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University of Tokyo CCWG's study session.
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  • IPCC: Established by UNEP and the WMO to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. The UN General Assembly endorsed the action by WMO and UNEP in jointly establishing the IPCC . UNFCCC: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC or FCCC ) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit , held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to 14, 1992. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Marrakesh Accords: Lay the rules for meeting the targets set out in the Kyoto Protocol
  • So, you know, we are discussing about a lot of issues about how to reduce the emission of green house gas.
  • /When we reduce the amounts of afforestation, the ones are 7.9 million ha, which is the same as one-thirds of Japan. /In Africa, 4million ha. In South America 4.2million ha. In South and Southeastern Asia 2.8million ha.
  • Though the conclusion about financial mechanism is not completed yet, the programme is supposed that the developed countries aid the developing countries by finance to implement national plan, construct the programme and develop the avility. In the 3rd phase, the programme gives them financial incentive on the results of implementation and it supposes the financial aids by corporations.
  • Redd+

    1. 2. Climate Policy Timeline 2012 2007 2010 : COP 16 Cancun Agreements 出典; UNREDD 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 1992: UNFCCC established 1988: IPCC established 2008 : KP 1 st commitment period begins 2012: KP 1 st commitment period ends 1997: Kyoto Protocol adopted 2005 :COP11 Kyoto entered into force; REDD Introduced 2001: Marrakesh Accords signed 1994: UNFCCC enter into force 2007 : COP13 Bali Roadmap
    2. 3. CDM JI ET REDD+ etc
    3. 4. <ul><li>The World Forestry Area is 4 Billion Hector, which is one-thirds of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>12.9 million ha/year reduction </li></ul><ul><li>(The average between 2000-2005) </li></ul><ul><li>The reducing rate in tropical forestry areas is so huge. </li></ul>・ 森林面積の年間あたりの増減 (1990 年- 2005 年 ) (出典)  FAO  世界森林資源評価2005
    4. 5. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests , offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. “ REDD+” goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks .
    5. 6. <ul><li>This programme is related to a lot of issues; governance, the structure of economic and society, the rights of indigenous people, biodiversity protection and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Both developed and developing countries can commit to the program. The basic function of REDD+ is to give financial incentives to a developing country, which is aiming to protect its own forestry lands. On the other hand, </li></ul><ul><li>Though REDD+ is one of the most effective mitigation ways to use the ability to absorb carbon dioxide of tropical forestry, this method needs to be used for medium and long term. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to overcome the difficulty in the fields of technology and methodology. </li></ul>
    6. 7. What is the difference between current forest projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the planned REDD-plus mechanism? CDM REDD+ Afforestation and Reforestation Reduction of carbon emission Conservation of forest Enhancement of carbon stock capacity
    7. 8. <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation, as defined by the Marrakech Accords, is the direct human-induced conversion </li></ul><ul><li>of forested land to non-forested land. A forest is defined as a minimum area of land of 0.05-1 </li></ul><ul><li>hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10-30 percent with </li></ul><ul><li>trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 metres at maturity in situ. Actual </li></ul><ul><li>definitions can vary from country to country as the Kyoto Protocol permits countries to specify </li></ul><ul><li>the precise definition within these parameters to be used for national accounting of emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, deforestation as defined by the FAO is &quot;the conversion of forest to another land use </li></ul><ul><li>or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10 percent threshold.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>A definition for forest degradation has not yet been agreed upon. Forest degradation is the </li></ul><ul><li>depletion of forest to tree crown cover at a level above 10 percent, however beyond this general </li></ul><ul><li>statement, the IPCC has not provided a specific definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation is the direct human-induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least </li></ul><ul><li>50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed </li></ul><ul><li>sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Reforestation is the direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, </li></ul><ul><li>seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has </li></ul><ul><li>been converted to non-forested land. For the first commitment period, reforestation activities will be limited </li></ul><ul><li>to reforestation occurring on those lands that did not contain forest on 31 December 1989. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Scope refers to the activities that are considered to reduce the emissions under REDD </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Level </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Level defines the reference period and scale against which the activities within scope are measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul><ul><li>The sources of financing </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>To make the countries motivated to act under REDD+, how to distribute the financial incentives to them is very important. </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Activities : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Reducing emissions from deforestation (RED) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon pools (see Figure 3): </li></ul><ul><li>Above ground biomass </li></ul><ul><li>2. below ground biomass </li></ul><ul><li>3. soil carbon and / or all terrestrial carbon. </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Reference period: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Current baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Projected baseline </li></ul>Reference levels define the business as usual scenario over a predefined scale and can therefore be used to determine the additionality of a given activity. Although the choice of reference level greatly impacts the types of country that generate ERs it need not necessarily influence which countries benefit from those ERs. The distribution or allocation of benefits to actors other than those generating the reductions is discussed in the distribution module. Reference levels, however, are often conflated with an adjustment factor or a negotiable element to account for differing country circumstances. It is worth noting that the science of forestry carbon accounting, and moreover the assessment of business as usual practices within forests is still imprecise and as such both historic and projected baselines have a large element of uncertainty. Much work has been done and continues to be done, however, to improve technical and methodological know-how in this area. Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) and the IPCC are recognised within the intergovernmental and scientific communities as sources of high quality scientific knowledge that is increasing certainty in the establishment of reference levels and monitoring methods.
    11. 13. The choice of how to distribute benefits has the potential to greatly influence the impact across countries (see Box 1). Emissions; Some proposals, for equity reasons or to address socioeconomic factors, have chosen a distribution mechanism which allocates funds to historically low emitters who may emit at some point into the future. Carbon Stocks; Other proposals, to avoid international leakage, have suggested that a proportion of funds generated through REDD should be distributed to countries with currently low rates of deforestation but high forest cover. The argument goes that if these countries are not rewarded to protect their current stocks there will be a perverse incentive to chop down their forests for more profitable ventures. The choice of methodology for distributing benefits can be scientific or negotiated.
    12. 14. A voluntary fund could operate at the national (i.e. uni- or multilateral) or international scale. Official Development Assistance (ODA) is an example of a funding mechanism. In general, however, non-Annex I Parties call for new and additional contributions from developed countries. It is important to note that credits purchased through a fund cannot be used for compliance in carbon markets. In a market-based mechanism REDD credits would be traded alongside existing certified emissions reductions (CERs), and could be used by companies to meet emissions targets in their national cap-andtrade systems. A market-linked mechanism generates finances through either an auction process, or by establishing a dual-market in which REDD credits are linked to but are not fungible with existing CERs. Norway’s proposal to auction Assigned Amount Units (AAUs), the Center for Clean Air Policy’s “Dual Markets” approach and Greenpeace’s TDERM are all examples of market-linked mechanisms. Each of these approaches has its strengths and weaknesses, however a growing consensus is emerging that a combination of these approaches will be needed to match the different stages of development and differing needs of tropical rainforest nations.
    13. 15. Phased Approach
    14. 16. Phased Approach of REDD + ○ 資金メカニズムの議論は収束していないが、第1・第2フェーズにおいて公的資金中心の国家計画・制度構築、能力育成等を行い、第3フェーズは REDD+ の取組の成果に応じた経済的インセンティブを付与し、民間主体の資金調達を原則とすることを想定。 REDD+ の実施は、各国が多様な国内状況に応じ、段階的に取組を進めること (フェーズド・アプローチ) で概ねコンセンサスが存在 (AWG-LCA 交渉テキスト FCCC/AWGLCA/2010/14, para.8) 取組 資金 課題 ・国家戦略、行動計画、政策の策定 ・能力育成、技術協力、国内制度の  整備 ・公的資金を通じた二国間支援 ・国際機関( FCPF,UN-REDD )を 通じた支援 ・基金(コンゴ盆地基金、アマゾン  基金等)を通じた支援 ・ REDD+ の取組の前提となる基礎的な  環境整備。 ・国家戦略、行動計画、政策の実施 ・パイロットプロジェクトの実施 ・モニタリングシステムの整備 ・公的資金を通じた二国間支援 ・公的資金と民間資金の共用 ・国際機関( FCPF, FIP) を通じた支 援 ・ MRV 実施のための参照レベル、排  出量算定方法の確立。 ・パイロットプロジェクト実施を通   じ、第3フェーズに移行する上で   課題を検証。 ・結果に基づく (result-based) 活動の   実施 ・ 民間資金による投資 ・参照レベルからの削減について MRV を  確保し、 REDD+ の取組を削減目標達成  にカウント(炭素市場に組み込むこ  とを含む)。 ・民間資金中心のメカニズムに移行。
    15. 18. <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation, Degradation, Enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Level </li></ul><ul><li>Historical, Historical Adjusted, Projected </li></ul><ul><li>Financing </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Market, Market-linked, Voluntary Fund, Phased Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribution Mechanism, Additional Mechanism </li></ul>
    16. 21. Scope
    19. 24. DISTRIBUTION
    20. 25. FINANCING
    21. 26. Historical Baseline Carbon Stock
    22. 27. Cancun Accord Scope
    23. 28. 71 (b) A national forest reference emission level and/or forest reference level or, if appropriate, as an interim measure, subnational forest reference emission levels and/or forest reference levels, in accordance with national circumstances, and with provisions contained in decision 4/CP.15, and with any further elaboration of those provisions adopted by the Conference of the Parties; Sub-National National Cancun Accord
    24. 29. 77. Requests the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention to explore financing options for the full implementation of the results-based actions referred to in paragraph 73 above, and to report on progress made, including any recommendations for draft decisions on this matter, to the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session; Cancun Accord
    25. 30. Annex   2 Cancun Accord
    26. 31. The Ongoing Projects UN-REDD The UN-REDD Programme assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. Designed collaboratively by a broad range of stakeholders, national UN-REDD Programmes are informed by the technical expertise of FAO, UNDP and UNEP. Priority is given to developing sustainable national approaches that promote equitable outcomes and ensure that countries use reliable methodologies to assess emission reductions. 9 projects In Africa : Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania and Zambia In Asia and the Pacific : Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Viet Nam In Latin America and the Caribbean : Bolivia, Panama and Paraguay
    27. 32. The Ongoing Projects <ul><li>Total Budget: 5.6 million USD Timeframe: October 2009 – June 2012 Partner: Indonesian Ministry of Forestr </li></ul>Indonesia hosts the third largest tropical rainforest in the world, with forests covering approximately 70 per cent of the country. The UN-REDD National Programme aims to facilitate the development of a REDD+ architecture in Indonesia that will allow a fair, equitable and transparent REDD+ implementation, significantly contributing to a sustainable reduction in forest-related GHGs. In March 2009, US$5.6 million was approved by the UN-REDD Programme Policy Board for the Indonesia National Programme. In March 2010, funds were released from the MPTF, marking the start of the Programme’s inception and implementation phase.
    28. 33. FINANCING Monitoring, reporting and verification Reference Levels
    29. 34. Reference <ul><li>The Little REDD Book </li></ul><ul><li>UN-REDD Programme </li></ul><ul><li>UNFCCC </li></ul>