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Formalising the landscape
approach:
A case study from Cameroon
Terry Sunderland
Global Landscapes Forum
Warsaw, Poland
17th November 2013
Technical Cooperation Units (T0U)
• Concept of Technical Operations Units (TOU) was developed upon
creation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1992
(articles 41 & 42 of Decree)

• Forest Environment Sector Programme (FESP) framework,
elaborated in 2003 by the Government of Cameroon with
assistance of international development partners:
• [A] “TOU is a delimited geographical area, based on ecological,
socio-economic, cultural and political characteristics for the
enhancement of integrated landscape management involving all
stakeholders”

• [A] TOU is a participatory management concept: It is a tool for the
implementation of environmental and forest policy
Why was the TOU concept adopted?
• For improved implementation of
the National Forest
Environmental Sector
Programme (PSFE)
• To realise the increased
contribution of natural resources
management for poverty
alleviation
• Increased and equitable
involvement of all the
stakeholders in the management
of natural resources
ToU’s in Cameroon
• TOU’s of varying extent
and geographical
coverage and complexity
• Often “managed” by
external agents with
funding from bilateral
arrangements (e.g.
German Development
Bank (KfW))
• Sustainability?
Advantages of TOU process
• Integrated landscape
management tool
• Multi-stakeholder land use-based
forest management approach
• Focused management
interventions on specific land
uses
• Promote platform for societal
dialogue between managers of
various land-use types (timber
production, nature protection,
industrial agriculture, industry,
habitation, recreational areas)
How are ToU’s administered?
•

•

•

TOU Conservator is appointed
by PM decree
A Management Committee is
created and organised by PM
decree
The key advantage is that
within the TOU area, all
stakeholders elaborate and
implement a holistic
management concept using
the synergy of their
partnership
Impact of TOU’s on local populace
• Increased involvement of local people in forest management
issues
• Promoting community development through use of:
 Forest royalties from exploitation of forest management
units (UFA) and production forest reserves
 Income generated from direct exploitation of forest
resources (Community Forest Management)
 Harvesting and commercialisation of non-timber forest
products
 Accompanying development measures initiated in
communities close to nature protection areas- Village
Development Plans
SW Region
• Whole region reclassified
• But not for
conservation (nor
should it be)
• Open to reclassification within
TOU boundaries
The Takamanda-Mone TOU
•
•

440,000 ha.
Complex mosaic of
forest, timber
concession, PA’s and
community managed
areas

•

•

Home to Cross River
gorilla and other
endangered species
Strong pressures
from cross-border
trade
The pitfalls
• Despite being part of
Mt Cameroon TOU, oil
palm forest clearance
and planting have
major impact
• External forces often
override local
considerations
• Weak local governance
• Lack of agreement
between stakeholders
More pitfalls
In summary
•

•

•

•

TOU establishment was “ahead of its
time” in terms of providing legal
framework for integrated landscape
management
However, real coordination between
stakeholders has been hamstrung by
skewed power relations and competing
interests
Weak governance had allowed external
decisions about land use to be made
without requisite consultation
BUT formalisation of integrated
landscape management in this way is
positive way ahead
www.cifor.org
t.sunderland@cgiar.org
THINKING beyond the canopy

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Formalising the landscape approach: A case study from Cameroon

  • 1. Formalising the landscape approach: A case study from Cameroon Terry Sunderland Global Landscapes Forum Warsaw, Poland 17th November 2013
  • 2. Technical Cooperation Units (T0U) • Concept of Technical Operations Units (TOU) was developed upon creation of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry in 1992 (articles 41 & 42 of Decree) • Forest Environment Sector Programme (FESP) framework, elaborated in 2003 by the Government of Cameroon with assistance of international development partners: • [A] “TOU is a delimited geographical area, based on ecological, socio-economic, cultural and political characteristics for the enhancement of integrated landscape management involving all stakeholders” • [A] TOU is a participatory management concept: It is a tool for the implementation of environmental and forest policy
  • 3. Why was the TOU concept adopted? • For improved implementation of the National Forest Environmental Sector Programme (PSFE) • To realise the increased contribution of natural resources management for poverty alleviation • Increased and equitable involvement of all the stakeholders in the management of natural resources
  • 4. ToU’s in Cameroon • TOU’s of varying extent and geographical coverage and complexity • Often “managed” by external agents with funding from bilateral arrangements (e.g. German Development Bank (KfW)) • Sustainability?
  • 5. Advantages of TOU process • Integrated landscape management tool • Multi-stakeholder land use-based forest management approach • Focused management interventions on specific land uses • Promote platform for societal dialogue between managers of various land-use types (timber production, nature protection, industrial agriculture, industry, habitation, recreational areas)
  • 6. How are ToU’s administered? • • • TOU Conservator is appointed by PM decree A Management Committee is created and organised by PM decree The key advantage is that within the TOU area, all stakeholders elaborate and implement a holistic management concept using the synergy of their partnership
  • 7. Impact of TOU’s on local populace • Increased involvement of local people in forest management issues • Promoting community development through use of:  Forest royalties from exploitation of forest management units (UFA) and production forest reserves  Income generated from direct exploitation of forest resources (Community Forest Management)  Harvesting and commercialisation of non-timber forest products  Accompanying development measures initiated in communities close to nature protection areas- Village Development Plans
  • 8. SW Region • Whole region reclassified • But not for conservation (nor should it be) • Open to reclassification within TOU boundaries
  • 9. The Takamanda-Mone TOU • • 440,000 ha. Complex mosaic of forest, timber concession, PA’s and community managed areas • • Home to Cross River gorilla and other endangered species Strong pressures from cross-border trade
  • 10. The pitfalls • Despite being part of Mt Cameroon TOU, oil palm forest clearance and planting have major impact • External forces often override local considerations • Weak local governance • Lack of agreement between stakeholders
  • 12. In summary • • • • TOU establishment was “ahead of its time” in terms of providing legal framework for integrated landscape management However, real coordination between stakeholders has been hamstrung by skewed power relations and competing interests Weak governance had allowed external decisions about land use to be made without requisite consultation BUT formalisation of integrated landscape management in this way is positive way ahead