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GWCN - Global Reforestation: Drivers of Success and Failure

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Author: Mariam Titus George

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GWCN - Global Reforestation: Drivers of Success and Failure

  1. 1. Global Reforestation - Drivers of success and failure Mariam Titus George Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 13/12/2020
  2. 2. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 2 Proportion and distribution of global forest area by climatic domain 2020 Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (UN FAO) Top countries for forest area % Total cover, 2020 GLOBAL FOREST COVER BY TYPE AND TOP 5 COUNTRIES BY FOREST AREA
  3. 3. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 3 Global annual forest area net change million ha, 1990–2020 Direct causes of Deforestation  Agricultural expansion is the single biggest cause of deforestation, usually for conversion to arable land for crop and livestock farming  Wood extraction includes logging and wood harvesting used for domestic fuel or charcoal  Infrastructure expansion  Increasing urbanisation requires the expansion of cities and urban areas for which surrounding forests are destroyed  Expansion of roads or other infrastructure that is required to meet increasing economic activity leads to deforestation Source: UN FAO; Press Search GLOBAL ANNUAL DEFORESATION AND CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION
  4. 4.  United nations driven initiatives • One of the main aims of the UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) is reducing deforestation • REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) as part of the UNFCC incentivises countries to combat deforestation § Zero deforestation policies • Legislative triggers set up by individual nations to combat deforestation locally  Reforestation programs by nations and corporations that seek to undo the effects of deforestation by planting more trees or forests Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 4 Measures against deforestation Source: Press Search NOT EXHAUSTIVE Focus of following slides EXAMPLES OF MEASURES AGAINST DEFORESTION
  5. 5. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 5 Global reforestation million ha/annum, 1990–2020 World's largest reforestation efforts Usambara Biodiversity Conservation, Tanzania Aims to preserve biodiversity in the East Arc Mountains Copaíba, Brazil Aims to bring back biodiversity to one of the most endangered and biodiverse biomes in the world Ketrawe Agroforestry, Bolivia Aims to restore forests lost to agriculture by planting trees between fields Source: UN FAO; Press Search ILLUSTRATIVE GLOBAL REFORESTATION AND EXAMPLES OF REFORESATION PROGRAMS
  6. 6. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 6 Revegetation method Relates to the choice of processes used in reforestation, the right choice of which may lead to success or failure e.g. direct seeding or hydroseeding Socioeconomic incentives Includes incentives offered to farmers, corporation and indigenous population for the promotion of reforestation in certain regions e.g. subsidies Forest protection mechanisms Relates to protection of forests enforced by law or other government mechanisms to forests and/or reforested areas Sustainable livelihoods Large groups of people rely on forests for their livelihoods, reforestation programs should consider sustainability for these groups to be successful Diversification of funding and partnerships Broad based partnerships are required to drive reforestation that can meet the needs of all groups of society and the environmental sustainability Source: Press Search REFORESTATION – SUCCESS FACTORS
  7. 7. Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network 7 Environmental research Failure to adequately understand environmental characteristics of reforestation sites may lead to adverse effects on the site and failure of the program Contradictory goals The goals of reforestation programs must be clear and beneficial to all those involved. Failing which, such programs cannot effect long term benefits to the environment For instance the Bonn challenge (Germany) aims to plant 350mn trees by 2030, however most of these trees are likely to be cut for paper production Undiversified funding sources Funding for reforesations programs from one source or group of sources limits the achievement of multiple benefits as required of reforestation Undervaluing natural forests Natural forests have complex ecosystems that can store much more carbon than plantations. The prevalance of monocultural plantations in place of natural forests hampers the success of reforestation programs in the long run Source: Press Search REFORESTATION – DRIVERS OF FAILURE
  8. 8. info@gwcnweb.org | gwcnweb.org Copyright © 2020 Global Waste Cleaning Network

Author: Mariam Titus George

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