bengal, in the
southernmost part of Bangladesh. Geographically, it is divided into three parts. The main
shoreline habitats are sandy beaches and dunes and scattered rocks and coral boulders. Some
boulders are also found on the interior into the island. The shallow water marine habitats
include, rocky and sandy intertidal, intertidal rock pools, off shore lagoons, rocky and sandy sub
tidal and offshore soft bottom habitats. It is said that in 1926, the District Collector of the British
government Mr. Martin brought this island under settlement record following which the island
was named “St. Martin's Island”.
Figure-1.1: Map of Saint Martin Island
2 | P a g e
1.3 Aim and objectives
Behind any work, there have must some aim & objective. With the great deal of importance the
main aim of this study tour is to observe the environmental condition of Saint Martins Island &
adjacent areas and their impact on surrounding area. We must also keep into consideration that
what is the thinking & idea of local people about their environment. In Saint Martin, Cheradeep,
and Teknaf, area; our main objectives –
 The geological of Geological structure observation of the study areas
 Ecological observation (deforestation, types of plants and biodiversity)
 The natural processes occurred in the island
 Find a suitable way to promote eco-tourism in the Saint Martin’s island and Cheradeep
 Environmental impact assessment
 Observation of Flora and Fauna of study areas
 The importance of corals and hazards related to the lacking of corals
 Physical, socio economic and cultural aspect of the study areas
 To see the marine coastal mangrove forest in the coastal belt
 Soil and water condition (constituents of soil, elemental analysis)
 To know and familiar with the Natural resources
 To know the Lifestyle of the people of coastal Areas.
 To identify land use pattern.
 To identify how land use of Saint Martin influence the environment.
 Source of products sold in the market.
 To find out the waste management condition.
1.4 Scope & limitations of the study:
The present study is constructed on the geographical and economical information on the Saint
Martins island. It is on analytical representation that is based on primary data spatially. To
analyze it some methods and parameters are selected to complete the questionnaire survey in
our study area.
3 | P a g e
To complete the work on this report some limitations had raised. The information provided by
the correspondents was not so accurate. We do the analysis dependent on some specific issue
more issue should be analyzed to get the accurate findings. We did the questionnaire survey
only on few peoples. There was lack of experience of the surveyor to collect the primary data
from the field. Those were our major limitations to make this report. The data sources of the
study tour were basically based on secondary data sources. That’s why in this tour there were
some limitations-
 Time was limited, so it was difficult to collect more information within these
short time.
 Limitation of budget.
 Different people gave different information so we were confused about actual
information.
 We were 71 students, so it was difficult to move with this he number of people.
1.5 Tour schedule
Date Time Work schedule
22.1.2016
(Day 1)
03.30 pm
05.30 pm
12.00 am
Reporting at the department
Start journey to Teknaf
Dinner break
23.01.2016
(Day 2)
9.00 am
09.30 am
12.45pm
1.20 pm
2.00 pm
03.30 pm
08.30 pm
10.00 pm
Arrived Teknaf ship terminal.
Journey to saint martin Island
Arrived Saint martin Island
Briefing about tourism & local survey.
Take lunch
Project 1
Dinner
Briefing
4 | P a g e
24.01.2016
(Day 3)
6.00- 7.00 am
07.20 am
12.00 pm
12.30 pm
01.40 pm
03.30 pm
08.30 pm
09.30 pm
11.30 pm
Breakfast
Road to Chera dip (project 2)
Reached chera dip
Start journey to probal dip & madhma
dip
Towards Saint martin resort hotel
Lunch
Briefing
Dinner & Cultural Program
25.01.2016
(Day 4)
07.00 am
07.30 am
09.00 am
2.00 pm
03.00 pm
12.10 pm (26.01.2016)
Briefing
Breakfast
Local Survey ( project 3)
Lunch
Start journey to JU Campus
Reached JU campus
5 | P a g e
6 | P a g e
Chapter-2
Data collection and Methodology
2.1 Methodology
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, or
the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of
knowledge. It, typically, encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and
quantitative or qualitative techniques. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions but
offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods or so called
“best practices” can be applied to a specific case. Methodology does not describe specific
methods, even though much attention is given to the nature and kinds of processes to be
followed in a particular procedure or in attaining an objective. When proper to a study of
methodology, such processes constitute a constructive generic framework; thus they may be
broken down in sub-processes, combined, or their sequence changed.
7 | P a g e
Graph-2.1: Flowchart showing the methodology of the study
2.2 Data collection and data sources
Every work has some purposes and method of completing those purposes. After complete
purpose than need the processing of data which is collected from field. We know that data is a
body of information in numerical form and it is a collection of statistical information of values
of the variable of interest in a study. On the Basis of sources, data is two types. In this report we
use both type data. The sources of both data are given below-
2.2.1 Primary data sources
Primary data are obtained from the organization or institution that originally collected the
information. The data collected for the first time by the investigator as original data are known
as primary data. In this study tour we have collected the primary data by the following ways-
 Visual observation: By visiting a particular place and after observe that we get some data
which is helping us to make a report.
 Questionnaire: At first we select a particular place or particular topics, then to know
everything about that place all related question contain on a sheet of paper and in this way be
collect all types of information.
 Discussion: Group discussion is a very important process of reporting. By this process many
view idea develops and those can help to make a successful report. According to this process we
collect all types of information.
 Interview: By interview we can gather more different and much knowledge which help us to
collect information and data. In this study tour, by these types of interview we knew details
about tribal, lifestyle and other phenomena.
 Map Reading: We came to know about the location and area of our traveling area from map.
We know the road to Saint Martin from route map.
 Photograph: We snapped various charming natural sceneries. These photographs helped us
in observation and research. They are also a great source of our enjoyment.
8 | P a g e
 Literature Review: A comprehensive literature study was done to gain an exact scenario of
the two mine. Various important and necessary data are collected from already published books,
journal, previous works, newspaper, internet etc. By gathering all the information the field
report of our study tour is made. We come to know about the previous condition of the area and
can identified the difference with present situation.
2.2.2 Secondary data sources
We know that if an investigator is using data which have been collected by someone else, then
such data are known as secondary data. For make a successful report we have followed some
secondary data sources such as:-
o Different published Books
o Banglapedia
o Different Journals
o Encyclopedia
o From different organization
o From related books
o Internet
o Satellite image
o From map
2.3 Supporting instruments
There are various instrument used in our study tour. The instruments are following below:
Educational Field Work Group
Note book/ clip board Photocopy of map GPS with battery
Pen, Pencil Cap pH meter
Eraser Bag Salinitymeasuringmeter
Sharpner Umbrella Measuring tape.
Markerpen. Water pot Sound level meter
Shit Paper Gridline Other stationary accessories
9 | P a g e
CHAPTER – 3
Coastal geomorphology of Saint Martin
3.1 Introduction
Coastal geomorphology is a branch of geomorphology in which the focus is on the area
influenced by large bodies of water, including seas and oceans, and large lakes such as Saint
Martin Island. St. Martin’s Island is a dumb-bell shaped sedimentary continental island located
on the eastern flank of an anticline, which like Chittagong may be part of the Arakan Yoma-
Naga folded system (Warrick et. al., 1993). The surface area of the Island is about 8 km2
depending on the tidal level. The Island is almost flat with an average height of 2.5m above
mean sea level (MSL), rising to a maximum of 6.5m high cliffs along the eastern coast of
Dakhin Para (Kabir, 2006).
3.2 Geological structure of Saint Martins island:
The structure is simple and is represented by an anticlinal uplift. The island lies on the eastern
flank of the anticline. A little of the axis of the anticline is traceable along the west coast of
Dakshinpara. The exposed portion of the axis runs NNW to SSE, approximately parallel to the
island. There is a fault along the northwestern shoreline with a trend nearly parallel to the axis.
The fault seems to be reverse in nature with the eastern side as the upthrown block. The
anticline is slightly asymmetrical with a monoclinal swing on the eastern flank. The bedrock on
the eastern flank near the axis dips very gently at an angle of 3° to 5° towards the east,
increasing eastwards to 10° to 12°. The monoclinal swing gives a high dip of 30° and above at
Siradia. Very little of the western flank is exposed above the sea which records a dip of 6°
towards the west. The monoclinal swing gives the anticline a box-like shape. The birth of the
10 | P a g e
island is related to the regional tectonics of Southeast Asia. As a sequel to the most dynamic
Himalayan orogeny during Middle Miocene (around 15 million years before.
Figure 3.5: Geological Structure of Saint Martin
3.3 Geomorphology of Saint Martin
The main shoreline features are sandy beaches and dunes, where the main sediments are alluvial
sands. The beaches and dunes of the southern part of the Island have a higher carbonate content
compared to the northern Uttar Para beaches. Most carbonates comprise mollusc shell
fragments. The sandy beach in the north and north-east stretches 300-400 m into the sea. The
western beach is sandy but the sub-tidal area consists of a bed of boulders. Coastal dunes are
widespread immediately above the beach and along the shorelines. This dune system is
particularly well developed around the middle part of the island. The dunes of St. Martin’s are
of two types: high and low dunes. High dunes are up to 6 m in height and are mostly found on
the western side of Golachipa. Dunes along the northwest and south-west corners of the island
are low, undulating and broadly extended. These dune systems act as a natural defence against
storms and tidal surges, when they help to save lives and properties.
The topsoil of the main three parts of the Island (Uttar Para, Madhya Para and Dakhin Para)
consists of alluvial sands mixed with marine calcareous (primarily molluscan in origin)
deposits. Scattered throughout the area are small clumps of coral colonies, many still in growth
position. A large shallow lagoon is located in the middle of Uttar Para. The lagoon has been
largely converted into agricultural fields, and is connected to the sea at high tide by a narrow
tidal channel on the west coast. The remaining flooded part of the lagoon has an area of about
0.4 km2 with a depth of 1 m or less. Uttar Para is separated from Madhya Para and Dakhin Para
by a narrow neck of land known as Galachipa. Galachipa is a beach and dune environment.
11 | P a g e
Similarly the surface deposits on Cheradia have a high content of molluscan shells compared to
the northern parts of the island.
Figure: Rocks of fanciful forms on the beach
3.4 Sea water of Saint Martins island
Surface circulation in the Bayof Bengal is determined by the monsoon winds and to some extent
by the hydrological characteristics of the open part of the Indian Ocean. The prevailing winds
reverse twice during the year. They blow from the south-west during May- September and from
the northeast during November-January with the transition taking place during the months in
between. Forced by these winds, circulation in the Indian Ocean has a general eastward
direction during summer and westward during winter. The inflow of freshwater from the
Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta into the Bay of Bengal has a significant impact: these reversing
currents carry low salinity Bay of Bengal water into more saline Arabian Sea water and vice
versa playing a crucial role in maintaining the freshwater - saltwater balance of the North Indian
Ocean (Vinayachandran and Kurian, 2008). The massive inflow of freshwater and sediment
from the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, and locally from the Naf River, is also an important
factor influencing the flora and fauna of the Island. Thus, coral reef development is inhibited
due to low water salinity, high turbidity and the soft substrates present.
Tides
The Island experiences normal semidiurnal tides, i.e. two high and two low tides during a period
of 24 hours and 52 minutes (Banglapedia, 2008). The mean tidal range at Shahpuri Island (about
9 km north-east of St. Martin’s Island) in the Naf estuary is 1.87 m. It is expected that somewhat
similar, probably lower, tidal ranges occur at St. Martin’s Island.
12 | P a g e
Figure: Tidal zone of Saint Martin
Map: Tidal zone of Saint Martin
Temperature
The mean annual temperature of the surface water of the Bay of Bengal is about 28°C. The
maximum temperature is observed in May (30°C) and the minimum (25°C) occurs in January-
February (Banglapedia, 2008; Vinayachandran and Kurian, 2008).
13 | P a g e
Table: Temperature of different station of field survey
Figure: Graph showing the temperature of the station
Comments: The average temperature is 22.5℃. From station “G” the temperature is increasing
gradually. On the other hand the temperature of first four stations ( A,B,C,D ) is relatively lower
than then the last three.
14 | P a g e
Salinity
The surface salinity in the coastal parts of the Bay of Bengal oscillates from 10 to 25 ppt (parts
per thousand, ie grams per kilogram of sea water). Coastal seawater is significantly diluted with
freshwater throughout the year, although the inflow of river water is greatly reduced during
winter. The coastal water salinity of St. Martin’s Island, as measured during the dry season
(Tomasick, 1997), fluctuates between 26 and 35 ppt. It is expected that the salinity level drops
below this level due to increased freshwater discharge from the Naf River during the rainy
season (July-October).
Figure: Graph showing the salinity of the station
Comments:This graph shows along the cross section salinity of high tide and low tide. It is
clear that average salinity of low tide is more than high tide. The average low tide salinity3‰
and high tide salinity1‰. The main cause of it saline water.
Transparency
Water transparency measured in December fluctuated from 0.62 m near St. Martin’s Bazar,
where the water is heavily affected by human pressure, to 3.9 m at Galachipa (Hossain et al.,
2006). This low light penetration is the consequence of many factors. In addition to silt
discharged by the Naf, the combined action of wind generated waves, ocean swell and high
velocity tidal currents cause re-suspension of bottom sediments (fine sand; silts and mud). A
Secchi depth3 of over 7 m is required for optimal growth of reefbuilding corals. Since corals are
lightsensitive organisms, the turbid coastal waters of St. Martin’s Island are a key environmental
factor limiting the development of coral reefs.
15 | P a g e
Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the surface waters around St. Martin’s Island ranges
from 4.56 to 6.24 mg/L in December. The highest value of 6.24 mg/L of DO was found at
Badam Bunia, whereas the lowest value was recorded at St. Martin’s Bazar (Hossain et al.,
2006).
Figure: Graph showing the pH level of water of stations
Comments: This graph shows PH of high tide and low tide of St. Martin. The average PH of
high tide is more than low tide. The average PH of high tide is 6, which is acidic. Its trends up
to 7 and low tide is 4.
Humidity:
By using the humidity meter we collect the humidity rate of the tidal zone of the Saint Martin
island.
16 | P a g e
Table: Humidity of the high and low tide zone
3.5 Fresh water of Saint Martin
Being very porous and permeable, the shelly limestones of the Island provide an excellent
aquifer wherever they occur beneath the alluvium. The shelly limestone and recent marine sand
are the chief sources of fresh water. The rocks underlying these two formations are mostly
impervious Tertiary shale and calcareous sandstone.
As rain water cannot flow downward through these rocks, it accumulates either in the shelly
limestone or in the marine sand. The shelly limestone that underlies the village of Jinjira
averages 1.2 m (four feet) thick and is overlain by 0.6-1.2 m (2-4 feet) of soil. Drinking and
irrigation water is obtained by sinking shallow wells 1.5-3 m (5-10 feet) to the level of the
Tertiary rocks.
Figure: Fresh water of Source
17 | P a g e
CHAPTER-4
Climate & ecosystem of Saint Martin’s
island
4.1 Introduction:
The unique island of St. Martin, the only place in Bangladesh where coral colonies are found, is
a natural treasure of Bangladesh that attracts thousands of tourists. St. Martin’s Island is
significant for biodiversity value and important for exclusive economic zone in Bangladesh.
4.2 Climate of a Saint Martins island:
Climate of saint martin island is heavily influenced by the subtropical monsoon climate.
 Seasonal climate
In November – March the island usually experiences pleasant weather and calm seas making
this the peak tourism season.
 Wind direction
In April- May and October – November Cyclonic storm develop in the Bay of Bangl.
 Average Rainfall
18 | P a g e
Source: Socio economic monitoring
report
Land:
A study was made on some of the chemical characteristics of the soil to determine the process
of development of these soils in the Saint Martin Island. The soils and sand samples of the
Island were collected on profile basis and analyzed for pH.
 Topography of Saint Martin
Topography is mainly divided into three categories ( e.g. high land, back slope and valley).
Saint Martin’s topography is also categorized into these types.
Soil type:
 Soil texture
From field observation and hand touch method we have come to know that the soil of saint
martin is sandy.
 Soil PH
By measuring ph from different point of saint martin the average ph of high tide is found about
6.5- 7 and in low tide zone it is about 3.5- 4.
19 | P a g e
4.3 Ecosystem of Saint Martin island
A cross-section of the different habitats and eco-systems that make up St. Martin’s Island would
show a transition from terrestrial to marine habitats. In addition to the dry land of the Island, the
key habitats are shallow water marine habitats, including rocky and sandy inter-tidal habitats,
offshore lagoons, rocky sub-tidal habitats, coral aggregations, sea grass beds, soft coral habitats
and offshore soft-bottom habitats.
Rocky habitant
The whole terrestrial part of the Island was once a rocky habitat but this has gradually been
altered through the removal of rocks and boulders for agriculture. Now much of the land is
cultivated and of very limited ecological and bio-diversity interest.
Figure: Rocky habitant of Saint Martins
Sand dunes and beach
The sand dunes on the Island were much better developed and higher during the 1980s. The
dunes are in an increasingly degraded state, with those of the north western part of the Island at
Kona Para and Golachera, now severely eroded. This degradation has also resulted in a loss of
associated dune flora (the dominant species are Pandanus fascicularis (previously P.
odoratissimus), Ipomea pescaprae, grasses Panicum repens and Paspalum vaginatum, and
sedges Cyperus spp. and Fimbristylis spp.).
Lagoons and wetlands
Several lagoons and wetlands associated with mangrove and floodplain areas occur on the
Island, and once probably provided important habitats for birds.
Mudflats
Within the inter-tidal zone there is a small mudflat area (known as Gaitta Banya) located at the
southern end of the western beach. The marine invertebrates found here make it an important
foraging area for shorebirds. High levels of human activity in the preferred roosting areas for
shorebirds in the north of the Island, have made the mudflat area increasingly important for
birds.
20 | P a g e
Mangrove habitat
At one time the Island probably had a significant area of mangrove vegetation, but most of this
has been degraded (Tomascik, 1997). In 1996, mangrove forests covered only 2.4 ha (6.1 acres)
(MoEF, 2001a). The top canopy was dominated by Lumnitzera racemosa, but a total of 29
mangrove species were recorded of which nine were common. Since then, the mangrove forest
has been cleared almost solely to assert land rights and to facilitate the recognition of land
ownership. Currently there is only a very small remaining mangrove patch in Dakhin Para
consisting mostly of Sonneratia apetala mixed with Sea Holly Acanthus ilicifolius, Grey
Mangrove Avicennia marina and Hibiscus tiliceous. The potential for this residual mangrove
patch to restore and regenerate is unclear (Molony, 2006), even though in principle it is
protected having been identified as a core zone of the St. Martin’s Island Environmentally
Critical Area.
Figure: The only Mangroves of Saint Martins
4.4 Biodiversity of Saint Martins Island:
The diversity of species is not evenly distributed through planet because life depends on many
factors including geography. For example, tropical regions support more life than polar regions.
Saint Martins is naturally abundant of biodiversity. The biodiversity of Saint Martins island can
be categorized in two main classes
 Flora (include all plants)
 Fauna (include all animals)
21 | P a g e
From field observation and other data sources, they are described below-
Flora:
Tree Shurbs Herbs
Cocos nuchifera (locally called narikel) Vitex trifolea Ipomoea pes-caprae
Areca catechu (locally called supari) Calamus guruba Onion
Borassus flabellifer (locally called taal) Pandanus fascicularis Algae
Phoenix sylvestris (locally called
khejur)
Streblus asper (locally called shaora)
Mangrove tree
Fauna:
• Fishes (e.g. koral,shurma,rupchada,churi,loitta etc. )
• Sea star
22 | P a g e
• Jellyfishes
• Corals
• Crabs
• Lobsters
• Turtles
• Birds (e.g. seagull)
Chapter-5
23 | P a g e
People & community infrastructure
Of Saint Martin’s island
5.1 People of Saint Martin Island
Human settlement started on the Island in the 1880s when several families migrated from what
is now Myanmar to live on the Island permanently. In the 1920s the hardwood trees of the
Island, reportedly mostly teak, were cut and sold to Myanmar (then Burma). From the 1940s
onwards it is reported that land was gradually converted to paddy cultivation, and from the
1960s onwards this involved converting the main lagoon to cultivation. In 1996 there was a
population of around 3,700 people belonging to 535 families (Paiker, 1996 in MoEF, 2001b); in
2000 the population was 4,766 from 791 households (Islam, 2001) and in 2005 the population
was 5,726 from 818 households (POUSH, 2006a). Most of the inhabitants are ethnically
Bangali and Muslims. This means that the population density is likely by the late 2000s to be
about 700 persons per km2.
Figure: Distribution of population by region Source: population census 2011(BBS)
5.2 Community infrastructure
The island's infrastructure however seems to have developed primarily with the comfort of
tourists in mind rather than that of the inhabitants. The only way to reach St. Martin's Island is
by ferry from Teknaf. During the winter months, when seas are calm, there is a lot of traffic to
and from the mainland with 7 ferries catering to the tourists who visit the island mainly for day
trips. However, during the rainy season, the island is isolated from the mainland and can be
difficult to reach. The only mode of transport on the island is by cycle rickshaw van and most
people walk from place to place as there is no road on which vehicles can travel. Tourists use
speed boats to go to visit Cheradia Island. Electricity is generated by diesel generators and
24 | P a g e
supplied to the local community for 5 hours a day. All the hotels and resorts on the island have
their own generators.
Table 1 provides an overview of the infrastructure available on St. Martin’s Island.
Educational services
There is one school/college on the island which teaches up to Grade 11 starting from this year
(2015). There are also 1 government primary school, 2 non-government primary schools and 15
madrasa/mokthob where religious studies are undertaken. 34% of the population is reported to
have never attended school. 55% have a primary education, 10% senior school certificate and
less than 1% have a higher school certificate or degree.
Health services
A hospital building exists on the island but it has been closed for some time and there are no
doctors or nurses on the island. Local midwifes known as dhatri help women through childbirth.
There are 9 pharmacies that provide medicines for the sick and the pharmacist plays the role of
doctor on the island. For more significant ailments, the islanders have to go to the mainland to
get treated and often children die due to lack of health facilities on the island. During the time
the team visited the island there was a floating hospital, The Rongdhonu Friendship Hospital,
anchored near the islan
25 | P a g e
Water and sewerage
Water for drinking, cooking and bathing is obtained from tube wells with hand pumps and there
are 600 wells on the island. The tourist hotels and “resorts” have running water that is dispensed
from overhead storage tanks and motor pumps. Only 48% of the population has a toilet in their
households. Toilets do not have septic tanks and the sewage is not treated on the island before it
is disposed into the marine environment.
CHAPTER-6
Economy of Saint Martins island
26 | P a g e
6.1 Introduction:
Actions that involve the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services at all
levels within a society. Gross domestic product or GDP is one way of assessing economic
activity, and the degree of current economic activity and forecasts for its future level can
significantly impact business activity and profits, as well as inflation and interest rates.
6.2 Economic activities of Saint Martin:
Economic activities are a very important process for a place. In the Saint Martins Island there
have different types of economic activities. Such as:-
 Primary economic activities
 Secondary economic activities
 Tertiary activities.
Primary activities:
1. Net making and catching fish 2. Agriculture
3. Dry fish 4. Salt producing
Secondary activities:
27 | P a g e
1. Water transportation (boating) 2. Selling betel leaf
3. Wood fuel 4. Furniture shop
Tertiary Activities:
1. Hotel 2. Dispensary
3. Shoe shop and Pick up. 4. Cloth shop
5. Vegetable market and Van 6. Hair cutting
10. Tailor’s 11. Electronics
We conducted focus group discussions with fishers and other islanders to learn about the
livelihood opportunities available on St. Martin's. As a visualization technique, they used
resource and activity mapping. From this, it emerged that the islanders are well aware of the
ecological goods and services found in St. Martin’s Island. They were able to illustrate the
seasonal calendar for activities as well as a seasonal calendar for the availability of fish species.
They also participated in making a resource and activity map for St. Martin’s Island. These
diagrams were later refined on the computer.
28 | P a g e
Figure 4 Seasonal calendar for key livelihoods activities on St. Martin's Island
29 | P a g e
Figure : Resource activity Map of St. Martin’s Island
30 | P a g e
Livelihoods on the island mainly revolve around coastal and marine activities. The seasonal
calendar for activities in Figure 4 shows that the households have multiple sources of income
and rely on fisheries, shell collection, agriculture, animal rearing and tourism-associated
businesses. The main livelihood opportunities occur during the winter season from October to
March. June to August is the Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) fisheries season and at that time 100% of
the fishers concentrate on Hilsa fishing. Fishing primarily for household consumption, using
single hooks and line, cast nets and shore seines, is carried on by about 5% of the fishers
throughout the year.
Most of the men of the island are primarily fishermen and many also undertake fish drying and
processing. Agriculture is also an important employment activity with women and children
helping out in the work. With the island increasingly becoming more popular as a tourist
destination for Bangladeshis from the mainland, tourism is playing a steadily larger role in
employment. However, many of the tourist facilities (resorts and hotels) are owned and
controlled by businessmen from off the island and islanders realise limited benefits from
tourism. The local businesses catering to the tourists are souvenir shops, sea food restaurants
and van pullers located near the jetty. A significant proportion of the land on the island is now
owned by these mainland businessmen. Local land owners who have sold their land to outsiders
often move to the south of the island which was previously uninhabited.
Figure 5 shows a resource activity map, of St. Martin’s Island. The map was prepared during a
focus group discussion with fishers in Dakhinpara and later validated with another group of
fishers in Uttarpara. This shows how St. Martin’s Island is made up of different habitats and
ecosystems. The habitats found include rocky shores, rocky terrestrial habitat, coral colonies,
sand dunes, screwpines, mangroves and wetland. All these habitats are now threatened due to
human activity and changes in land use.
Figure : Habitats under threat due to land use changes on St. Martin’s Island
Figure 7 shows the seasonal calendar for fish species availability. One can note from the
seasonal calendars and the resource activity calendar that the fishers have very good traditional
knowledge of the ecological goods and services found in and around St. Martin's Island and
they time their activities accordingly.
31 | P a g e
Figure : Seasonal calendar (fish species)
Figures 8 below shows a matrix of coastal activities on the island, products, impacts, possible
remedial action for the island, and numbers of people involved.
Figure 8 Agricultural & tourism-related activities on St. Martin's Island
32 | P a g e
Figure 10 provides a list of all the species of fish found in the dry fish shops targeting tourists
on St. Martin’s Island. There are 29 species of fish sold here. It was interesting to note that some
of the dry fish sold here is brought from Teknaf and Cox’s Bazar. This point was highlighted
during the discussion as some of the participants noted that the dry fish sold in tourist shops at
Cox Bazar had identical packaging. And there is no packaging facility at St. Martin's Island.
The SocMon team highlighted the need to have further discussion with the ship owners to find
out where they sourced the dry fish and ornaments they are selling.
Figure 10 Dry fish sold in the shops near the jetty
33 | P a g e
6.3 Market economy of Saint Martins island:
A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and
distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in
a free price system. The major defining characteristic of a market economy is that investment
decisions and the allocation of producer goods are mainly made by negotiation through markets.
This is contrasted with a planned economy, where investment and production decisions are
embodied in a plan of production
In this island people exchange resources, such as money, for other resources, such as goods or
services, on a voluntary basis in the market.
Products:
Fish, Dry fish, Chocolate, Pickles, Snail, Coconut, Shoe, Mineral water, Crab.
Sources of these products:
Saint Martin, Myanmar, Teknaf, Cox’sBazar.
Seller:
Who sells products. There are two types of sellers in Saint Martin market area.The economic
condition of permanent sellers are low because of out sellers.
 Permanent
 Temporary
Buyer:
Tourist and some local people are main buyer of this market area. More than 80% product of
this market is used by tourist.
34 | P a g e
6.4 Market management of Saint Martin island:
The market management of this island is not good. In market area, much of the shopkeeper and
businessmen are come outside of this area so that they income money more and local people do
work in atypically so their income is very poor. As the out businessmen are there so they harm
the environment such as- they strip waste anywhere. The government cannot take any step to
develop this market area or whole area.
Solution of the problem:
 People should conscious about market area.
 The government should take step to develop this area.
 Local people should gain knowledge so that they understand this problem and try to
solve that.
 Keep bun in hotel and various place to strip waste
35 | P a g e
Chapter-7
Waste management of Saint Martins
island
7.1 Introduction:
Waste management is transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products.
Waste management disposes of the products and substances that you have use in a safe and
efficient manner.
7.2Waste:
waste is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted
substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms.
In the saint martin island , we find different wastes such as house-hold waste , agricultural
waste and tourism waste. Solid wastes that include household garbage, rubbish, construction &
demolition debris, sanitation residues, packaging materials, trade refuges etc. Wastes generated
from farming activities. These substances are mostly biodegradable. Wastes generated due to
fishery activities. These are extensively found in coastal & estuarine areas.
Types of waste
We can defined waste in mainly two types. Such as: Solid & Liquid but it also has some sub-
types. Now we make a chart table by the basement of the wastage of Saint Martin.
36 | P a g e
Two types of wastes are found in saint martin island . they are given below,
1.Solid wastes: wastes in solid forms, domestic, commercial and industrial wastes.
Examples : plastics, Styrofoam containers, bottles , cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash.
2.Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid is also come from same way.
Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing and
other sources.
Problems:
In the fact of waste management at Saint Martin island we found some terrific problems. This
island is very small but at the tourism season this area becomes very crowded and the amount of
waste is incapable for this island capacity. Solid waste is essentially garbage: waste produced in
their homes, tourist and hotel area. Solid waste production in that area is growing in volume and
in toxicity. More and more of that island everyday products contain toxic chemicals, such as
mercury or PBDEs (flame retardant chemicals), and these toxic products are combined with a
plethora of other chemicals, which eventually impact public health and future of the
environment condition of Saint Martin.
7.3 Impacts of waste management on Saint Martins:
The main impact on Coastal and marine environment which are affected by waste .for these
reason biodiversity is breaking down of different way . local people are affected their health ,
socio-economic conditions and climatic condition etc. this could also affect animals and many
types of ecosystem. regional climate could alter forests crop yields and water supplies.
Impacts on animal:
 Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the sea.
 Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds.
 Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea.
37 | P a g e
 Degrades water and soil quality.
Impacts on environment:
 Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas
 Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable
 Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, Leaching: is a process by which solid
waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them.
7.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SAINT MARTIN ISLAND:
The management of waste at saint martin is better than the other part of our country. This area’s
waste management is maintained by government directly. At first, cleaners collect the waste
then they stored it on a dent. When the dent full-fill by dust or waste then it covered by soil. All
kinds of waste (solid or liquid) are deposited in there.This area`s people mainly collect solid
wastage but much amount of liquid waste directly mixed with the water of Bay of Bangle.
DISPOSAL OF SOILED WASTE:
The Executive Committee determines the days and the times for the offering of residential
waste for collection as well as for the disposal of residential waste at the indicated dump. The
Executive Committee can establish regulations regarding the offering for disposal of soiled
wastes (garden waste, glass, small chemical waste, paper).
DISPOSAL OF LIQUIED WASTE:
It is forbidden to place, to dump, to throw, to pour, to drop, to flow or to keep liquid waste or
another similar substance. It is forbidden to throw, put down or leave behind trash or remnants
of provisions, paper, cans, bottles or other packaging on or by the road that is open to the public
or a place nearby.
PROSPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SAINT MARTIN ISLAND
Saint martin island is one of the very important physical part of our country. But the future of
this island is in a threat. Our government try to save it but their activities are not enough to
protect it. The inhabitant of this island are not conscious about the harmful effect of waste.
For example, if every tourist take one coral with them when they leave saint martin island then
total coral will gone from that place in above two year. This island stand on the coral of Bay of
Bangle but the maximum people of this island do not know that.
38 | P a g e
Chapter-8
Government policies and planning on
Saint Martin’s Island
8.1 Administrative structure
The island is governed by a Union Parishad which is the lowest rural administrative and local
government unit in Bangladesh. A Union Parishad consists of 12 members including three
members exclusively reserved for women. A Chairman heads the group and members are
elected from the different wards of the island. They are primarily responsible for agricultural,
industrial and community development within the local limits of the Union. However, from the
information gathered from the Union Parishad members and the local people, it was evident that
the island was effectively governed directly from the mainland Teknaf and Cox’s Bazar
administration.
8.2 Policies and Laws
 To protect the environmental problems of the country, there are more than 200 sectoral
laws that are in force dealing with environmental issues.
 In 1995 the Government of Bangladesh declared St. Martin’s Island as an Ecologically
Critical Area (ECA). The management of ECAs falls under the jurisdiction of the
Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF).
 The MoEF initiated two projects that were expected to make the ECA effective and
facilitate conservation of biodiversity. They are:
1. “Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism
Development Project at St. Martin’s Island” often abbreviated to St. Martin’s
Biodiversity Conservation Project (SMBCP).
2. Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (CWBMP) Concerns
regarding the St. Martin’s coral resources first came as one of the National
Conservation Strategy (NCS) recommendations. The NCS recommendation for St.
Martin’s Island is as follows: “Declaration of St. Martin’s Island and the Jinjira coral
reef a Protected Area and development of a management plan”.
39 | P a g e
8.3 Zoning of Saint Martin’s Island
CWBMP has developed proposal for zoning of St. Martin’s Island. The term “zoning” means
dividing the Island (Ecologically Critical Area) into logical units for management and
conservation purposes. Some common conditions are to be set covering the whole Island ECA:
 Environmental Clearance Certificate.
 Fishing activity.
 Create balance between biodiversity protection and economic development.
Figure: Zoning of Saint Martins Island
Managed Resource Zone
This zone covers the northern part of the Island (ECA) south to Golachipa and represents
almost25% of the total area of the ECA. It will function as a multiple-use zone where
40 | P a g e
sustainable development is encouraged to ensure a sustainable flow of natural products and
services for the local community without impinging upon the overall objective of the ECA.
Sustainable Use Zone
This zone covers the middle part of St. Martin’s Island and represents 25% of the total area of
the Island It starts from the southern border of the managed resource zone and continues
southward to end approximately 400 m north of the lagoon of Dakhinpara. This zone will form
a buffer for the sensitive core zone in the southern part of the Island and will also serve the
community by providing a sustainable flow of natural services and products through
environmentally friendly projects such as organic farming, handcrafts production and
ecotourism.
Restricted Access Zone
This zone covers the southern part of the Island, known as Cheradia, and represents almost 50%
of the total area of the Island. This zone possesses the ecological critical features for which the
ECA was declared - coral-algal communities and coral associated biodiversity and thus deserves
strict protection. Within this zone are also patches of mangrove and other natural vegetation
including seaweeds. The sandy beaches are important nesting grounds for marine turtles, and
the zone also contains spawning and nursery grounds for marine fishes and shrimps.
8.4 Laws applicable to the island and biodiversity in the island
The following key legislation relative to the environment, fisheries and biodiversity on the
island were identified through discussions with key informants.
1. Land Acquisition Act, 1950
2. Forest Act, 1927
3. Fish Act, 1950
4. Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order, 1973 (Repealed)
5. Wildlife (Preservation and Security) Act, 2012
6. Fish Act, 1985
7. Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995
8. Plant Protection Act
9. Environment Rules
10. Ecologically Critical Area Rules
41 | P a g e
Chapter- 9
Conclusion & Recommendation
9.1 Conclusion
The management and conservation activities are not followed properly, where users of the
island still haphazardly utilize the natural resources of coral reef. The destruction of habitat and
over-exploitation of these resources have resulted in decaling the biodiversity as well as
degradation of coastal and island ecosystems. There is lack of awareness among the resource
users about the interaction of various coastal components and they do not have enough
knowledge about the resource and its importance, utilization and conservation. So, proper
implementation of the rules and regulations for 'Ecologically Critical Areas (ECA's)',
declaration and implementation of 'Marine Protected Area (MPA)' as suggested by Tomasik
(1997), control of pollution, sustainable and controlled tourism, alternative livelihood for the
local people, and further research should be immediately undertaken for sustainable utilisation
and to save rich biodiversity of this only coral island of Bangladesh. Still there may be time to
save the biodiversity and fish resources of this island; otherwise it may be too late. So, all the
stakeholders including government policy makers should come forward to save the marine
biodiversity of this important island and the livelihood of the local people. For the conservation
of biodiversity in the St. Martin's Island the following rules, regulations, policies and
management strategies recommended to be done
9.2 Recommendation
• Conserve and enhance the coral resources around the Island in Bangladesh
• where this important biological resource is available
• Conserve the ecologically important moluscan resources and coral bearing
• Island of the Country-Narikel Jinjira through measure with the local
• people’s participation
• Conservation of other flora and fauna of the Island. Conservation and
• Development of Marine Turtle Breeding Ground
• Develop viable eco-tourism in the Island
42 | P a g e
• Designate, develop and manage the Island as a marine park in the
• subsequent stage
• Improve the socio-economic status of people of the Island
• Establish a marine laboratory to facilitate research on molluscs, coral, flora,
• fauna and marine ecosystem
• Establish necessary institutional set-up in place
• Local peoples training on handicraft production like coconut, shell craft &
• Community people has been trained to make models of sea animal with
• coconut shell/wood/ Plaster of Paris, to encourage people/ tourist to buy
• model items instead of living coral & shell
• Construction of motel for eco-tourism
• Coconut sapling production & distribution to plant in the island
• Socio-economic survey of the island
• Training & distribution of energy saving stove for the Island to prevent
43 | P a g e
Chapter 10
References
10.1 References
• Akhtar, A. (1992). Palynology of Girujan clay, St. Martin's Island, Cox's Bazaar District,
Bangladesh. Records of Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Vol.7, Part 2: 1-24.
• Alam, M. and Hasan, M.Q. (1997). The origin of so-called beach rock of St. Martin Island
of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, Oriental Geographer.
• BIWTA (1996). Bangladesh Tide Tables, 1996. Department of Hydrography, Bangladesh
Inland water Transport Authority, Dhaka.
• Chowdhury, S. Q., Haq. F.A.T.M. and Hassan, K. 1992). Coastal geomorphology of St.
Marin's Island Oriental Geographer 36(2): 30-44.
• Khan Ali Reza, Fauna of Bangladesh
• Rashid E. Harun, Survey of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh
• Shukla R.S. and Chandal C.S., Plant ecology
• Sharma R.S., Environmental Biology
• Ahmed, M (1995), an overview on the coral reef ecosystem of Bangladesh, Bangladesh
J. Environ. Sci. Vol 1:67-73
• Municipal data; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
• BBC News-Bangladesh's Cox’s Bazar: A paradise being lost?
• Tourism and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Case Study of St. Martins Island,
Bangladesh
• Mohammad Mahmudul Hasan
• Bangladesh National Herbarium (up to February, 2014)
• Beachrock in St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh: Implications of sea level changes on
beachrock cementation
44 | P a g e
• Coral Reef- Tropical Rainforest of Oceans:St Martin's, the only coral island of
Bangladesh prey to mindless development
• The role of coral reefs -Providing food and shelter for sea creatures
• Attractions of Saint Martin’s Island of Bangladesh
• Bangladesh: fighting environmental degradation to reduce poverty
• Bangladesh's Deep Sea Port @ Moheskhali gains traction
• Mushrooming Hotel Trade on St Martin's Flora, fauna of lone coral island under threat
45 | P a g e

More Related Content

What's hot

L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settingsL 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
Eqbal Hassan Leeion
 
The Atlantic Ocean
The  Atlantic  OceanThe  Atlantic  Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
Prof. A.Balasubramanian
 
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
shivamsoni2011
 
Bay of bengal project
Bay of bengal project Bay of bengal project
Bay of bengal project
Manju Shree
 
Ppt mountain
Ppt mountainPpt mountain
Ppt mountain
Thushara K Apm
 
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of BengalMarine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
Mishal Roy
 
Physiography of Bangladesh
Physiography of BangladeshPhysiography of Bangladesh
Physiography of Bangladesh
Islamic University of Bangladesh
 
Definition of Oceanography
Definition of OceanographyDefinition of Oceanography
Definition of Oceanography
Lalit Thakare
 
Mineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
Mineral and Energy Resources of BangladeshMineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
Mineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
RajuAhmed84
 
Pollution in the bay of bengal
Pollution in the bay of bengalPollution in the bay of bengal
Pollution in the bay of bengal
Rajan Saha
 
Presentation on soil of south asia
Presentation on  soil of south asiaPresentation on  soil of south asia
Presentation on soil of south asia
Parves Khan
 
Koppen classification system
Koppen classification systemKoppen classification system
Koppen classification system
Kella Randolph
 
Fluvial Geomorphology
Fluvial GeomorphologyFluvial Geomorphology
Fluvial Geomorphology
Stuart Kirkham
 
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIESINDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
Sunipa Bera
 
Coastal Landforms
Coastal  LandformsCoastal  Landforms
Coastal Landforms
whiskeyhj
 
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology ChapterMorphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
Kaium Chowdhury
 
Climate change coastal zone of bangladesh
Climate change coastal zone of bangladeshClimate change coastal zone of bangladesh
Climate change coastal zone of bangladesh
Mohammad Alimuzzaman Bappy
 
Socio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
Socio-Economic Condition of SundarbansSocio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
Socio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
Daffodil International University
 
Natural Hazard in Bangladesh
Natural Hazard in BangladeshNatural Hazard in Bangladesh
Natural Hazard in Bangladesh
Minhaz Hasan
 
Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
 Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management... Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
Patuakhali Science and Technology University
 

What's hot (20)

L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settingsL 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
L 02-bangladesh-geographical & environmental settings
 
The Atlantic Ocean
The  Atlantic  OceanThe  Atlantic  Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
 
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
Aeolian process and landform by shivam soni B.Sc student of Department of App...
 
Bay of bengal project
Bay of bengal project Bay of bengal project
Bay of bengal project
 
Ppt mountain
Ppt mountainPpt mountain
Ppt mountain
 
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of BengalMarine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
Marine & Coastal Fisheries Resources of Bay of Bengal
 
Physiography of Bangladesh
Physiography of BangladeshPhysiography of Bangladesh
Physiography of Bangladesh
 
Definition of Oceanography
Definition of OceanographyDefinition of Oceanography
Definition of Oceanography
 
Mineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
Mineral and Energy Resources of BangladeshMineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
Mineral and Energy Resources of Bangladesh
 
Pollution in the bay of bengal
Pollution in the bay of bengalPollution in the bay of bengal
Pollution in the bay of bengal
 
Presentation on soil of south asia
Presentation on  soil of south asiaPresentation on  soil of south asia
Presentation on soil of south asia
 
Koppen classification system
Koppen classification systemKoppen classification system
Koppen classification system
 
Fluvial Geomorphology
Fluvial GeomorphologyFluvial Geomorphology
Fluvial Geomorphology
 
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIESINDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
INDIAN ISLAND STUDIES
 
Coastal Landforms
Coastal  LandformsCoastal  Landforms
Coastal Landforms
 
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology ChapterMorphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
Morphogenetic region-Geomorhology Chapter
 
Climate change coastal zone of bangladesh
Climate change coastal zone of bangladeshClimate change coastal zone of bangladesh
Climate change coastal zone of bangladesh
 
Socio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
Socio-Economic Condition of SundarbansSocio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
Socio-Economic Condition of Sundarbans
 
Natural Hazard in Bangladesh
Natural Hazard in BangladeshNatural Hazard in Bangladesh
Natural Hazard in Bangladesh
 
Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
 Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management... Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
Disaster Management Act 2012 of Bangladesh in context of Disaster Management...
 

Viewers also liked

St martin's island basic info statement
St martin's island basic info statementSt martin's island basic info statement
St martin's island basic info statement
peterwmanins
 
St martin legend.presentation
St martin legend.presentationSt martin legend.presentation
St martin legend.presentation
comeniusport
 
1 survey system design_and_engg
1 survey system design_and_engg1 survey system design_and_engg
1 survey system design_and_engg
Muhammad Yahya
 
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and KuakataPresentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
Md. Refat Hossain
 
Types of tourist
Types of touristTypes of tourist
Types of tourist
1stborn31
 
Ecology of saint martine
Ecology of saint martineEcology of saint martine
Ecology of saint martine
injamamun
 
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A SimplifiedUsing Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
cbb010
 
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
World Agroforestry (ICRAF)
 
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception PhaseNorth Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Systems
 
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
Health Level Seven
 
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIARWebinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
AIMS (Agricultural Information Management Standards)
 
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco GhediniHcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
informaticasanitaria
 
Grahorice
GrahoriceGrahorice
Grahorice
Matija Gosarić
 
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
 
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
ExternalEvents
 
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
ILRI
 
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country ProfilesLinked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
AIMS (Agricultural Information Management Standards)
 
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
 
Promotion coordinator performance appraisal
Promotion coordinator performance appraisalPromotion coordinator performance appraisal
Promotion coordinator performance appraisal
lucaseliot679
 
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical dataHigh res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)
 

Viewers also liked (20)

St martin's island basic info statement
St martin's island basic info statementSt martin's island basic info statement
St martin's island basic info statement
 
St martin legend.presentation
St martin legend.presentationSt martin legend.presentation
St martin legend.presentation
 
1 survey system design_and_engg
1 survey system design_and_engg1 survey system design_and_engg
1 survey system design_and_engg
 
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and KuakataPresentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
Presentation on Cox's Bazar and Kuakata
 
Types of tourist
Types of touristTypes of tourist
Types of tourist
 
Ecology of saint martine
Ecology of saint martineEcology of saint martine
Ecology of saint martine
 
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A SimplifiedUsing Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
Using Doors® And Taug2® To Support A Simplified
 
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
Long term socio ecological research sites for crp6
 
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception PhaseNorth Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
North Africa and West Asia Outcomes of the Inception Phase
 
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
HL7 - S. Lotti - exposanità - L'uso pratico degli standard. architetture e wo...
 
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIARWebinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
Webinar@AIMS: Perspective on Big Data in the CGIAR
 
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco GhediniHcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
Hcif - Healthcare interoperability Framework di Pierfrancesco Ghedini
 
Grahorice
GrahoriceGrahorice
Grahorice
 
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
Targeting and Scaling –up of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in t...
 
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
Integrating GPS and SR Measures of Land in HH Surveys (Alberto Zezza, World B...
 
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
Research in the CGIAR: An urgent need for systems analysis and more integrati...
 
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country ProfilesLinked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
Linked Open Data for the Food and Agriculture Country Profiles
 
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
Integrating biophysical and socioeconomic model outputs
 
Promotion coordinator performance appraisal
Promotion coordinator performance appraisalPromotion coordinator performance appraisal
Promotion coordinator performance appraisal
 
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical dataHigh res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
High res integrating socio economic data and biophysical data
 

Similar to Tour Reort On Saint Martins Island 2016

Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhetEarth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
Syadur Rahaman
 
Sitakunda Field Tour
Sitakunda Field TourSitakunda Field Tour
Sitakunda Field Tour
Imran Rakib
 
Report on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
 Report  on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources  Report  on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
Report on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
Md.Alamgir Hossain
 
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
Md Wabidur Rahman
 
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; SylhetEarth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
Ariful Islam
 
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological FormationA brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
iffatshammee
 
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
indexPub
 
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and ScienceResearch Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
inventy
 
Blue Carbon in Indonesia
Blue Carbon in IndonesiaBlue Carbon in Indonesia
Blue Carbon in Indonesia
apoernomo
 
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor IslandCuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
quicksweet
 
Tioman Lab Report Final
Tioman Lab Report FinalTioman Lab Report Final
Tioman Lab Report Final
Sharlene Martin
 
iEARN Presentation 2011
iEARN Presentation 2011iEARN Presentation 2011
iEARN Presentation 2011
suzibeau
 
MarkLim_CV
MarkLim_CVMarkLim_CV
MarkLim_CV
Mark Lim
 
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
University of Dhaka
 
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
IJERA Editor
 
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisisInvestigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
jihan ibrahim
 
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
ImeshRamanayake
 
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
Luhur Moekti Prayogo
 
IJSRED-V2I3P32
IJSRED-V2I3P32IJSRED-V2I3P32
IJSRED-V2I3P32
IJSRED
 
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLANDPRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
Henry David Bayoh
 

Similar to Tour Reort On Saint Martins Island 2016 (20)

Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhetEarth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
Earth sciences field work along jointiapur tamabil-jaflong section; sylhet
 
Sitakunda Field Tour
Sitakunda Field TourSitakunda Field Tour
Sitakunda Field Tour
 
Report on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
 Report  on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources  Report  on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
Report on Field Trip of Marine Ecology and Marine Resources
 
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
Geological Field Report On Sitakund Anticline Bariyadhala , Barabkhund , Chan...
 
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; SylhetEarth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
Earth Sciences Fieldwork Along Jaintapur-Tamabil-Jaflong Section; Sylhet
 
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological FormationA brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
A brief description of overall Sylhet Geological Formation
 
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
UNVEILING MEIOFAUNA DIVERSITY: A STUDY OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCE I...
 
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and ScienceResearch Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
 
Blue Carbon in Indonesia
Blue Carbon in IndonesiaBlue Carbon in Indonesia
Blue Carbon in Indonesia
 
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor IslandCuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
Cuti-cuti Malaysia: Pangkor Island
 
Tioman Lab Report Final
Tioman Lab Report FinalTioman Lab Report Final
Tioman Lab Report Final
 
iEARN Presentation 2011
iEARN Presentation 2011iEARN Presentation 2011
iEARN Presentation 2011
 
MarkLim_CV
MarkLim_CVMarkLim_CV
MarkLim_CV
 
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
EARTH SCIENCES FIELD WORK ALONG JAINTIAPUR - TAMABIL – JAFLONG SECTION; SYLHE...
 
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
Coastal Resource Management In Kanniyakuamari Coast, Tamil Nadu, India. Using...
 
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisisInvestigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
Investigation of salinity, livilihood and safe drinking water crisis
 
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
The adverse impact of tourism on coral reefs an analysis based on hikkaduwa m...
 
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
Investigation of the Tidal Character in Bawean Island East Java Using Admiral...
 
IJSRED-V2I3P32
IJSRED-V2I3P32IJSRED-V2I3P32
IJSRED-V2I3P32
 
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLANDPRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
PRESENTATION ON ECOTOURISM-GONDAMA ISLAND
 

Recently uploaded

NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
adhitya5119
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
AyyanKhan40
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
haiqairshad
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
RAHUL
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
Katrina Pritchard
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 

Recently uploaded (20)

NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docxMain Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
Main Java[All of the Base Concepts}.docx
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf IslamabadPIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
PIMS Job Advertisement 2024.pdf Islamabad
 
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
BÀI TẬP DẠY THÊM TIẾNG ANH LỚP 7 CẢ NĂM FRIENDS PLUS SÁCH CHÂN TRỜI SÁNG TẠO ...
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skillsspot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
spot a liar (Haiqa 146).pptx Technical writhing and presentation skills
 
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
Pollock and Snow "DEIA in the Scholarly Landscape, Session One: Setting Expec...
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
 
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movieFilm vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
Film vocab for eal 3 students: Australia the movie
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UPLAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
LAND USE LAND COVER AND NDVI OF MIRZAPUR DISTRICT, UP
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview TrainingBBR  2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
BBR 2024 Summer Sessions Interview Training
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 

Tour Reort On Saint Martins Island 2016

  • 1. Study report on the Environmental And Socio economic condition Of Saint Martin’s Island DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT JAHANGIRNAGAR UNIVERSITY SAVAR, DHAKA, 1342 1 | P a g e
  • 2. Study report on the Environmental and Socio economic condition of Saint Martin’s Island Course No. 312 Submitted By Md. Fazla Rabby Exam Roll: 131494 Reg. No: 35494 Session : 2012-13 Submission date : 07th May, 2016 2 | P a g e
  • 3. Abstract Geography and Environment is a kind of subject where only theoretical lessons cannot provide hundred percent of knowledge. The earth is a mysterious planet and to gain knowledge about the earth, visual observation through tour is must. Geography and Environment is the scientific investigation of human interactions with natural systems. The department of Geography and Environment of Jahangirnagar University runs a course on field work as an academic study course each year. For the students of Geography and Environment, field work is a part and parcel of academic study. It plays a very significant role in understanding complicated environmental concepts and their impact on biodiversity and sustainability. To evaluate the natural and artificial processes of the study areas and finding it’s role on environment. As a student of 3rd year of Geography and Environment of Jahangirnagar University in the session 2012-2013 carried out a field work for 3 days from 22th January 2016 to 25th January 2016 in Saint Martin. St. Martin’s Island the only coral reef of Bangladesh, has enormous geological and biological resources to identify, understand and need to protect from anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic threats. As an ecologically critical area (ECA), it needs more study to gather knowledge about these beautiful sites. Heavy minerals along the coastline are an excellent source of so called ‘Black Gold’ of Bangladesh. We try to analyze everything’s in the view of geography. It includes how physical features influence or affect tourism sites and what types of physical features are available on those areas with which morphological processes are occurring there. Here we tried to link up between physical features and social structure as well as culture. These three things are happening in a system. A complete overview putted here through a geographical concept. We applied our common senses and geographical knowledge that makes the things more computable and interesting. We also collected primary data from the field and analyze it by using different methods and put some findings and recommendation for the development of Saint Martins island. 3 | P a g e
  • 4. Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to pay my great thanks to almighty Allah for giving me a chance to go in such an instructive field work with my friends and teachers. I would like to pay my profound gratitude to the authority of the department of Geography and environment of Jahangirnagar University for arranging the fieldwork program and making necessary arrangements. I would like to express my best regards to my honorable teacher Khandakar Hasan Mahmud, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and environment, Jahangirnagar University for his scholarly guidance, sincere inspiration and generous support. I want to give special and heartiest thanks and also acknowledge the excellent support from my honorable teacher Professor Sheikh Tawhidul Islam, Assistant professor Md.Saifuzzaman, Bibi Hafsa (lecturer), Alamgir Hossen Bhuiyan (lecturer), Anarul Haque Mondol (lecturer), Ebadullha khan of Department of Geography and environment, Jahangirnagar University. And, thanks to the Office Assistance of the Department of geography and environment. I also want to give heartiest thanks are extended to our seniors. Finally heartiest thanks are extended to all of my classmates for their friendly and Co-operative behavior in the tour to complete the task successfully. 4 | P a g e
  • 5. Table of Contents Chapter-1 Introduction 01 1.1 Background of the study tour 01 1.2 Study area selection 01 1.3 Aim and objectives 02 1.4 Scope & Limitations of the study 03 1.5 Tour schedule 04 Chapter-2 Data collection and Methodology 06 2.1 Methodolgy 06 2.2 Data collection and data sources 07 2.3 Supporting instruments 08 Chapter-3 Coastal geomorphology of Saint Martins island 09 3.1 Introduction 09 3.2 Geological structure 09 3.3 Geomorphology of Saint Martin 10 3.4 Sea water 11 3.5 Fresh water 16 Chapter-4 Climate and Ecosystem of Saint Martins island 17 4.1 Introduction 17 4.2 Climate of Saint Martin 17 4.3 Ecosystem of Saint Martins island 19 5 | P a g e
  • 6. 4.4 Biodiversity of Saint Martins island 20 Chapter-5 People & community infrastructure 23 5.1 People of Saint Martins island 23 5.2 community infrastructure 23 5.3 Data collection Chapter-6 Economy of Saint Martins island 26 6.1 Introduction 26 6.2 Economic activities of saint martin 26 6.3 Market economoy of Saint Martin 32 6.4 Market management of Saint Martin 33 Chapter-7 Waste management of Saint Martins island 34 7.1 Introduction 34 7.2 Waste 34 7.3 Impacts of waste management on Saint Martins 36 7.4 waste management on Saint Martins 37 Chapter-8 Government policies and planning on Saint Martin’s Island 38 8.1 Administration 38 8.2 Policies and laws 38 8.3 Zoning of Saint Martin 39 8.4 Laws applicable to the island 40 Chapter-9 Conclusion & Recommendation 41 6 | P a g e
  • 7. 9.1 Conclusion 41 9.2 Recommendation 41 Chapter-10 References 42 10.1 References 42 7 | P a g e
  • 8. Chapter- 1 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study tour Due to the Environmental significance of Saint Martin we have visited this area for our field tour this year. Saint Martins is generally known as Narikel Zinzira in Bengali and it is only coral relief island in Bangladesh. It is a small island in the north eastern part of the Bay of Bengal created the southern part of our country. During the British occupation the island was named as St. Martine island. The first land use of Saint Martine started about 250 years ago with the come of Arabian sailors. But land use of Saint Martine is unplanned today. St. Martin's Island is a small island (area only 8 km2 ) in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, about 9 km south of the tip of the Cox's Bazar-Teknaf peninsula. It is about 8 km west of the northwest coast of Myanmar, at the mouth of the Naf River. It is the only coral island in Bangladesh. The distance between the island and Teknaf is about 34 km. The north portion of the island is called “Cheradia Dwip” because during high tide, this portion of the island is separated from the other and also considered as the last southern landmark of Bangladesh. Absolute Location : Latitude : 20⁰0′34″ -20⁰0′38″ N Longitude: 92⁰0′18″-92⁰0′22″ E Relative Location : Saint Martins is sorrounded by the Bay of Bengal. It is located about 35 km far away from Teknaf. 1 | P a g e
  • 9. 1.2 Study area selection Study area selection is a very important fact for a study tour. Because, which kind of knowledge we want to learn, fully depends on the site of the tour. So I would like to thank our honorable teachers because before starting our tour they selected our tour site. Our main site was Saint Martins island & adjacent area. The sites of this tour were-  Saint Martin  Chera Deep St. Martin's Island is a small island in the northeast part of the Bay of Bengal, in the southernmost part of Bangladesh. Geographically, it is divided into three parts. The main shoreline habitats are sandy beaches and dunes and scattered rocks and coral boulders. Some boulders are also found on the interior into the island. The shallow water marine habitats include, rocky and sandy intertidal, intertidal rock pools, off shore lagoons, rocky and sandy sub tidal and offshore soft bottom habitats. It is said that in 1926, the District Collector of the British government Mr. Martin brought this island under settlement record following which the island was named “St. Martin's Island”. Figure-1.1: Map of Saint Martin Island 2 | P a g e
  • 10. 1.3 Aim and objectives Behind any work, there have must some aim & objective. With the great deal of importance the main aim of this study tour is to observe the environmental condition of Saint Martins Island & adjacent areas and their impact on surrounding area. We must also keep into consideration that what is the thinking & idea of local people about their environment. In Saint Martin, Cheradeep, and Teknaf, area; our main objectives –  The geological of Geological structure observation of the study areas  Ecological observation (deforestation, types of plants and biodiversity)  The natural processes occurred in the island  Find a suitable way to promote eco-tourism in the Saint Martin’s island and Cheradeep  Environmental impact assessment  Observation of Flora and Fauna of study areas  The importance of corals and hazards related to the lacking of corals  Physical, socio economic and cultural aspect of the study areas  To see the marine coastal mangrove forest in the coastal belt  Soil and water condition (constituents of soil, elemental analysis)  To know and familiar with the Natural resources  To know the Lifestyle of the people of coastal Areas.  To identify land use pattern.  To identify how land use of Saint Martin influence the environment.  Source of products sold in the market.  To find out the waste management condition. 1.4 Scope & limitations of the study: The present study is constructed on the geographical and economical information on the Saint Martins island. It is on analytical representation that is based on primary data spatially. To analyze it some methods and parameters are selected to complete the questionnaire survey in our study area. 3 | P a g e
  • 11. To complete the work on this report some limitations had raised. The information provided by the correspondents was not so accurate. We do the analysis dependent on some specific issue more issue should be analyzed to get the accurate findings. We did the questionnaire survey only on few peoples. There was lack of experience of the surveyor to collect the primary data from the field. Those were our major limitations to make this report. The data sources of the study tour were basically based on secondary data sources. That’s why in this tour there were some limitations-  Time was limited, so it was difficult to collect more information within these short time.  Limitation of budget.  Different people gave different information so we were confused about actual information.  We were 71 students, so it was difficult to move with this he number of people. 1.5 Tour schedule Date Time Work schedule 22.1.2016 (Day 1) 03.30 pm 05.30 pm 12.00 am Reporting at the department Start journey to Teknaf Dinner break 23.01.2016 (Day 2) 9.00 am 09.30 am 12.45pm 1.20 pm 2.00 pm 03.30 pm 08.30 pm 10.00 pm Arrived Teknaf ship terminal. Journey to saint martin Island Arrived Saint martin Island Briefing about tourism & local survey. Take lunch Project 1 Dinner Briefing 4 | P a g e
  • 12. 24.01.2016 (Day 3) 6.00- 7.00 am 07.20 am 12.00 pm 12.30 pm 01.40 pm 03.30 pm 08.30 pm 09.30 pm 11.30 pm Breakfast Road to Chera dip (project 2) Reached chera dip Start journey to probal dip & madhma dip Towards Saint martin resort hotel Lunch Briefing Dinner & Cultural Program 25.01.2016 (Day 4) 07.00 am 07.30 am 09.00 am 2.00 pm 03.00 pm 12.10 pm (26.01.2016) Briefing Breakfast Local Survey ( project 3) Lunch Start journey to JU Campus Reached JU campus 5 | P a g e
  • 13. 6 | P a g e
  • 14. Chapter-2 Data collection and Methodology 2.1 Methodology Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study, or the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. It, typically, encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions but offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods or so called “best practices” can be applied to a specific case. Methodology does not describe specific methods, even though much attention is given to the nature and kinds of processes to be followed in a particular procedure or in attaining an objective. When proper to a study of methodology, such processes constitute a constructive generic framework; thus they may be broken down in sub-processes, combined, or their sequence changed. 7 | P a g e
  • 15. Graph-2.1: Flowchart showing the methodology of the study 2.2 Data collection and data sources Every work has some purposes and method of completing those purposes. After complete purpose than need the processing of data which is collected from field. We know that data is a body of information in numerical form and it is a collection of statistical information of values of the variable of interest in a study. On the Basis of sources, data is two types. In this report we use both type data. The sources of both data are given below- 2.2.1 Primary data sources Primary data are obtained from the organization or institution that originally collected the information. The data collected for the first time by the investigator as original data are known as primary data. In this study tour we have collected the primary data by the following ways-  Visual observation: By visiting a particular place and after observe that we get some data which is helping us to make a report.  Questionnaire: At first we select a particular place or particular topics, then to know everything about that place all related question contain on a sheet of paper and in this way be collect all types of information.  Discussion: Group discussion is a very important process of reporting. By this process many view idea develops and those can help to make a successful report. According to this process we collect all types of information.  Interview: By interview we can gather more different and much knowledge which help us to collect information and data. In this study tour, by these types of interview we knew details about tribal, lifestyle and other phenomena.  Map Reading: We came to know about the location and area of our traveling area from map. We know the road to Saint Martin from route map.  Photograph: We snapped various charming natural sceneries. These photographs helped us in observation and research. They are also a great source of our enjoyment. 8 | P a g e
  • 16.  Literature Review: A comprehensive literature study was done to gain an exact scenario of the two mine. Various important and necessary data are collected from already published books, journal, previous works, newspaper, internet etc. By gathering all the information the field report of our study tour is made. We come to know about the previous condition of the area and can identified the difference with present situation. 2.2.2 Secondary data sources We know that if an investigator is using data which have been collected by someone else, then such data are known as secondary data. For make a successful report we have followed some secondary data sources such as:- o Different published Books o Banglapedia o Different Journals o Encyclopedia o From different organization o From related books o Internet o Satellite image o From map 2.3 Supporting instruments There are various instrument used in our study tour. The instruments are following below: Educational Field Work Group Note book/ clip board Photocopy of map GPS with battery Pen, Pencil Cap pH meter Eraser Bag Salinitymeasuringmeter Sharpner Umbrella Measuring tape. Markerpen. Water pot Sound level meter Shit Paper Gridline Other stationary accessories 9 | P a g e
  • 17. CHAPTER – 3 Coastal geomorphology of Saint Martin 3.1 Introduction Coastal geomorphology is a branch of geomorphology in which the focus is on the area influenced by large bodies of water, including seas and oceans, and large lakes such as Saint Martin Island. St. Martin’s Island is a dumb-bell shaped sedimentary continental island located on the eastern flank of an anticline, which like Chittagong may be part of the Arakan Yoma- Naga folded system (Warrick et. al., 1993). The surface area of the Island is about 8 km2 depending on the tidal level. The Island is almost flat with an average height of 2.5m above mean sea level (MSL), rising to a maximum of 6.5m high cliffs along the eastern coast of Dakhin Para (Kabir, 2006). 3.2 Geological structure of Saint Martins island: The structure is simple and is represented by an anticlinal uplift. The island lies on the eastern flank of the anticline. A little of the axis of the anticline is traceable along the west coast of Dakshinpara. The exposed portion of the axis runs NNW to SSE, approximately parallel to the island. There is a fault along the northwestern shoreline with a trend nearly parallel to the axis. The fault seems to be reverse in nature with the eastern side as the upthrown block. The anticline is slightly asymmetrical with a monoclinal swing on the eastern flank. The bedrock on the eastern flank near the axis dips very gently at an angle of 3° to 5° towards the east, increasing eastwards to 10° to 12°. The monoclinal swing gives a high dip of 30° and above at Siradia. Very little of the western flank is exposed above the sea which records a dip of 6° towards the west. The monoclinal swing gives the anticline a box-like shape. The birth of the 10 | P a g e
  • 18. island is related to the regional tectonics of Southeast Asia. As a sequel to the most dynamic Himalayan orogeny during Middle Miocene (around 15 million years before. Figure 3.5: Geological Structure of Saint Martin 3.3 Geomorphology of Saint Martin The main shoreline features are sandy beaches and dunes, where the main sediments are alluvial sands. The beaches and dunes of the southern part of the Island have a higher carbonate content compared to the northern Uttar Para beaches. Most carbonates comprise mollusc shell fragments. The sandy beach in the north and north-east stretches 300-400 m into the sea. The western beach is sandy but the sub-tidal area consists of a bed of boulders. Coastal dunes are widespread immediately above the beach and along the shorelines. This dune system is particularly well developed around the middle part of the island. The dunes of St. Martin’s are of two types: high and low dunes. High dunes are up to 6 m in height and are mostly found on the western side of Golachipa. Dunes along the northwest and south-west corners of the island are low, undulating and broadly extended. These dune systems act as a natural defence against storms and tidal surges, when they help to save lives and properties. The topsoil of the main three parts of the Island (Uttar Para, Madhya Para and Dakhin Para) consists of alluvial sands mixed with marine calcareous (primarily molluscan in origin) deposits. Scattered throughout the area are small clumps of coral colonies, many still in growth position. A large shallow lagoon is located in the middle of Uttar Para. The lagoon has been largely converted into agricultural fields, and is connected to the sea at high tide by a narrow tidal channel on the west coast. The remaining flooded part of the lagoon has an area of about 0.4 km2 with a depth of 1 m or less. Uttar Para is separated from Madhya Para and Dakhin Para by a narrow neck of land known as Galachipa. Galachipa is a beach and dune environment. 11 | P a g e
  • 19. Similarly the surface deposits on Cheradia have a high content of molluscan shells compared to the northern parts of the island. Figure: Rocks of fanciful forms on the beach 3.4 Sea water of Saint Martins island Surface circulation in the Bayof Bengal is determined by the monsoon winds and to some extent by the hydrological characteristics of the open part of the Indian Ocean. The prevailing winds reverse twice during the year. They blow from the south-west during May- September and from the northeast during November-January with the transition taking place during the months in between. Forced by these winds, circulation in the Indian Ocean has a general eastward direction during summer and westward during winter. The inflow of freshwater from the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta into the Bay of Bengal has a significant impact: these reversing currents carry low salinity Bay of Bengal water into more saline Arabian Sea water and vice versa playing a crucial role in maintaining the freshwater - saltwater balance of the North Indian Ocean (Vinayachandran and Kurian, 2008). The massive inflow of freshwater and sediment from the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, and locally from the Naf River, is also an important factor influencing the flora and fauna of the Island. Thus, coral reef development is inhibited due to low water salinity, high turbidity and the soft substrates present. Tides The Island experiences normal semidiurnal tides, i.e. two high and two low tides during a period of 24 hours and 52 minutes (Banglapedia, 2008). The mean tidal range at Shahpuri Island (about 9 km north-east of St. Martin’s Island) in the Naf estuary is 1.87 m. It is expected that somewhat similar, probably lower, tidal ranges occur at St. Martin’s Island. 12 | P a g e
  • 20. Figure: Tidal zone of Saint Martin Map: Tidal zone of Saint Martin Temperature The mean annual temperature of the surface water of the Bay of Bengal is about 28°C. The maximum temperature is observed in May (30°C) and the minimum (25°C) occurs in January- February (Banglapedia, 2008; Vinayachandran and Kurian, 2008). 13 | P a g e
  • 21. Table: Temperature of different station of field survey Figure: Graph showing the temperature of the station Comments: The average temperature is 22.5℃. From station “G” the temperature is increasing gradually. On the other hand the temperature of first four stations ( A,B,C,D ) is relatively lower than then the last three. 14 | P a g e
  • 22. Salinity The surface salinity in the coastal parts of the Bay of Bengal oscillates from 10 to 25 ppt (parts per thousand, ie grams per kilogram of sea water). Coastal seawater is significantly diluted with freshwater throughout the year, although the inflow of river water is greatly reduced during winter. The coastal water salinity of St. Martin’s Island, as measured during the dry season (Tomasick, 1997), fluctuates between 26 and 35 ppt. It is expected that the salinity level drops below this level due to increased freshwater discharge from the Naf River during the rainy season (July-October). Figure: Graph showing the salinity of the station Comments:This graph shows along the cross section salinity of high tide and low tide. It is clear that average salinity of low tide is more than high tide. The average low tide salinity3‰ and high tide salinity1‰. The main cause of it saline water. Transparency Water transparency measured in December fluctuated from 0.62 m near St. Martin’s Bazar, where the water is heavily affected by human pressure, to 3.9 m at Galachipa (Hossain et al., 2006). This low light penetration is the consequence of many factors. In addition to silt discharged by the Naf, the combined action of wind generated waves, ocean swell and high velocity tidal currents cause re-suspension of bottom sediments (fine sand; silts and mud). A Secchi depth3 of over 7 m is required for optimal growth of reefbuilding corals. Since corals are lightsensitive organisms, the turbid coastal waters of St. Martin’s Island are a key environmental factor limiting the development of coral reefs. 15 | P a g e
  • 23. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the surface waters around St. Martin’s Island ranges from 4.56 to 6.24 mg/L in December. The highest value of 6.24 mg/L of DO was found at Badam Bunia, whereas the lowest value was recorded at St. Martin’s Bazar (Hossain et al., 2006). Figure: Graph showing the pH level of water of stations Comments: This graph shows PH of high tide and low tide of St. Martin. The average PH of high tide is more than low tide. The average PH of high tide is 6, which is acidic. Its trends up to 7 and low tide is 4. Humidity: By using the humidity meter we collect the humidity rate of the tidal zone of the Saint Martin island. 16 | P a g e
  • 24. Table: Humidity of the high and low tide zone 3.5 Fresh water of Saint Martin Being very porous and permeable, the shelly limestones of the Island provide an excellent aquifer wherever they occur beneath the alluvium. The shelly limestone and recent marine sand are the chief sources of fresh water. The rocks underlying these two formations are mostly impervious Tertiary shale and calcareous sandstone. As rain water cannot flow downward through these rocks, it accumulates either in the shelly limestone or in the marine sand. The shelly limestone that underlies the village of Jinjira averages 1.2 m (four feet) thick and is overlain by 0.6-1.2 m (2-4 feet) of soil. Drinking and irrigation water is obtained by sinking shallow wells 1.5-3 m (5-10 feet) to the level of the Tertiary rocks. Figure: Fresh water of Source 17 | P a g e
  • 25. CHAPTER-4 Climate & ecosystem of Saint Martin’s island 4.1 Introduction: The unique island of St. Martin, the only place in Bangladesh where coral colonies are found, is a natural treasure of Bangladesh that attracts thousands of tourists. St. Martin’s Island is significant for biodiversity value and important for exclusive economic zone in Bangladesh. 4.2 Climate of a Saint Martins island: Climate of saint martin island is heavily influenced by the subtropical monsoon climate.  Seasonal climate In November – March the island usually experiences pleasant weather and calm seas making this the peak tourism season.  Wind direction In April- May and October – November Cyclonic storm develop in the Bay of Bangl.  Average Rainfall 18 | P a g e
  • 26. Source: Socio economic monitoring report Land: A study was made on some of the chemical characteristics of the soil to determine the process of development of these soils in the Saint Martin Island. The soils and sand samples of the Island were collected on profile basis and analyzed for pH.  Topography of Saint Martin Topography is mainly divided into three categories ( e.g. high land, back slope and valley). Saint Martin’s topography is also categorized into these types. Soil type:  Soil texture From field observation and hand touch method we have come to know that the soil of saint martin is sandy.  Soil PH By measuring ph from different point of saint martin the average ph of high tide is found about 6.5- 7 and in low tide zone it is about 3.5- 4. 19 | P a g e
  • 27. 4.3 Ecosystem of Saint Martin island A cross-section of the different habitats and eco-systems that make up St. Martin’s Island would show a transition from terrestrial to marine habitats. In addition to the dry land of the Island, the key habitats are shallow water marine habitats, including rocky and sandy inter-tidal habitats, offshore lagoons, rocky sub-tidal habitats, coral aggregations, sea grass beds, soft coral habitats and offshore soft-bottom habitats. Rocky habitant The whole terrestrial part of the Island was once a rocky habitat but this has gradually been altered through the removal of rocks and boulders for agriculture. Now much of the land is cultivated and of very limited ecological and bio-diversity interest. Figure: Rocky habitant of Saint Martins Sand dunes and beach The sand dunes on the Island were much better developed and higher during the 1980s. The dunes are in an increasingly degraded state, with those of the north western part of the Island at Kona Para and Golachera, now severely eroded. This degradation has also resulted in a loss of associated dune flora (the dominant species are Pandanus fascicularis (previously P. odoratissimus), Ipomea pescaprae, grasses Panicum repens and Paspalum vaginatum, and sedges Cyperus spp. and Fimbristylis spp.). Lagoons and wetlands Several lagoons and wetlands associated with mangrove and floodplain areas occur on the Island, and once probably provided important habitats for birds. Mudflats Within the inter-tidal zone there is a small mudflat area (known as Gaitta Banya) located at the southern end of the western beach. The marine invertebrates found here make it an important foraging area for shorebirds. High levels of human activity in the preferred roosting areas for shorebirds in the north of the Island, have made the mudflat area increasingly important for birds. 20 | P a g e
  • 28. Mangrove habitat At one time the Island probably had a significant area of mangrove vegetation, but most of this has been degraded (Tomascik, 1997). In 1996, mangrove forests covered only 2.4 ha (6.1 acres) (MoEF, 2001a). The top canopy was dominated by Lumnitzera racemosa, but a total of 29 mangrove species were recorded of which nine were common. Since then, the mangrove forest has been cleared almost solely to assert land rights and to facilitate the recognition of land ownership. Currently there is only a very small remaining mangrove patch in Dakhin Para consisting mostly of Sonneratia apetala mixed with Sea Holly Acanthus ilicifolius, Grey Mangrove Avicennia marina and Hibiscus tiliceous. The potential for this residual mangrove patch to restore and regenerate is unclear (Molony, 2006), even though in principle it is protected having been identified as a core zone of the St. Martin’s Island Environmentally Critical Area. Figure: The only Mangroves of Saint Martins 4.4 Biodiversity of Saint Martins Island: The diversity of species is not evenly distributed through planet because life depends on many factors including geography. For example, tropical regions support more life than polar regions. Saint Martins is naturally abundant of biodiversity. The biodiversity of Saint Martins island can be categorized in two main classes  Flora (include all plants)  Fauna (include all animals) 21 | P a g e
  • 29. From field observation and other data sources, they are described below- Flora: Tree Shurbs Herbs Cocos nuchifera (locally called narikel) Vitex trifolea Ipomoea pes-caprae Areca catechu (locally called supari) Calamus guruba Onion Borassus flabellifer (locally called taal) Pandanus fascicularis Algae Phoenix sylvestris (locally called khejur) Streblus asper (locally called shaora) Mangrove tree Fauna: • Fishes (e.g. koral,shurma,rupchada,churi,loitta etc. ) • Sea star 22 | P a g e
  • 30. • Jellyfishes • Corals • Crabs • Lobsters • Turtles • Birds (e.g. seagull) Chapter-5 23 | P a g e
  • 31. People & community infrastructure Of Saint Martin’s island 5.1 People of Saint Martin Island Human settlement started on the Island in the 1880s when several families migrated from what is now Myanmar to live on the Island permanently. In the 1920s the hardwood trees of the Island, reportedly mostly teak, were cut and sold to Myanmar (then Burma). From the 1940s onwards it is reported that land was gradually converted to paddy cultivation, and from the 1960s onwards this involved converting the main lagoon to cultivation. In 1996 there was a population of around 3,700 people belonging to 535 families (Paiker, 1996 in MoEF, 2001b); in 2000 the population was 4,766 from 791 households (Islam, 2001) and in 2005 the population was 5,726 from 818 households (POUSH, 2006a). Most of the inhabitants are ethnically Bangali and Muslims. This means that the population density is likely by the late 2000s to be about 700 persons per km2. Figure: Distribution of population by region Source: population census 2011(BBS) 5.2 Community infrastructure The island's infrastructure however seems to have developed primarily with the comfort of tourists in mind rather than that of the inhabitants. The only way to reach St. Martin's Island is by ferry from Teknaf. During the winter months, when seas are calm, there is a lot of traffic to and from the mainland with 7 ferries catering to the tourists who visit the island mainly for day trips. However, during the rainy season, the island is isolated from the mainland and can be difficult to reach. The only mode of transport on the island is by cycle rickshaw van and most people walk from place to place as there is no road on which vehicles can travel. Tourists use speed boats to go to visit Cheradia Island. Electricity is generated by diesel generators and 24 | P a g e
  • 32. supplied to the local community for 5 hours a day. All the hotels and resorts on the island have their own generators. Table 1 provides an overview of the infrastructure available on St. Martin’s Island. Educational services There is one school/college on the island which teaches up to Grade 11 starting from this year (2015). There are also 1 government primary school, 2 non-government primary schools and 15 madrasa/mokthob where religious studies are undertaken. 34% of the population is reported to have never attended school. 55% have a primary education, 10% senior school certificate and less than 1% have a higher school certificate or degree. Health services A hospital building exists on the island but it has been closed for some time and there are no doctors or nurses on the island. Local midwifes known as dhatri help women through childbirth. There are 9 pharmacies that provide medicines for the sick and the pharmacist plays the role of doctor on the island. For more significant ailments, the islanders have to go to the mainland to get treated and often children die due to lack of health facilities on the island. During the time the team visited the island there was a floating hospital, The Rongdhonu Friendship Hospital, anchored near the islan 25 | P a g e
  • 33. Water and sewerage Water for drinking, cooking and bathing is obtained from tube wells with hand pumps and there are 600 wells on the island. The tourist hotels and “resorts” have running water that is dispensed from overhead storage tanks and motor pumps. Only 48% of the population has a toilet in their households. Toilets do not have septic tanks and the sewage is not treated on the island before it is disposed into the marine environment. CHAPTER-6 Economy of Saint Martins island 26 | P a g e
  • 34. 6.1 Introduction: Actions that involve the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services at all levels within a society. Gross domestic product or GDP is one way of assessing economic activity, and the degree of current economic activity and forecasts for its future level can significantly impact business activity and profits, as well as inflation and interest rates. 6.2 Economic activities of Saint Martin: Economic activities are a very important process for a place. In the Saint Martins Island there have different types of economic activities. Such as:-  Primary economic activities  Secondary economic activities  Tertiary activities. Primary activities: 1. Net making and catching fish 2. Agriculture 3. Dry fish 4. Salt producing Secondary activities: 27 | P a g e
  • 35. 1. Water transportation (boating) 2. Selling betel leaf 3. Wood fuel 4. Furniture shop Tertiary Activities: 1. Hotel 2. Dispensary 3. Shoe shop and Pick up. 4. Cloth shop 5. Vegetable market and Van 6. Hair cutting 10. Tailor’s 11. Electronics We conducted focus group discussions with fishers and other islanders to learn about the livelihood opportunities available on St. Martin's. As a visualization technique, they used resource and activity mapping. From this, it emerged that the islanders are well aware of the ecological goods and services found in St. Martin’s Island. They were able to illustrate the seasonal calendar for activities as well as a seasonal calendar for the availability of fish species. They also participated in making a resource and activity map for St. Martin’s Island. These diagrams were later refined on the computer. 28 | P a g e
  • 36. Figure 4 Seasonal calendar for key livelihoods activities on St. Martin's Island 29 | P a g e
  • 37. Figure : Resource activity Map of St. Martin’s Island 30 | P a g e
  • 38. Livelihoods on the island mainly revolve around coastal and marine activities. The seasonal calendar for activities in Figure 4 shows that the households have multiple sources of income and rely on fisheries, shell collection, agriculture, animal rearing and tourism-associated businesses. The main livelihood opportunities occur during the winter season from October to March. June to August is the Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) fisheries season and at that time 100% of the fishers concentrate on Hilsa fishing. Fishing primarily for household consumption, using single hooks and line, cast nets and shore seines, is carried on by about 5% of the fishers throughout the year. Most of the men of the island are primarily fishermen and many also undertake fish drying and processing. Agriculture is also an important employment activity with women and children helping out in the work. With the island increasingly becoming more popular as a tourist destination for Bangladeshis from the mainland, tourism is playing a steadily larger role in employment. However, many of the tourist facilities (resorts and hotels) are owned and controlled by businessmen from off the island and islanders realise limited benefits from tourism. The local businesses catering to the tourists are souvenir shops, sea food restaurants and van pullers located near the jetty. A significant proportion of the land on the island is now owned by these mainland businessmen. Local land owners who have sold their land to outsiders often move to the south of the island which was previously uninhabited. Figure 5 shows a resource activity map, of St. Martin’s Island. The map was prepared during a focus group discussion with fishers in Dakhinpara and later validated with another group of fishers in Uttarpara. This shows how St. Martin’s Island is made up of different habitats and ecosystems. The habitats found include rocky shores, rocky terrestrial habitat, coral colonies, sand dunes, screwpines, mangroves and wetland. All these habitats are now threatened due to human activity and changes in land use. Figure : Habitats under threat due to land use changes on St. Martin’s Island Figure 7 shows the seasonal calendar for fish species availability. One can note from the seasonal calendars and the resource activity calendar that the fishers have very good traditional knowledge of the ecological goods and services found in and around St. Martin's Island and they time their activities accordingly. 31 | P a g e
  • 39. Figure : Seasonal calendar (fish species) Figures 8 below shows a matrix of coastal activities on the island, products, impacts, possible remedial action for the island, and numbers of people involved. Figure 8 Agricultural & tourism-related activities on St. Martin's Island 32 | P a g e
  • 40. Figure 10 provides a list of all the species of fish found in the dry fish shops targeting tourists on St. Martin’s Island. There are 29 species of fish sold here. It was interesting to note that some of the dry fish sold here is brought from Teknaf and Cox’s Bazar. This point was highlighted during the discussion as some of the participants noted that the dry fish sold in tourist shops at Cox Bazar had identical packaging. And there is no packaging facility at St. Martin's Island. The SocMon team highlighted the need to have further discussion with the ship owners to find out where they sourced the dry fish and ornaments they are selling. Figure 10 Dry fish sold in the shops near the jetty 33 | P a g e
  • 41. 6.3 Market economy of Saint Martins island: A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. The major defining characteristic of a market economy is that investment decisions and the allocation of producer goods are mainly made by negotiation through markets. This is contrasted with a planned economy, where investment and production decisions are embodied in a plan of production In this island people exchange resources, such as money, for other resources, such as goods or services, on a voluntary basis in the market. Products: Fish, Dry fish, Chocolate, Pickles, Snail, Coconut, Shoe, Mineral water, Crab. Sources of these products: Saint Martin, Myanmar, Teknaf, Cox’sBazar. Seller: Who sells products. There are two types of sellers in Saint Martin market area.The economic condition of permanent sellers are low because of out sellers.  Permanent  Temporary Buyer: Tourist and some local people are main buyer of this market area. More than 80% product of this market is used by tourist. 34 | P a g e
  • 42. 6.4 Market management of Saint Martin island: The market management of this island is not good. In market area, much of the shopkeeper and businessmen are come outside of this area so that they income money more and local people do work in atypically so their income is very poor. As the out businessmen are there so they harm the environment such as- they strip waste anywhere. The government cannot take any step to develop this market area or whole area. Solution of the problem:  People should conscious about market area.  The government should take step to develop this area.  Local people should gain knowledge so that they understand this problem and try to solve that.  Keep bun in hotel and various place to strip waste 35 | P a g e
  • 43. Chapter-7 Waste management of Saint Martins island 7.1 Introduction: Waste management is transportation and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products. Waste management disposes of the products and substances that you have use in a safe and efficient manner. 7.2Waste: waste is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms. In the saint martin island , we find different wastes such as house-hold waste , agricultural waste and tourism waste. Solid wastes that include household garbage, rubbish, construction & demolition debris, sanitation residues, packaging materials, trade refuges etc. Wastes generated from farming activities. These substances are mostly biodegradable. Wastes generated due to fishery activities. These are extensively found in coastal & estuarine areas. Types of waste We can defined waste in mainly two types. Such as: Solid & Liquid but it also has some sub- types. Now we make a chart table by the basement of the wastage of Saint Martin. 36 | P a g e
  • 44. Two types of wastes are found in saint martin island . they are given below, 1.Solid wastes: wastes in solid forms, domestic, commercial and industrial wastes. Examples : plastics, Styrofoam containers, bottles , cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash. 2.Liquid Wastes: wastes in liquid is also come from same way. Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing and other sources. Problems: In the fact of waste management at Saint Martin island we found some terrific problems. This island is very small but at the tourism season this area becomes very crowded and the amount of waste is incapable for this island capacity. Solid waste is essentially garbage: waste produced in their homes, tourist and hotel area. Solid waste production in that area is growing in volume and in toxicity. More and more of that island everyday products contain toxic chemicals, such as mercury or PBDEs (flame retardant chemicals), and these toxic products are combined with a plethora of other chemicals, which eventually impact public health and future of the environment condition of Saint Martin. 7.3 Impacts of waste management on Saint Martins: The main impact on Coastal and marine environment which are affected by waste .for these reason biodiversity is breaking down of different way . local people are affected their health , socio-economic conditions and climatic condition etc. this could also affect animals and many types of ecosystem. regional climate could alter forests crop yields and water supplies. Impacts on animal:  Increase in mercury level in fish due to disposal of mercury in the sea.  Plastic found in oceans ingested by birds.  Resulted in high algal population in rivers and sea. 37 | P a g e
  • 45.  Degrades water and soil quality. Impacts on environment:  Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane, a potent greenhouse gas  Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable  Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping, Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. 7.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SAINT MARTIN ISLAND: The management of waste at saint martin is better than the other part of our country. This area’s waste management is maintained by government directly. At first, cleaners collect the waste then they stored it on a dent. When the dent full-fill by dust or waste then it covered by soil. All kinds of waste (solid or liquid) are deposited in there.This area`s people mainly collect solid wastage but much amount of liquid waste directly mixed with the water of Bay of Bangle. DISPOSAL OF SOILED WASTE: The Executive Committee determines the days and the times for the offering of residential waste for collection as well as for the disposal of residential waste at the indicated dump. The Executive Committee can establish regulations regarding the offering for disposal of soiled wastes (garden waste, glass, small chemical waste, paper). DISPOSAL OF LIQUIED WASTE: It is forbidden to place, to dump, to throw, to pour, to drop, to flow or to keep liquid waste or another similar substance. It is forbidden to throw, put down or leave behind trash or remnants of provisions, paper, cans, bottles or other packaging on or by the road that is open to the public or a place nearby. PROSPECTS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SAINT MARTIN ISLAND Saint martin island is one of the very important physical part of our country. But the future of this island is in a threat. Our government try to save it but their activities are not enough to protect it. The inhabitant of this island are not conscious about the harmful effect of waste. For example, if every tourist take one coral with them when they leave saint martin island then total coral will gone from that place in above two year. This island stand on the coral of Bay of Bangle but the maximum people of this island do not know that. 38 | P a g e
  • 46. Chapter-8 Government policies and planning on Saint Martin’s Island 8.1 Administrative structure The island is governed by a Union Parishad which is the lowest rural administrative and local government unit in Bangladesh. A Union Parishad consists of 12 members including three members exclusively reserved for women. A Chairman heads the group and members are elected from the different wards of the island. They are primarily responsible for agricultural, industrial and community development within the local limits of the Union. However, from the information gathered from the Union Parishad members and the local people, it was evident that the island was effectively governed directly from the mainland Teknaf and Cox’s Bazar administration. 8.2 Policies and Laws  To protect the environmental problems of the country, there are more than 200 sectoral laws that are in force dealing with environmental issues.  In 1995 the Government of Bangladesh declared St. Martin’s Island as an Ecologically Critical Area (ECA). The management of ECAs falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF).  The MoEF initiated two projects that were expected to make the ECA effective and facilitate conservation of biodiversity. They are: 1. “Conservation of Biodiversity, Marine Park Establishment and Ecotourism Development Project at St. Martin’s Island” often abbreviated to St. Martin’s Biodiversity Conservation Project (SMBCP). 2. Coastal and Wetland Biodiversity Management Project (CWBMP) Concerns regarding the St. Martin’s coral resources first came as one of the National Conservation Strategy (NCS) recommendations. The NCS recommendation for St. Martin’s Island is as follows: “Declaration of St. Martin’s Island and the Jinjira coral reef a Protected Area and development of a management plan”. 39 | P a g e
  • 47. 8.3 Zoning of Saint Martin’s Island CWBMP has developed proposal for zoning of St. Martin’s Island. The term “zoning” means dividing the Island (Ecologically Critical Area) into logical units for management and conservation purposes. Some common conditions are to be set covering the whole Island ECA:  Environmental Clearance Certificate.  Fishing activity.  Create balance between biodiversity protection and economic development. Figure: Zoning of Saint Martins Island Managed Resource Zone This zone covers the northern part of the Island (ECA) south to Golachipa and represents almost25% of the total area of the ECA. It will function as a multiple-use zone where 40 | P a g e
  • 48. sustainable development is encouraged to ensure a sustainable flow of natural products and services for the local community without impinging upon the overall objective of the ECA. Sustainable Use Zone This zone covers the middle part of St. Martin’s Island and represents 25% of the total area of the Island It starts from the southern border of the managed resource zone and continues southward to end approximately 400 m north of the lagoon of Dakhinpara. This zone will form a buffer for the sensitive core zone in the southern part of the Island and will also serve the community by providing a sustainable flow of natural services and products through environmentally friendly projects such as organic farming, handcrafts production and ecotourism. Restricted Access Zone This zone covers the southern part of the Island, known as Cheradia, and represents almost 50% of the total area of the Island. This zone possesses the ecological critical features for which the ECA was declared - coral-algal communities and coral associated biodiversity and thus deserves strict protection. Within this zone are also patches of mangrove and other natural vegetation including seaweeds. The sandy beaches are important nesting grounds for marine turtles, and the zone also contains spawning and nursery grounds for marine fishes and shrimps. 8.4 Laws applicable to the island and biodiversity in the island The following key legislation relative to the environment, fisheries and biodiversity on the island were identified through discussions with key informants. 1. Land Acquisition Act, 1950 2. Forest Act, 1927 3. Fish Act, 1950 4. Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order, 1973 (Repealed) 5. Wildlife (Preservation and Security) Act, 2012 6. Fish Act, 1985 7. Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act, 1995 8. Plant Protection Act 9. Environment Rules 10. Ecologically Critical Area Rules 41 | P a g e
  • 49. Chapter- 9 Conclusion & Recommendation 9.1 Conclusion The management and conservation activities are not followed properly, where users of the island still haphazardly utilize the natural resources of coral reef. The destruction of habitat and over-exploitation of these resources have resulted in decaling the biodiversity as well as degradation of coastal and island ecosystems. There is lack of awareness among the resource users about the interaction of various coastal components and they do not have enough knowledge about the resource and its importance, utilization and conservation. So, proper implementation of the rules and regulations for 'Ecologically Critical Areas (ECA's)', declaration and implementation of 'Marine Protected Area (MPA)' as suggested by Tomasik (1997), control of pollution, sustainable and controlled tourism, alternative livelihood for the local people, and further research should be immediately undertaken for sustainable utilisation and to save rich biodiversity of this only coral island of Bangladesh. Still there may be time to save the biodiversity and fish resources of this island; otherwise it may be too late. So, all the stakeholders including government policy makers should come forward to save the marine biodiversity of this important island and the livelihood of the local people. For the conservation of biodiversity in the St. Martin's Island the following rules, regulations, policies and management strategies recommended to be done 9.2 Recommendation • Conserve and enhance the coral resources around the Island in Bangladesh • where this important biological resource is available • Conserve the ecologically important moluscan resources and coral bearing • Island of the Country-Narikel Jinjira through measure with the local • people’s participation • Conservation of other flora and fauna of the Island. Conservation and • Development of Marine Turtle Breeding Ground • Develop viable eco-tourism in the Island 42 | P a g e
  • 50. • Designate, develop and manage the Island as a marine park in the • subsequent stage • Improve the socio-economic status of people of the Island • Establish a marine laboratory to facilitate research on molluscs, coral, flora, • fauna and marine ecosystem • Establish necessary institutional set-up in place • Local peoples training on handicraft production like coconut, shell craft & • Community people has been trained to make models of sea animal with • coconut shell/wood/ Plaster of Paris, to encourage people/ tourist to buy • model items instead of living coral & shell • Construction of motel for eco-tourism • Coconut sapling production & distribution to plant in the island • Socio-economic survey of the island • Training & distribution of energy saving stove for the Island to prevent 43 | P a g e
  • 51. Chapter 10 References 10.1 References • Akhtar, A. (1992). Palynology of Girujan clay, St. Martin's Island, Cox's Bazaar District, Bangladesh. Records of Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Vol.7, Part 2: 1-24. • Alam, M. and Hasan, M.Q. (1997). The origin of so-called beach rock of St. Martin Island of Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, Oriental Geographer. • BIWTA (1996). Bangladesh Tide Tables, 1996. Department of Hydrography, Bangladesh Inland water Transport Authority, Dhaka. • Chowdhury, S. Q., Haq. F.A.T.M. and Hassan, K. 1992). Coastal geomorphology of St. Marin's Island Oriental Geographer 36(2): 30-44. • Khan Ali Reza, Fauna of Bangladesh • Rashid E. Harun, Survey of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh • Shukla R.S. and Chandal C.S., Plant ecology • Sharma R.S., Environmental Biology • Ahmed, M (1995), an overview on the coral reef ecosystem of Bangladesh, Bangladesh J. Environ. Sci. Vol 1:67-73 • Municipal data; Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics • BBC News-Bangladesh's Cox’s Bazar: A paradise being lost? • Tourism and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Case Study of St. Martins Island, Bangladesh • Mohammad Mahmudul Hasan • Bangladesh National Herbarium (up to February, 2014) • Beachrock in St. Martin's Island, Bangladesh: Implications of sea level changes on beachrock cementation 44 | P a g e
  • 52. • Coral Reef- Tropical Rainforest of Oceans:St Martin's, the only coral island of Bangladesh prey to mindless development • The role of coral reefs -Providing food and shelter for sea creatures • Attractions of Saint Martin’s Island of Bangladesh • Bangladesh: fighting environmental degradation to reduce poverty • Bangladesh's Deep Sea Port @ Moheskhali gains traction • Mushrooming Hotel Trade on St Martin's Flora, fauna of lone coral island under threat 45 | P a g e