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THE PROTEOBACTERIA
• ALPHA
• BETA
• GAMMA
• DELTA
• EPSILON
Pseudomonadota
Ms. Kushbu. R
Kristu Jayanti College
INTRODUCTION
• The phylum Proteobacteria is the largest, phylogenetically coherent bacterial
group with over 2,000 species assigned to more than 500 genera.
• Many of these gram-negative bacteria are of considerable importance, either as
disease agents or because of their contributions to ecosystems. In addition,
bacteria such as Escherichia coli, are major experimental organisms studied in
many laboratories.
• These bacteria are very diverse in their metabolism and life-styles, which range
from obligate intracellular parasitism to a free-living existence in soil and
aquatic habitats.
• They could be Chemolithotrophic /Photoautotrophs/ chemolithotrophs /
chemoheterotrophs
• Some Proteobacteria produce specialized structures such as prosthecae, stalks,
buds, sheaths, or complex fruiting bodies.
• They depend on the prey’s or host’s energy supply and/or cell constituents.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
• The phylum (Proteobacteria) belongs to the domain Bacteria and is
comprised of gram-negative bacteria with an outer membrane
consisting largely of lipopolysaccharides.
• Many of them have flagella used for locomotion. Few of them move
through bacterial gliding; others are non-motile.
• Members of this phylum are anaerobic. Many of which are
facultative anaerobes; others are obligate aerobes.
• The name of the phylum is named after the Greek god of the sea,
Proteus, who is regarded as a god capable of assuming different
shapes.
• This is because of the great diversity of forms of species belonging to
this phylum.
CONTD
• Volume 2 of the second edition
of Bergey’s Manual is devoted
entirely to the proteobacteria.
• Although 16S rRNA studies
show that they are
phylogenetically related,
proteobacteria vary markedly
in many aspects.
• The morphology of these gram-
negative bacteria ranges from
simple rods and cocci to genera
with prosthecae, buds, and
even fruiting bodies.
Examples
• Alphaproteobacteria (e.g. Brucella, Rhizobium, Agrobacteriu
m, Rickettsia, etc.)
• Betaproteobacteria
(e.g. Bordetella, Neisseria, Nitrosomonas, etc.)
• Gammaproteobacteria
(e.g. Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Pseudomon
as, Vibrio, Haemophilus, etc.)
• Deltaproteobacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, etc.)
• Epsiolonproteobacteria (e.g. Helicobacer, Campylobacter,
etc.)
• 1. PURPLE NON-SULPHUR BACTERIA-
(Rhodospirillum and Azospirillum)
• RICKETTSIA
• NITRIFYING BACTERIA
CLASS ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA
CLASS
ALPHA
PROTEOBACTERIA
• The Alpha proteobacteria
include most of the
oligotrophic proteobacteria
(those capable of growing at
low nutrient levels).
• Some have unusual
metabolic modes such as
methylotrophy
(Methylobacterium),
chemolithotrophy
(Nitrobacter), and the ability
to fix nitrogen (Rhizobium).
Contains seven orders and 20 families.
1. PURPLE NON-SULPHUR BACTERIA-
(Rhodospirillum and Azospirillum)
• All purple nonsulfur bacteria are alpha-proteobacteria, with the exception of
Rhodocyclus (proteobacteria).
• The purple nonsulfur bacteria are exceptionally flexible in their choice of an
energy source. Normally they grow anaerobically as photoorganoheterotrophs;
they trap light energy and employ organic molecules as both electron and carbon
sources.
• In the absence of light, most purple nonsulfur bacteria can grow aerobically as
chemoorganoheterotrophs, but some species carry out fermentations
anaerobically.
• Although they are called nonsulfur bacteria, some species can oxidize very low,
nontoxic levels of sulfide to sulfate, but they do not oxidize elemental sulfur to
sulfate.
• Oxygen inhibits bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis so that cultures
growing aerobically in the dark are colorless.
2. RICKETTSIA
• Belong to the family
Rickettsiaceae of the alpha-
proteobacteria.
• These bacteria are rod-shaped,
coccoid, or pleomorphic with
typical gram-negative walls and
no flagella.
• Although their size varies, they
tend to be very small, is 0.3 to 0.5
micrometer in diameter and 0.8
to 2.0 micrometer long;
• All species are parasitic or
mutualistic.
3. NITRIFYING BACTERIA
In Bergey’s Manual, the chemolithotrophic bacteria are distributed between the alpha,
beta, and gamma-proteobacteria. The nitrifying bacteria are found in all three classes.
• Nitrobacter -aplha-proteobacteria
• Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira- ᵞ-proteobacteria;
• Nitrococcus,- ᵞ -proteobacteria;
• Nitrosococcus - ᵞ -proteobacteria.
• All are aerobic, gram negative organisms with the ability to capture energy from the
oxidation of either ammonia or nitrite. However, they differ considerably in other
properties .
• Nitrifiers may be rod-shaped, ellipsoidal, spherical, spirillar or lobate, and they may
possess either polar or peritrichous flagella . Often they have extensive membrane
complexes in their cytoplasm.
• Identification is based on properties such as their preference for nitrite or ammonia,
their general shape, and the nature of any cytomembranes present.
• Nitrifying bacteria make important contributions to the nitrogen cycle.
Seen in soil, sewage disposal systems, and freshwater and marine
habitats.
• In the same niches, members of the gamma-proteobacterial genus
Nitrococcus then oxidize nitrite to nitrate.
• The whole process of converting ammonia to nitrite to nitrate is called
nitrification and it occurs rapidly in oxic soil treated with fertilizers
containing ammonium salts.
• Nitrate is readily used by plants, but it is also rapidly lost through
leaching of water-soluble nitrates and by denitrification to nitrogen
gas, so the benefits gained from nitrification can be fleeting.
CLASS BETAPROTEOBACTERIA
• The BETA-proteobacteria overlap the
ALPHA-proteobacteria metabolically but
tend to use substances that diffuse from
organic decomposition in the anoxic zone
of habitats. Some of these bacteria use
hydrogen, ammonia, methane, volatile
fatty acids, and similar substances.
• Beta-proteobacteria may be
chemoheterotrophs, photolithotrophs,
methylotrophs, and chemolithotrophs.
• The class Betaproteobacteria has seven
orders and 12 families.
• Contains Thiobacillus
like Nitrifying bacteria
and Colorless sulfur
bacteria
• Unicellular
• Rod shaped/spiral shaped
• Sulphur oxidizing
bacteria
• Non motile/ motile by
flagella
Example: Thiobacillus and
Macromonas
Order Hydrogenophilales Order Neisseriales
• nonmotile, aerobic,
gram-negative cocci
• have capsules and
fimbriae
• Chemoorganotrophic
• positive and catalase
positive
Example: Neisseria
gonorrhoeae
Order Nitrosomonadales
• Chemolithotrophs
• Nitrifying bacteria
Example:
Nitrosomonas and
Nitrosospira
CLASS GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA
• The gamma-proteobacteria constitute the
largest subgroup of proteobacteria with
an extraordinary variety of physiological
types. Many important genera are
chemoorganotrophic and facultatively
anaerobic.
• Other genera contain aerobic
chemoorganotrophs, photolithotrophs,
chemolithotrophs, or methylotrophs.
Phylogenetic Relationships among gamma- Proteobacteria
THE PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA
• The purple photosynthetic bacteria are distributed between three
subgroups of the proteobacteria.
• Most of the purple nonsulfur bacteria are gamma-proteobacteria.
Because the purple sulfur bacteria are gamma-proteobacteria.
• Purple sulfur bacteria are strict anaerobes and usually
photolithoautotrophs.
• They oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and deposit it internally as
sulfur granules (usually within invaginated pockets of the plasma
membrane); often they eventually oxidize the sulfur to sulfate.
• Hydrogen also may serve as an electron donor. Thiospirillum,
Thiocapsa, and Chromatium are typical purple sulfur bacteria.
CLASS DELTAPROTEOBACTERIA
• Although the -proteobacteria are not a
large assemblage of genera, they show
considerable morphological and
physiological diversity. These bacteria can
be divided into two general groups, all of
them chemoorganotrophs.
• Some genera are predators such as the
bdellovibrios and myxobacteria. Others
are anaerobes that generate sulfide from
sulfate and sulfur while oxidizing organic
nutrients. The class has eight orders and
20 families
EXAMPLE: Order Myxococcales- MYXOBACTERIA
• Myxobacteria are gram-negative, aerobic soil bacteria characterized by gliding
motility, a complex life cycle with the production of fruiting bodies, and the
formation of dormant myxospores.
• In addition, their G C content is around 67 to 71%, significantly higher than that
of most gliding bacteria. Myxobacterial cells are rods, about 0.4 to 0.7 by 2 to 8
MICROm long, and may be either slender with tapered ends or stout with rounded,
blunt ends.
• The order Myxococcales is divided into six families based on the shape of vegetative
cells, myxospores, and sporangia
• The myxobacterial life cycle is quite distinctive and in many ways resembles that of
the cellular slime molds. In the presence of a food supply, myxobacteria migrate
along a solid surface, feeding and leaving slime trails.
• During this stage the cells often form a swarm and move in a coordinated fashion.
Some species congregate to produce a sheet of cells that moves rhythmically to
generate waves or ripples. When their nutrient supply is exhausted, the
myxobacteria aggregate and differentiate into a fruiting body.
CLASS EPSILONPROTEOBACTERIA
• In the second edition of Bergey’s Manual is a result of the recent isolation
of two genera of moderately thermophilic (optimum growth temperature
about 55°C) chemolithoautotrophs from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.
• Members of the genera Nautilia and Caminibacter are strict anaerobes
that oxidize H2 and use sulfur as an electron acceptor. Species are found
as either freely living or as symbionts of vent macrofauna.
• Slender
• Gram Negative rods
• Helical/vibrioid
• Two important genera
are Campylobacter
and Helicobacter
• The EPSILON-proteobacteria are the smallest of the five
proteobacterial classes. They all are slender gram-negative rods,
which can be straight, curved, or helical.
• The EPSILON-proteobacteria have one order, Campylobacterales,
and three families: Campylobacteraceae, Helicobacteraceae, and the
recently added Nautiliaceae.
• Two pathogenic genera, Campylobacter and Helicobacter, are
microaerophilic, motile, helical or vibrioid, gram-negative rods.
• The genus Campylobacter contains both nonpathogens and species
pathogenic for humans and other animals. C. fetus causes
reproductive disease and abortions in cattle and sheep.
• It is associated with a variety of conditions in humans ranging from
septicemia (pathogens or their toxins in the blood) to enteritis
(inflammation of the intestinal tract). C. jejuni causes abortion in
sheep and enteritis diarrhea in humans
contd
• There are at least 23 species of Helicobacter, all isolated from the stomachs and
upper intestines of humans, dogs, cats, and other mammals. Most infections are
probably acquired during childhood, but the precise mode of transmission is
unclear.
• The major human pathogen is Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and
peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori produces large quantities of urease, and urea
hydrolysis appears to be associated with its virulence.
• The genomes of C. jejuni and H. pylori (both about 1.6 million base pairs in size)
have been sequenced. They are now being studied and compared in order to
understand the life styles and pathogenicity of these bacteria.The
e-proteobacteria are now recognized to be more metabolically and ecologically
diverse than previously thought. For instance, filamentous microbial mats in
anoxic, sulfide-rich cave springs are dominated by members of the
-proteobacteria).
THE GENERAL PROPERTIES OF PROTEOBACTERIA AND ITS TYPES

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THE GENERAL PROPERTIES OF PROTEOBACTERIA AND ITS TYPES

  • 1. THE PROTEOBACTERIA • ALPHA • BETA • GAMMA • DELTA • EPSILON Pseudomonadota Ms. Kushbu. R Kristu Jayanti College
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • The phylum Proteobacteria is the largest, phylogenetically coherent bacterial group with over 2,000 species assigned to more than 500 genera. • Many of these gram-negative bacteria are of considerable importance, either as disease agents or because of their contributions to ecosystems. In addition, bacteria such as Escherichia coli, are major experimental organisms studied in many laboratories. • These bacteria are very diverse in their metabolism and life-styles, which range from obligate intracellular parasitism to a free-living existence in soil and aquatic habitats. • They could be Chemolithotrophic /Photoautotrophs/ chemolithotrophs / chemoheterotrophs • Some Proteobacteria produce specialized structures such as prosthecae, stalks, buds, sheaths, or complex fruiting bodies. • They depend on the prey’s or host’s energy supply and/or cell constituents.
  • 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • The phylum (Proteobacteria) belongs to the domain Bacteria and is comprised of gram-negative bacteria with an outer membrane consisting largely of lipopolysaccharides. • Many of them have flagella used for locomotion. Few of them move through bacterial gliding; others are non-motile. • Members of this phylum are anaerobic. Many of which are facultative anaerobes; others are obligate aerobes. • The name of the phylum is named after the Greek god of the sea, Proteus, who is regarded as a god capable of assuming different shapes. • This is because of the great diversity of forms of species belonging to this phylum.
  • 4. CONTD • Volume 2 of the second edition of Bergey’s Manual is devoted entirely to the proteobacteria. • Although 16S rRNA studies show that they are phylogenetically related, proteobacteria vary markedly in many aspects. • The morphology of these gram- negative bacteria ranges from simple rods and cocci to genera with prosthecae, buds, and even fruiting bodies.
  • 5. Examples • Alphaproteobacteria (e.g. Brucella, Rhizobium, Agrobacteriu m, Rickettsia, etc.) • Betaproteobacteria (e.g. Bordetella, Neisseria, Nitrosomonas, etc.) • Gammaproteobacteria (e.g. Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, Pseudomon as, Vibrio, Haemophilus, etc.) • Deltaproteobacteria (e.g. Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, etc.) • Epsiolonproteobacteria (e.g. Helicobacer, Campylobacter, etc.)
  • 6. • 1. PURPLE NON-SULPHUR BACTERIA- (Rhodospirillum and Azospirillum) • RICKETTSIA • NITRIFYING BACTERIA CLASS ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA
  • 7. CLASS ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA • The Alpha proteobacteria include most of the oligotrophic proteobacteria (those capable of growing at low nutrient levels). • Some have unusual metabolic modes such as methylotrophy (Methylobacterium), chemolithotrophy (Nitrobacter), and the ability to fix nitrogen (Rhizobium). Contains seven orders and 20 families.
  • 8. 1. PURPLE NON-SULPHUR BACTERIA- (Rhodospirillum and Azospirillum) • All purple nonsulfur bacteria are alpha-proteobacteria, with the exception of Rhodocyclus (proteobacteria). • The purple nonsulfur bacteria are exceptionally flexible in their choice of an energy source. Normally they grow anaerobically as photoorganoheterotrophs; they trap light energy and employ organic molecules as both electron and carbon sources. • In the absence of light, most purple nonsulfur bacteria can grow aerobically as chemoorganoheterotrophs, but some species carry out fermentations anaerobically. • Although they are called nonsulfur bacteria, some species can oxidize very low, nontoxic levels of sulfide to sulfate, but they do not oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfate. • Oxygen inhibits bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis so that cultures growing aerobically in the dark are colorless.
  • 9. 2. RICKETTSIA • Belong to the family Rickettsiaceae of the alpha- proteobacteria. • These bacteria are rod-shaped, coccoid, or pleomorphic with typical gram-negative walls and no flagella. • Although their size varies, they tend to be very small, is 0.3 to 0.5 micrometer in diameter and 0.8 to 2.0 micrometer long; • All species are parasitic or mutualistic.
  • 10. 3. NITRIFYING BACTERIA In Bergey’s Manual, the chemolithotrophic bacteria are distributed between the alpha, beta, and gamma-proteobacteria. The nitrifying bacteria are found in all three classes. • Nitrobacter -aplha-proteobacteria • Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira- ᵞ-proteobacteria; • Nitrococcus,- ᵞ -proteobacteria; • Nitrosococcus - ᵞ -proteobacteria. • All are aerobic, gram negative organisms with the ability to capture energy from the oxidation of either ammonia or nitrite. However, they differ considerably in other properties . • Nitrifiers may be rod-shaped, ellipsoidal, spherical, spirillar or lobate, and they may possess either polar or peritrichous flagella . Often they have extensive membrane complexes in their cytoplasm. • Identification is based on properties such as their preference for nitrite or ammonia, their general shape, and the nature of any cytomembranes present.
  • 11. • Nitrifying bacteria make important contributions to the nitrogen cycle. Seen in soil, sewage disposal systems, and freshwater and marine habitats. • In the same niches, members of the gamma-proteobacterial genus Nitrococcus then oxidize nitrite to nitrate. • The whole process of converting ammonia to nitrite to nitrate is called nitrification and it occurs rapidly in oxic soil treated with fertilizers containing ammonium salts. • Nitrate is readily used by plants, but it is also rapidly lost through leaching of water-soluble nitrates and by denitrification to nitrogen gas, so the benefits gained from nitrification can be fleeting.
  • 12.
  • 13. CLASS BETAPROTEOBACTERIA • The BETA-proteobacteria overlap the ALPHA-proteobacteria metabolically but tend to use substances that diffuse from organic decomposition in the anoxic zone of habitats. Some of these bacteria use hydrogen, ammonia, methane, volatile fatty acids, and similar substances. • Beta-proteobacteria may be chemoheterotrophs, photolithotrophs, methylotrophs, and chemolithotrophs. • The class Betaproteobacteria has seven orders and 12 families.
  • 14. • Contains Thiobacillus like Nitrifying bacteria and Colorless sulfur bacteria • Unicellular • Rod shaped/spiral shaped • Sulphur oxidizing bacteria • Non motile/ motile by flagella Example: Thiobacillus and Macromonas Order Hydrogenophilales Order Neisseriales • nonmotile, aerobic, gram-negative cocci • have capsules and fimbriae • Chemoorganotrophic • positive and catalase positive Example: Neisseria gonorrhoeae Order Nitrosomonadales • Chemolithotrophs • Nitrifying bacteria Example: Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira
  • 15.
  • 16. CLASS GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA • The gamma-proteobacteria constitute the largest subgroup of proteobacteria with an extraordinary variety of physiological types. Many important genera are chemoorganotrophic and facultatively anaerobic. • Other genera contain aerobic chemoorganotrophs, photolithotrophs, chemolithotrophs, or methylotrophs. Phylogenetic Relationships among gamma- Proteobacteria
  • 17. THE PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA • The purple photosynthetic bacteria are distributed between three subgroups of the proteobacteria. • Most of the purple nonsulfur bacteria are gamma-proteobacteria. Because the purple sulfur bacteria are gamma-proteobacteria. • Purple sulfur bacteria are strict anaerobes and usually photolithoautotrophs. • They oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and deposit it internally as sulfur granules (usually within invaginated pockets of the plasma membrane); often they eventually oxidize the sulfur to sulfate. • Hydrogen also may serve as an electron donor. Thiospirillum, Thiocapsa, and Chromatium are typical purple sulfur bacteria.
  • 18. CLASS DELTAPROTEOBACTERIA • Although the -proteobacteria are not a large assemblage of genera, they show considerable morphological and physiological diversity. These bacteria can be divided into two general groups, all of them chemoorganotrophs. • Some genera are predators such as the bdellovibrios and myxobacteria. Others are anaerobes that generate sulfide from sulfate and sulfur while oxidizing organic nutrients. The class has eight orders and 20 families
  • 19.
  • 20. EXAMPLE: Order Myxococcales- MYXOBACTERIA • Myxobacteria are gram-negative, aerobic soil bacteria characterized by gliding motility, a complex life cycle with the production of fruiting bodies, and the formation of dormant myxospores. • In addition, their G C content is around 67 to 71%, significantly higher than that of most gliding bacteria. Myxobacterial cells are rods, about 0.4 to 0.7 by 2 to 8 MICROm long, and may be either slender with tapered ends or stout with rounded, blunt ends. • The order Myxococcales is divided into six families based on the shape of vegetative cells, myxospores, and sporangia • The myxobacterial life cycle is quite distinctive and in many ways resembles that of the cellular slime molds. In the presence of a food supply, myxobacteria migrate along a solid surface, feeding and leaving slime trails. • During this stage the cells often form a swarm and move in a coordinated fashion. Some species congregate to produce a sheet of cells that moves rhythmically to generate waves or ripples. When their nutrient supply is exhausted, the myxobacteria aggregate and differentiate into a fruiting body.
  • 21.
  • 22. CLASS EPSILONPROTEOBACTERIA • In the second edition of Bergey’s Manual is a result of the recent isolation of two genera of moderately thermophilic (optimum growth temperature about 55°C) chemolithoautotrophs from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. • Members of the genera Nautilia and Caminibacter are strict anaerobes that oxidize H2 and use sulfur as an electron acceptor. Species are found as either freely living or as symbionts of vent macrofauna. • Slender • Gram Negative rods • Helical/vibrioid • Two important genera are Campylobacter and Helicobacter
  • 23. • The EPSILON-proteobacteria are the smallest of the five proteobacterial classes. They all are slender gram-negative rods, which can be straight, curved, or helical. • The EPSILON-proteobacteria have one order, Campylobacterales, and three families: Campylobacteraceae, Helicobacteraceae, and the recently added Nautiliaceae. • Two pathogenic genera, Campylobacter and Helicobacter, are microaerophilic, motile, helical or vibrioid, gram-negative rods. • The genus Campylobacter contains both nonpathogens and species pathogenic for humans and other animals. C. fetus causes reproductive disease and abortions in cattle and sheep. • It is associated with a variety of conditions in humans ranging from septicemia (pathogens or their toxins in the blood) to enteritis (inflammation of the intestinal tract). C. jejuni causes abortion in sheep and enteritis diarrhea in humans
  • 24. contd • There are at least 23 species of Helicobacter, all isolated from the stomachs and upper intestines of humans, dogs, cats, and other mammals. Most infections are probably acquired during childhood, but the precise mode of transmission is unclear. • The major human pathogen is Helicobacter pylori, which causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori produces large quantities of urease, and urea hydrolysis appears to be associated with its virulence. • The genomes of C. jejuni and H. pylori (both about 1.6 million base pairs in size) have been sequenced. They are now being studied and compared in order to understand the life styles and pathogenicity of these bacteria.The e-proteobacteria are now recognized to be more metabolically and ecologically diverse than previously thought. For instance, filamentous microbial mats in anoxic, sulfide-rich cave springs are dominated by members of the -proteobacteria).