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Haze Crisis and Landscape Approach


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This presentation by CIFOR scientist Herry Purnomo held at The Jakarta Foreign Correspondents Club during a panel discussion on the Indonesian fires and haze focuses on the stakeholders involved in the haze issue, socio-economic drivers leading to it, policy and governance and the way forward with the landscape approach in connection to haze.

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Haze Crisis and Landscape Approach

  1. 1. Haze Crisis and Landscape Approach Herry Purnomo The Jakarta Foreign Correspondents Club, Jakarta, 2 July 2014
  2. 2. Structure • Fires and haze • The stakeholders • Socio-economic drivers • Policy and governance • Ways forward: Landscape approach
  3. 3. Fires and Haze On 21 June 2013: atmospheric pollution levels reached record high in Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia due to haze from fires in Sumatra Gaveau et al. 2014
  4. 4. Gaveau et al. 2014
  5. 5. • The fires in Riau were not an accident. Gaveau et al. 2014 Rainfall deficit in May and June 2013 uly ug ept ct ov ec an eb ar pr ay une
  6. 6. • An estimated 163,336 ha (including 137,044 ha, or 84% on peat) burned Gaveau et al. 2014
  7. 7. • 52% of total burned area was within concessions, but 60% of this (50,248 ha; or 31% of total burned area) was occupied by smallholders • 48% of total burned areas was outside concessions (production forest) Gaveau et al. 2014
  8. 8. A typical Industrial planted forest concession Gaveau et al. 2014
  9. 9. Verchot, 2014 • The 2013 fires are part of the process that converts forests to agricultural plantations.
  10. 10. • Large-scale paper-pulp plantation companies say they are “the victim” in the haze crisis. • Small-scale community groups say the same, complain of being scapegoated and pushed aside. • Power imbalance among local communities, government and commercial companies. Stakeholders
  11. 11. • There is a lack of capacity to fight the fires • Different agencies within government show disagreement over responsibility over fires • Fires and haze: consequences of the battle among indigenous population vs. migrants vs. large companies (Al Azhar, Lembaga Adat Melayu Riau, 2014)
  12. 12. • Lack of appropriate education of decision makers, the general public, and the private sector • Poverty and Greed – The palm oil business is lucrative – Poor people to be ‘mobilized’ by the rich to set fire – Fire is used as a way to claim land tenure – Fire is a way to do business Socio-economic drivers
  13. 13. Insights from 23 subnational initiatives in six countries • Tenure is a fundamental challenge • Disadvantageous economics of REDD+ • Other interventions will be the primary means to reduce GHG emissions reduction Learning from Global REDD+ pilots Sunderlin et al. 2014
  14. 14. There are numerous policies with respect to fires, but little enforcement or monitoring Policy and Governance Law 41 (1999) on Forestry Government Regulation 4 (2001) on Forest and Land Fires
  15. 15. Local News
  16. 16. • Integrate research into policy making and actions • More research needed to address gaps in knowledge and especially on governance at different levels • Pay more attention to markets • Need to pull evidence together • Law enforcement is main governance problem • Towards landscape approach Ways Forward
  17. 17. What is Landscape approach? Holmgren, 2013 • Landscape = “A place with governance in place” • A place: A landscape is a geographical area that can be of any size — from very small to very large. • with governance in place: There exists institution(s) that will consider options for the landscape and set priorities. Landscape objectives and indicators
  18. 18. Hypothetical Landscape Forest core Forest edge Agricultural mosaic land Agro- forrest Small-scale forests Vertical commodity value chains Horizontal pressure Market
  19. 19. How to do Landscape Approach? • Defining landscape objective(s) • Synergizing various interests under that objective(s): REDD+, Fire and haze prevention, timber logging, certification, eco-tourism, green economy • With adaptive collaborative management • Learning process • Action research (reflection-planning- action-monitoring) • Modeling (soft and hard) • KPH (Forest Management Unit) is a place for landscape approach
  20. 20. Speech for Rio+21 Summit We know the problems We know the solutions We must act now! SBY@cifor, 2012
  21. 21. Thank You Herry Purnomo • Scientist at Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) • Professor at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)