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THE ROLE OF ‘OPPORTUNITY TO
LEARN’ IN THE GEOMETRY
CURRRICULUM
A multilevel comparison of six countries
AERA 2019
Christian Bokhove, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Mikio Miyazaki, Shinshu University, Japan
Allen Leung, Hong Kong Baptist University
Ida Mok, University of Hong Kong
Kotaro Komatsu, Shinshu University, Japan
Kimiho Chino, Shinshu University, Japan
enGasia project
• England – Geometry - Asia
• British Academy
• 3 years International Partnership
• England, Japan, Hong Kong
Background
• International largescale assessments
like PISA and TIMSS for secondary mathematics
• English government looks to Asia
• Focus on ‘geometry’ or ‘space and shapes’ as at face
value there seem to be a lot of curriculum differences.
Even larger gap.
UK/ENG JAP HK KOR SGP USA
PISA 2012 475 (494) 558 (536) 567 (561) 573 (554) 580 (573) 463 (481)
TIMSS 2015 514 (518) 598 (586) 602 (594) 612 (606) 617 (621) 500 (518)
TIMSS 2011 498 (507) 586 (570) 597 (586) 612 (613) 609 (611) 485 (509)
TIMSS 2007 513 (513) 584 (570) 580 (572) 600 (597) 590 (593) 480 (508)
Curriculum changes
For example Key Stage 3
(11-13 yr olds)
“understand, from their experience of constructing them,
that triangles satisfying SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS are
unique, but SSA triangles are not” (DfEE, 1999, p. 38)
“use the standard conventions for labelling the sides and
angles of triangle ABC, and know and use the criteria for
congruence of triangles” (DfE, 2013, p.8)
Aims of this part study
Understand the role of curricular elements in mathematics
and science achievement, with a particular emphasis on
geometry education, at lower secondary level within and
across selected countries in the East and West.
1. Align different frameworks into one framework
2. Use largescale assessment data to explore its
application
Dynamic model
• Dynamic model of
educational
effectiveness, as
developed by
Creemers and
Kyriakides (2008)
The first implication for our theoretical lens is that
we will adopt a multilevel approach in our study.
Opportunity to Learn
• Carroll (1963)
• Schmidt and others:
greater OTL in
mathematics was
related to higher student
achievement in
mathematics.
• But many definitions
(e.g. see Scheerens et
al., 2017).
• Interaction with SES
We propose that we focus on variables regarding
‘opportunity to learn’ (OTL) in our study. In doing so
we should include controls for SES and proxies for
quality of instruction.
TIMSS curriculum framework
• Intended
• Implemented
• Attained
• Contrary to PISA
has a curriculum
focus.
We use TIMSS 2011 data in this study because of
its curriculum focus.
DOC framework
Dynamic model Opportunity to learn Curriculum - TIMSS
National OTL
School and
classroom OTL
Student OTL
DOC framework
Dynamic model Opportunity to learn Curriculum - TIMSS
National level Curriculum content coverage Intended curriculum
Classroom
(teacher)
and school
• Instructional hours in the
classroom
• Curriculum content coverage
• Curriculum content
preparation
• Degree and experience
teacher
Implemented curriculum
Student Time spent on mathematics
Socio-Economic Status
Attained curriculum
Using the model: research questions
I. How much of the variance in student achievement is
explained by student- and classroom-level OTL
curriculum factors within and across the six countries?
II. How much are these OTL curriculum factors related to
geometry achievement at grade eight in England,
Japan, Hong Kong SAR, Korea, Singapore and the
USA?
Secondary data analysis
• TIMSS 2011
• Complex sampling design (Rutkowski et al, 2010)
• Weights
• Plausible Values
• Multilevel models
• Multilevel models in HLM 6.08.
Variables
Dependent variables:
• 5 Plausible Values for Geometry achievement
Student level variables:
• Home Economic Resources as proxy for SES
• Weekly time for homework
Classroom (teacher) level variables:
• Classroom SES and Homework time
• OTL measures: percentage geometry content coverage and
mathematics instructional hours per week
• Teacher: edulevel, years experience, teachers prepared to teach
geometry
Results
Some interesting things to note
• SES England, Japan, USA comparable. Singapore, Hong
Kong slightly lower. Korea much higher.
• English, Japanese, Korean students less time homework.
• Japan lowest number of mathematics instruction hours,
USA highest.
• Geometry taught highest in Japan and Korea, lowest
England and Singapore.
• English teachers feel most prepared to teach geometry,
Japanese teachers least.
And more…
Multilevel tables (highlighted)
Some interesting things to note
• Japan and Korea very little variance at classroom level:
homogeneous.
• At student level SES positive predictor in Japan, Korea,
England, USA. But not Singapore and Hong Kong, likely
more homogeneity.
• OTL predictors mixed picture. For example:
• Homework differential effect student and class level
• Geometry content coverage not predictor
• Most teacher quality variables not predictor
• Instructional hours in Japan
Conclusions 1
I. How much of the variance in student achievement is
explained by student- and classroom-level OTL
curriculum factors within and across the six countries?
Differs between countries, might reveal
heterogeneity.
Conclusions 2
II. How much are these OTL curriculum factors related to
geometry achievement at grade eight in England,
Japan, Hong Kong SAR, Korea, Singapore and the
USA?
Geometry content coverage and teacher
preparedness no predictors. Teacher variables only
here and there. Instructional hours important for
Japan. Weekly time spent on homework differential
effects but not always intuitive.
In short: it’s complex
Discussion
• Interplay SES and OTL
(curriculum time)
…what can we address?
• Definitions of OTL
• Academic Learning Time?
• Quality of instruction?)
• Role shadow education
• Not the final word: these
analyses need to be
complemented with more
detailed, qualitative data
about the curriculum. For
example low scores Japan
on the task to the right; they
only did Pythagoras one year
later.
Which of these is the reason
that triangle PQR is a right
angle triangle?
A. 32 + 42 = 52
B. 5 < 3 + 4
C. 3 + 4 = 12 – 5
D. 3 > 5 – 4
Thank you
• C.Bokhove@soton.ac.uk
• University of Southampton
• Twitter: @cbokhove
• Website: www.bokhove.net
• British Academy
IPM-2014 PM130271 project
There are only two types
of people in the world:
those who believe in false
dichotomies, and
penguins.

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The role of ‘opportunity to learn’ in the geometry currriculum

  • 1. THE ROLE OF ‘OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN’ IN THE GEOMETRY CURRRICULUM A multilevel comparison of six countries AERA 2019 Christian Bokhove, University of Southampton, United Kingdom Mikio Miyazaki, Shinshu University, Japan Allen Leung, Hong Kong Baptist University Ida Mok, University of Hong Kong Kotaro Komatsu, Shinshu University, Japan Kimiho Chino, Shinshu University, Japan
  • 2. enGasia project • England – Geometry - Asia • British Academy • 3 years International Partnership • England, Japan, Hong Kong
  • 3. Background • International largescale assessments like PISA and TIMSS for secondary mathematics • English government looks to Asia • Focus on ‘geometry’ or ‘space and shapes’ as at face value there seem to be a lot of curriculum differences. Even larger gap. UK/ENG JAP HK KOR SGP USA PISA 2012 475 (494) 558 (536) 567 (561) 573 (554) 580 (573) 463 (481) TIMSS 2015 514 (518) 598 (586) 602 (594) 612 (606) 617 (621) 500 (518) TIMSS 2011 498 (507) 586 (570) 597 (586) 612 (613) 609 (611) 485 (509) TIMSS 2007 513 (513) 584 (570) 580 (572) 600 (597) 590 (593) 480 (508)
  • 4. Curriculum changes For example Key Stage 3 (11-13 yr olds) “understand, from their experience of constructing them, that triangles satisfying SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS are unique, but SSA triangles are not” (DfEE, 1999, p. 38) “use the standard conventions for labelling the sides and angles of triangle ABC, and know and use the criteria for congruence of triangles” (DfE, 2013, p.8)
  • 5. Aims of this part study Understand the role of curricular elements in mathematics and science achievement, with a particular emphasis on geometry education, at lower secondary level within and across selected countries in the East and West. 1. Align different frameworks into one framework 2. Use largescale assessment data to explore its application
  • 6. Dynamic model • Dynamic model of educational effectiveness, as developed by Creemers and Kyriakides (2008) The first implication for our theoretical lens is that we will adopt a multilevel approach in our study.
  • 7. Opportunity to Learn • Carroll (1963) • Schmidt and others: greater OTL in mathematics was related to higher student achievement in mathematics. • But many definitions (e.g. see Scheerens et al., 2017). • Interaction with SES We propose that we focus on variables regarding ‘opportunity to learn’ (OTL) in our study. In doing so we should include controls for SES and proxies for quality of instruction.
  • 8. TIMSS curriculum framework • Intended • Implemented • Attained • Contrary to PISA has a curriculum focus. We use TIMSS 2011 data in this study because of its curriculum focus.
  • 9. DOC framework Dynamic model Opportunity to learn Curriculum - TIMSS National OTL School and classroom OTL Student OTL
  • 10. DOC framework Dynamic model Opportunity to learn Curriculum - TIMSS National level Curriculum content coverage Intended curriculum Classroom (teacher) and school • Instructional hours in the classroom • Curriculum content coverage • Curriculum content preparation • Degree and experience teacher Implemented curriculum Student Time spent on mathematics Socio-Economic Status Attained curriculum
  • 11. Using the model: research questions I. How much of the variance in student achievement is explained by student- and classroom-level OTL curriculum factors within and across the six countries? II. How much are these OTL curriculum factors related to geometry achievement at grade eight in England, Japan, Hong Kong SAR, Korea, Singapore and the USA?
  • 12. Secondary data analysis • TIMSS 2011 • Complex sampling design (Rutkowski et al, 2010) • Weights • Plausible Values • Multilevel models • Multilevel models in HLM 6.08.
  • 13. Variables Dependent variables: • 5 Plausible Values for Geometry achievement Student level variables: • Home Economic Resources as proxy for SES • Weekly time for homework Classroom (teacher) level variables: • Classroom SES and Homework time • OTL measures: percentage geometry content coverage and mathematics instructional hours per week • Teacher: edulevel, years experience, teachers prepared to teach geometry
  • 15. Some interesting things to note • SES England, Japan, USA comparable. Singapore, Hong Kong slightly lower. Korea much higher. • English, Japanese, Korean students less time homework. • Japan lowest number of mathematics instruction hours, USA highest. • Geometry taught highest in Japan and Korea, lowest England and Singapore. • English teachers feel most prepared to teach geometry, Japanese teachers least. And more…
  • 17. Some interesting things to note • Japan and Korea very little variance at classroom level: homogeneous. • At student level SES positive predictor in Japan, Korea, England, USA. But not Singapore and Hong Kong, likely more homogeneity. • OTL predictors mixed picture. For example: • Homework differential effect student and class level • Geometry content coverage not predictor • Most teacher quality variables not predictor • Instructional hours in Japan
  • 18. Conclusions 1 I. How much of the variance in student achievement is explained by student- and classroom-level OTL curriculum factors within and across the six countries? Differs between countries, might reveal heterogeneity.
  • 19. Conclusions 2 II. How much are these OTL curriculum factors related to geometry achievement at grade eight in England, Japan, Hong Kong SAR, Korea, Singapore and the USA? Geometry content coverage and teacher preparedness no predictors. Teacher variables only here and there. Instructional hours important for Japan. Weekly time spent on homework differential effects but not always intuitive. In short: it’s complex
  • 20. Discussion • Interplay SES and OTL (curriculum time) …what can we address? • Definitions of OTL • Academic Learning Time? • Quality of instruction?) • Role shadow education • Not the final word: these analyses need to be complemented with more detailed, qualitative data about the curriculum. For example low scores Japan on the task to the right; they only did Pythagoras one year later. Which of these is the reason that triangle PQR is a right angle triangle? A. 32 + 42 = 52 B. 5 < 3 + 4 C. 3 + 4 = 12 – 5 D. 3 > 5 – 4
  • 21. Thank you • C.Bokhove@soton.ac.uk • University of Southampton • Twitter: @cbokhove • Website: www.bokhove.net • British Academy IPM-2014 PM130271 project There are only two types of people in the world: those who believe in false dichotomies, and penguins.

Editor's Notes

  1. The recent move towards more 'evidence informed teaching' has seemingly  increased the interest of schools in researchers and academia, and of academia in schools. This development presents us with several questions. How can we best organise this relationship? Do teachers need research literacy skills? Why would academia be interested in cultivating teacher-researcher links? This talk will explore these questions and give several examples of research projects, most concerning mathematics in secondary education, where fruitful collaboration between me as researcher and classroom teachers, brought benefits to the school and higher education. I will try to convey what opportunities and chances there are in working together, but also -in light of workload discussions- some of the risks.