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HOW TO BRIDGE
  THE DISTANCE
    BETWEEN
BUSINESS STRATEGY
   AND DESIGN
A VISUAL PRESENTATION BY MARTY NEUMEIER
Produced by NEUTRON LLC
 in partnership with NEW RIDERS PUBLISHING
and THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GRAPHIC ARTS




Copyright © 2003 Neutron LLC. For educational use only. No part of this presentation may
be published, sold, or otherwise used for profit without the written permission of the author.
WHAT YOU’LL LEARN:




         1   A modern definition of brand

         2   The five disciplines of brand-building
READY?
LET’S START BY DISPELLING SOME MYTHS.
FIRST
   A brand is not a logo.
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
SECOND
A brand is not an identity.
X
FINALLY
    A brand is not a product.
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
So   what exactly
               is a brand?
A BRAND IS A PERSON’S
GUT FEELING ABOUT
A PRODUCT, SERVICE,
OR ORGANIZATION.
It’s a PERSON’S gut feeling, because brands are defined
by individuals, not companies, markets, or publics.




It’s a GUT FEELING because people
are emotional, intuitive beings.
In other words…
IT’S NOT WHAT YOU SAY IT IS.
IT’S WHAT THEY SAY IT IS.
WHY IS BRANDING SO HOT?




     1   People have too many choices and too little time

     2   Most offerings have similar quality and features

     3   We tend to base our buying choices on trust
THERE ARE 1,349 CAMERAS ON THE MARKET.
 HOW DO YOU DECIDE WHICH ONE TO BUY?
TRUST
T=r+d
           TRUST         RELIABILITY       DELIGHT




Trust comes from meeting and beating customer expectations.
$
Does a brand have a dollar value?
AND HOW.
THIS SELECTION FROM INTERBRAND’S TOP 100 LIST
SHOWS WHY BRANDS ARE WORTH PROTECTING:


                   2001        % CHANGE    BRAND VALUE
BRAND       BRAND VALUE        BRAND VS.        AS % OF
NAME              ($MM)    PREVIOUS YEAR    MARKET CAP

COCA-COLA         68,945             -5%           61%
MICROSOFT         65,068             -7%           17%
IBM               52,752             -1%           27%
FORD              30,092            -17%           66%
MERCEDES          21,728            +3%            48%
HONDA             14,638             -4%           33%
BMW               13,858            +7%            62%
KODAK             10,801             -9%           82%
GAP                8,746             -6%           35%
NIKE               7,589             -5%           66%
PEPSI              6,214             -6%            9%
XEROX              6,019            -38%           93%
APPLE              5,464            -17%           66%
STARBUCKS          1,757           +32%            21%
COKE’S MARKET CAP,
                     INCLUDING BRAND VALUE:
                     $120 BILLION




WITHOUT THE BRAND,
COKE’S GLASS WOULD
  BE HALF EMPTY.




                     COKE’S MARKET CAP,
                     NOT INCLUDING BRAND VALUE:
                     $50 BILLION
PREDICTION


BRAND WILL BECOME THE MOST POWERFUL
STRATEGIC TOOL SINCE THE SPREADSHEET.
PROBLEM

In most companies, STRATEGY


               is separated from CREATIVITY by a wide gap.
On one side of the gap   On the other side are
are STRATEGIC THINKERS     CREATIVE THINKERS


ANALYTICAL                         INTUITIVE


LOGICAL                          EMOTIONAL


LINEAR                               SPATIAL


NUMERICAL                             VISUAL


VERBAL                             PHYSICAL
DOES THE LEFT BRAIN KNOW WHAT THE RIGHT BRAIN IS DOING?
When both sides work together,
           you can build a charismatic brand.
A CHARISMATIC BRAND is any product,
service, or organization for which
people believe there’s no substitute.
QUIZ :
Which of these brands are charismatic?


AMAZON               HITACHI             OXO GOODGRIPS

APPLE                HOME DEPOT          PEPSI-COLA

BURGER KING          IKEA                PRELL

COLDWATER CREEK      KMART               RCA

DASANI               KRISPY KREME        REEBOK

DISNEY               LEVI’S              RUBBERMAID

DK BOOKS             LONGS DRUGS         SAFEWAY

EVEREADY             MACY’S              SAMSUNG

FORD                 MINI COOPER         SEARS

GENERAL ELECTRIC     NEWSWEEK            SOUTHWEST AIRLINES

GOOGLE               NISSAN              UNITED ARTISTS

HANES                NORDSTROM           VIRGIN
QUIZ :
Which of these brands are charismatic?


AMAZON               HITACHI             OXO GOODGRIPS

APPLE                HOME DEPOT          PEPSI-COLA

BURGER KING          IKEA                PRELL

COLDWATER CREEK      KMART               RCA

DASANI               KRISPY KREME        REEBOK

DISNEY               LEVI’S              RUBBERMAID

DK BOOKS             LONGS DRUGS         SAFEWAY

EVEREADY             MACY’S              SAMSUNG

FORD                 MINI COOPER         SEARS

GENERAL ELECTRIC     NEWSWEEK            SOUTHWEST AIRLINES

GOOGLE               NISSAN              UNITED ARTISTS

HANES                NORDSTROM           VIRGIN
Any brand can be charismatic.
EVEN
YOURS.
But first,




you have to master the FIVE   DISCIPLINES OF BRAND-BUILDING .
DISCIPLINE 1: DIFFERENTIATE
FACT:


    Our brains act as filters to protect
    us from too much information.
WE’RE HARDWIRED TO NOTICE ONLY WHAT’S DIFFERENT.
SOLUTION:




BE DIFFERENT.
FEATURES               BENEFITS          EXPERIENCE        IDENTIFICATION
“What it is”         “What it does”     “What you feel”    “Who you are”



 1900                   1925               1950                2000




               Marketing today is about creating tribes.
People join different tribes for different activities.

              DRIVING    VOLKSWAGEN




                                    READING          AMAZON
COMPUTING     DELL

                                                         SPORTS   NIKE


              COOKING              WILLIAMS-SONOMA



              BANKING   CITIBANK




                                         TRAVEL        ORBITZ
ON SUNDAYS THEY WORSHIP HARLEY,
GOD OF THE OPEN ROAD.
The three most important words in differentiating your brand:
1   FOCUS
2
    FOCUS
3
    FOCUS
IS THIS HOW YOUR CUSTOMERS SEE YOU?
THE FOCUS TEST:




    1   Who are you?

    2   What do you do?

    3   Why does it matter?
Unless you have compelling answers to these questions,

                 you need more focus.
The most common reason for loss of focus
is ILL-CONSIDERED BRAND EXTENSIONS.
EXAMPLE:




       FOCUSED   PORSHE = SPORTS CARS


    UNFOCUSED    PORSHE = SPORTS CARS + SUVS
BAD BRAND EXTENSIONS    are those
that chase short-term profits at the
expense of long-term brand value.




                                       GOOD BRAND EXTENSIONS

                                       grow the value of a brand
                                       by reinforcing its focus.
EXAMPLE:




THE GOOD GRIPS BRAND HAS GROWN STRONGER WITH EVERY BRAND EXTENSION.
DISCIPLINE 2: COLLABORATE
LIKE BUILDING
     A CATHEDRAL,
 BUILDING A BRAND
IS A COLLABORATIVE
         PROJECT.
It takes a village
to build a brand.
THERE ARE THREE BASIC MODELS
FOR ORGANIZING BRAND COLLABORATION:
The ONE-STOP SHOP
contains the resources                                                                C R E AT I V E
                                                                                      SERVICES
                                                               A DV E RT I S I N G


to develop and                              DIRECT
                                          RESPONSE



steward the brand.                                                                       RESEARCH
                                                                                                                   POP
                                                                                                               D I S P L AY S
                                                                          EXHIBITS



                                                           PUBLIC
                              IDENTITY
                                                       R E L AT I O N S                            SUPPLIERS




                                                  EVENTS                      PRODUCT
                                                                                DESIGN
                                                                                                       PROMOTIONS




                         P U B L I C AT I O N S                                                                         BRAND
                                                                                                                     ST R AT E G Y
                                                           WEB
                                                       DESIGN
                                                                               NAMING

                                                                                                PA C K A G I N G




                                                                             ANNUAL
                                                                            REPORTS




 C O M PA N Y
ONE-STOP SHOP SCORECARD




Easy to manage            Little choice of teams
Promise of consistency    Little ownership of brand
The BRAND AGENCY                                                                      POP
                                                                                  D I S P L AY S

hires best-of-breed                                            C R E AT I V E
                                                               SERVICES



firms to help develop     IDENTITY



                                                                                                                          RESEARCH
                                                DIRECT

and steward the brand.                         RESPONSE
                                                                                       A DV E RT I S I N G




                           ANNUAL
                          REPORTS



                                                                                                        SUPPLIERS



                                     EVENTS

                                                                BRAND AGENCY                                               PROMOTIONS



                         NAMING
                                                                                                        BRAND
                                                                                                     S T R AT E G Y




                                                                                                                PA C K A G I N G
                                              P U B L I C AT I O N S


                                                                                PRODUCT
                               WEB                                              DESIGN
                             DESIGN




                                                                                                               PUBLIC
                                                                                                             R E L AT I O N S
                                                              EXHIBITS

    C O M PA N Y
BRAND AGENCY SCORECARD




Choice of teams          Little ownership of brand
Promise of consistency
The INTEGRATED MARKETING TEAM
is managed internally with open
collaboration among                                                       C R E AT I V E
                                                                          S E RV I C E S
                                                                                           A DV E RT I S I N G




best-of-breed specialists.
                                                                                                                 RESEARCH
                                                  DIRECT
                                                 RESPONSE




                                       ANNUAL                                                                                         IDENTITY
                                       REPORTS




                      EVENTS
                                                                                                                                                         POP
                                                                                                                                                     D I S P L AY S




                   EXHIBITS

                                                                                     C O M PA N Y                                                         SUPPLIERS




                      PUBLIC
                    R E L AT I O N S
                                                                                                                                                PROMOTIONS




                                         WEB
                                        DESIGN
                                                                                                                                  PA C K A G I N G




                                                                                                                    BRAND
                                                 P U B L I C AT I O N S                                          S T R AT E G Y


                                                                                NAMING           PRODUCT
                                                                                                   DESIGN
INTEGRATED MARKETING TEAM SCORECARD




Choice of teams          Difficult to manage
Promise of consistency
Ownership of brand
IN REALITY, COLLABORATIVE
NETWORKS AREN’T THAT SIMPLE.
and
  that’s OK.
Collaborative networks are not new.
A successful model has existed for years.
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
Like building a cathedral,
making a movie takes
hundreds of collaborators.
JOEL DARTMOUTH
                  Smoocher Boy      KELLY MARIN
                     Agent Sims     TREVOR CARMICHAEL
                Agent Townsend      JOHN T. LANDON
                   Agent Kruzic     SHARON BONDLY
                           Dijon    PAUL DERAIN
                    Jean-Michel     JACQUES SOUVERAIN
                         Keynes     MICHAEL BRAND
                          Corelli   STEVEN GOLDSTEIN
                       Johnston     TRENT LOCKART
                           Billie   JACKSON BARNES
                         Guards     JOSEPH AKIO
                                     TERENCE BRADLEY
                                    MO DERENI
                                    ROBERT UNDERHILL
                                    KEN SILVER
                          Librarian HILARY PROPRIATO
                      Field Officer MICHAEL O. KELL
                        Bus Driver HECTOR ABONDAS
                      Night Guard NORMAN BRIER
                       Meter Maid STACY BRECKSTEIN
                   First Detective JOE KALEY
                Second Detective BRIAN BELSEN
                          Beat Cop ABRAHAM LENDER
                      Parking Cop T. T. MCBRIDE
                  Helicopter Pilot VAN DERICKE
                     First Old Man JOHN R. CARLSON
                  Second Old Man VICTOR AMOS
                     Tax Collector SEAN O' KENNA
                Stunt Coordinator JEFFREY ROCKEN
      Assistant Stunt Coordinator DARREL TOM

                    Stunt DoublesCarlos
                                  GEOFF WRIGHT
                                 MARK CONTADINA
                        Mariana SUE SKENNIAN
                            Ajax CHARLIE MARQUETTE
                    Sgt. Santos VICTOR BANERAS
                          Carter F. C. CAMERON
                  Smoocher Boy TELLIE PANOPOULIS
                    Agent Sims MARTIN AIRES
                Agent Townsend STEFAN C. KAISER
                           Dijon BILL MOORE

                               Stunts
STEVE ADRIAN              BENJAMIN BARKELEY           TONY BEAUJOLAIS
BOB CARTER                GORDON COLERIDGE            IVAN DEVERSON
MICKEY DISANTIS           JILLIAN DRUCKER             JOE EVANS
MIKE FLANAGAN             BILL GEORGE                 JULIA HARRISON
GEOFF IPSWICH             MICHAEL KANTER              KENNETH KITTRIDGE
BARRIE LAWRENCE           TERRY LEVINSON              TED MARSTEN
JACKIE MACDOUGAL          GREG NEVILSON               BOB OSBORNE
JAMES PETRICKE            PETE POLSON                 RAY TELSON
MARY STAUFFACHER          FREDDIE STEEN               CAB UPTON
CORNELIA THERRIEN         JEREMY TRICKETT             PETER YOUNG
RAUL VALERIA              RONALD DEAVER-WEBB          ROBERT G. RUNYAN

                      Hong Kong Kung Fu Team
                YUAN Tiger CHU      CHEN Dragon SEN
Manners and Modes Supervisor FRANCIE MAS
            Storyboard Artists CAREN THOMASON
                                 MIGUEL TRASERO
                                 FRANCES CHU
                                 PEDRO BOGANILLO
   Art Department Researcher NUALA CORIAN
  Art Department Coordinator TRACY COLLISTON
         Conceptual Designer SERGIO MOLO
                       Graphics BENJAMIN HIRASUNA
                     Illustrator STEPHANIE RAND
                 Set Designers GERI DEMONDE
                                 STELLAN GRETZKE
                                 MADELINE BARR
                                 LANCE DUNSTABLE
                                 MARCO DIPAOLO
                                 DEN MCENERY
                Set Decorators LISA BARHAM
                                 DRU LEE MANNING
                                 CARRIE DUNE
             Script Supervisor MARIE BELLEAU
             Camera Operator PAUL POLITO
          Steadycam Operator ROCK HANDLER
         1st Assistant Camera GORDON ALBRIGHT
        2nd Assistant Camera CRIS MORTEN
           Still Photographer BARRIE M. HORST
              Sound Recordist JACOB TREIB
              Boom Operators HORACE STEIN
                                 THOM CARRABINE
                Video Operator ART KELLEHER
                                 LUCIANO PROPRIO
                           Props DAVID BELL
               Property Master ZUZU MANHEIM
                                 KAREN CAROLUS
                                 J. D. WHEATLY
  Action Vehicle Coordinators WILLIAM TREVANT
                          Gaffer STU JEFFERSON
                       Best Boy JOSH KNIPPLE
                Rigged Gaffers COLIN FARRINGDON
                                 PETER STANISLOV
                                 KIT GOINES
                                 BENNIE JAMESON
                                 RICK DEMIS
                                 STANLEY FREY
                                 G. G. NEWMAN
                        Key Grip DAVID WEINBERG
                      Head Grip RICKY MONROE
                    Dolly Grips WILLI STRASBURG
                                 STAN BENTON
                                 CHARLES CRIVORN
                                 NORM LOFGREN
                                 VIC DOLAN
                                 GIORGIO VIVATO
                   Rigging Grip TEL STEPHENOPOLIS
               Make-up Artists TRINI GONZALEZ
                                 MARCI STEIN
                                 BELINDA MCNAIR
                                 CARI DUNN
                                 MICHELLE TONAS
                                 ROBERTO BELLINI
Dig Composite Supv      TIM CURRIE
                                   DONALD VERES
            Digital Compositors    DAVID HUSSEIN
                                   BRIDGET QUESTED
            Background Artists     FRANCESCA ROTI
                                   GREG STONE
            CGI Lead Animators     WILL SUTTON
                                   INGE JOHANSSON
                 CGI Animators     DREW CRAIN
                                   URSULA BIERSCH


                        VISUAL LOGIC, LLC
                VFX Supervisor     JARED BAGMAN
                   Programmer      KAROL CONST
                 System Admin      RANDY HARDWICK
             Production Admin      MAL GERICKE
               Production Aide     CASS MONAHAN
                      Producer     PATRICE ARNEM
                Scene Graphics     PEDRO CARILLO
               CGI Artist Coord    SANDY PRIESTLY
                    CGI Artists    JOHN LANGORF
                                   BRENDA CALE
                   CGI Designer    MARK THOMAS
                                   KYLE M. SULLIVAN
                   Compositors     PATRICK MAHONEY
                                   STAV PROMIDES
                                   MARGRIET BILL
                                   TANIA SHAUB
                                   BENNET JURIAN
                 I/O Supervisor    CHUCK TRALIK
        Assorted Visual Effects    PENNY GARCIA
                     Color Toner   GRAYSON TRUE
                Negative Cutter    SLIM DELGADO
             Titles Designed by    BATOUTAHELL, INC
                     Opticals by   PACIFIC DREAMS, LLC
         Soundtrack Album on       ARTISTIC RECORDS, INC.
Microscopic Cinematography by      JAY FLAMMER




           `The Producers Wish to Thank the Following
                             NASA
                       CITY OF NEW YORK
                THE MARITIME CENTER OF SYDNEY
                      LOS ANGELES POLICE
                   THE CITY OF BEND, OREGON
                       SULTAN OF BRUNEI

                      Filmed on Location in
                          CAPE KENNEDY
                          NEW YORK CITY
                       SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA
                    LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
                          BEND, OREGON

           Filmed with OMNIVISON Cameras and Lenses
                    Color by COLORLAB, INC.

                     Prints by VISTACHROME
IN THE 1990s,




CREATIVE COLLABORATION SPREAD TO BRAND-BUILDING.
EXAMPLE:

The Netscape brand was built
on the Hollywood model.
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
WHY?
Because
               the mathematics of collaboration
is nothing less than



          MAGIC.
DISCIPLINE 3: INNOVATE
Execution—
    not strategy—is where the rubber meets the road.
CREATIVITY IS WHAT GIVES BRANDS THEIR TRACTION IN THE MARKETPLACE.
Why do companies have so much trouble with creativity?




Because creativity is right-brained,
                            and strategy is left-brained.
V                   Z



        D




             Q




    CREATIVE THINKING
A       B      C     D




    STRATEGIC THINKING
MANTRA FOR INNOVATORS:




                                Zig


                  when others




         zag.
THE REASON THE BEATLES WERE WILDLY SUCCESSFUL
IS BECAUSE “THEY NEVER DID THE SAME THING ONCE.”
QUESTION:




     How do you know when an idea is innovative?
ANSWER:




          WHEN IT SCARES THE HELL OUT OF EVERYBODY.
To begin with,

the brand needs a   stand-out name.
The seven criteria of a stand-out name:

                1 DISTINCTIVENESS


                2 BREVITY


                3 APPROPRIATENESS


                4 EASY SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION


                5 LIKABILITY


                6 EXTENDABILITY


                7 PROTECTABILITY
A GREAT   NAME   deserves GREAT   GRAPHICS .
NEWS
 LOGOS ARE DEAD. LONG LIVE ICONS AND AVATARS!




FLASH!
An ICON is a name and visual symbol
that suggests a market position.
EXAMPLE:




      CBS. The network for “eye-popping” television.
An AVATAR is a brand icon that
can move, change, and operate
freely in various media.
EXAMPLE:




CINGULAR : The “self-expression” cellular service.
For products that sell at retail,




the package
               is often the best and last chance to make a sale.
The hardest-working packages follow
a natural reading sequence.

                 THE SHOPPER :

                 1   Notices the package

                 2   Asks “What is it?”

                 3   Wonders “Why should I care?”

                 4   Wants to be persuaded

                 5   Needs proof
By presenting information
to match this sequence,
a package can sell the
product more effectively.
If you communicate with your customers
ONLINE , your website needs to follow
a SIMILAR reading sequence, one that
supplies users with ONLY the information
they need, instead of trying to squeeze
EVERYTHING onto the home page
LIKE THIS and making your users do
ALL the work, which will undoubtedly
cause them to LEAVE, when all you
really have to do is ask yourself this
SIMPLE QUESTION :
Does our website look




fat                     in this dress?
Too many websites are bloated with irrelevant information.
WHY?
1 TURFISMO
 (Every department wants to be on the home page)
2 FEATURITIS
 (Inexperienced communicators believe more is better)
3 TECHNOPHOBIA
 (Experienced communicators resist new media)
QUIZ:
Which of these sites looks easier to use?
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
DISCIPLINE 4: VALIDATE
VALIDATION means bringing the
audience into the creative process.
SENDER
     SENDER        MESSAGE
                   MESSAGE       RECEIVER
                                 RECEIVER




THE OLD COMMUNICATION MODEL WAS A MONOLOGUE.
SENDER
   SENDER         MESSAGE
                  MESSAGE        RECEIVER
                                 RECEIVER




THE NEW COMMUNICATION MODEL IS A DIALOGUE.
QUESTION:




        How can you test your most creative ideas
        BEFORE they get to market?
HINT:




Not with large
quantitative studies
or focus groups.
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES BURY THE PROBLEM IN HEAPS OF UNHELPFUL DATA.
FOCUS GROUPS WERE INVENTED TO FOCUS
 THE RESEARCH, NOT BE THE RESEARCH.
THE BEST TESTS ARE


CHEAP,
 QUICK,
     AND
           DIRTY.
Better a rough answer to the right question
than a detailed answer to the wrong question.
CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 1:


The SWAP TEST is a proof for trademarks.
If the names and graphics of two trademarks are
better when swapped, then neither is optimal.
EXISTING TRADEMARKS
WITH NAMES SWAPPED
CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 2:


The HAND TEST is a proof for a distinctive voice.
If you can’t tell who’s talking when the trademark
is covered, then the brand’s voice is not distinctive.
The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier
CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 3:


The FIELD TEST is a proof for any concept
        that can be prototyped.
If your audience can’t verbalize your concept,
you’ve failed to communicate it.
SHOPPERS CHARACTERIZED
     THE PACKAGE CONCEPT
ON THE MIDDLE-RIGHT SHELF
       AS “A FASTER PENCIL.”



                     BINGO.
Field tests measure five things:




                   1 DISTINCTIVENESS


                    2 RELEVANCE


                    3 MEMORABILITY


                   4 EXTENDABILITY


                    5 DEPTH OF MEANING
TESTING MIGHT HAVE SAVED SOME OF THESE COMPANIES FROM THE GREAT SWOOSH EPIDEMIC.
HAS THE GLOBE BECOME THE NEW SWOOSH?
DISCIPLINE 5: CULTIVATE
Business is a process, not an entity.
A living brand is a pattern of behavior,
not a stylistic veneer.
Brands are like people.
C.                     D.                      E.




IF PEOPLE CAN CHANGE THEIR CLOTHES WITHOUT CHANGING THEIR CHARACTERS…
WHY CAN’T BRANDS?
OLD PARADIGM:




Control the
          LOOK AND FEEL
                      of a brand.
NEW PARADIGM:



        Influence the
                   CHARACTER
                           of a brand.
IF A BRAND LOOKS LIKE A DUCK AND SWIMS
   LIKE A DOG, PEOPLE WILL DISTRUST IT.
So let’s say you’ve




          DIFFERENTIATED,
          COLLABORATED,
          INNOVATED,
          AND VALIDATED.
+

YOU’VE ADDED THE LEFT BRAIN TO THE RIGHT BRAIN.
You’ve zigged




when the competition has zagged.
+ +

YOU’VE USED TESTING TO BANISH THE FEAR OF STUPID.
Your brand is now NUMBER ONE in it’s category.
What’s your next move?
PASS OUT THE COMPASSES.
What’s a compass?
A continuing brand education program.
BRAND ORIENTATION
BRAND SEMINARS
POSITIONING WORKSHOPS
BRAND AUDITS
STATEGY SUMMITS
CREATIVE COUNCILS
QUARTERLY CRITIQUES
GROUP BRAINSTORMING
TEAMWORK TRAINING
INNOVATION CLINICS
DESIGN AUDITS
BRAND MANUALS
BRAND PUBLICATIONS
The more

   D I S T R I B U T E D
                                           a brand becomes,




the stronger its management needs to be.
What your company needs is a CBO,
or CHIEF BRANDING OFFICER .
THE CBO FORMS A HUMAN BRIDGE BETWEEN LOGIC AND MAGIC, STRATEGY AND DESIGN.
C U LT I V AT I O N                           D I F F E R E N T I AT I O N




       V A L I D AT I O N                                           C O L L A B O R AT I O N




                                    I N N O V AT I O N




BY MASTERING THE FIVE DISCIPLINES OF BRANDING, THE COMPANY CREATES A VIRTUOUS CIRCLE.
WITH EVERY TURN AROUND THE CIRCLE, THE VALUE OF THE BRAND SPIRALS HIGHER.
YOU BUILD
A sustainable competitive advantage.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR

      Marty Neumeier is president of a San Francisco-based
  brand consultancy, Neutron LLC. Neutron supplies the “glue”
that holds brands together: brand education programs, seminars,
     workshops, creative audits, process planning, and more.

                   Visit www.neutronllc.com.
Need books for your branding team?

  Bulk discounts on the THE BRAND GAP are
available for educational and corporate groups.
 Contact STEPHANIE.WALL@NEWRIDERS.COM.

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The Brand Gap by Marty Neumeier

  • 1. HOW TO BRIDGE THE DISTANCE BETWEEN BUSINESS STRATEGY AND DESIGN
  • 2. A VISUAL PRESENTATION BY MARTY NEUMEIER
  • 3. Produced by NEUTRON LLC in partnership with NEW RIDERS PUBLISHING and THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF GRAPHIC ARTS Copyright © 2003 Neutron LLC. For educational use only. No part of this presentation may be published, sold, or otherwise used for profit without the written permission of the author.
  • 4. WHAT YOU’LL LEARN: 1 A modern definition of brand 2 The five disciplines of brand-building
  • 6. LET’S START BY DISPELLING SOME MYTHS.
  • 7. FIRST A brand is not a logo.
  • 9. SECOND A brand is not an identity.
  • 10. X
  • 11. FINALLY A brand is not a product.
  • 13. So what exactly is a brand?
  • 14. A BRAND IS A PERSON’S GUT FEELING ABOUT A PRODUCT, SERVICE, OR ORGANIZATION.
  • 15. It’s a PERSON’S gut feeling, because brands are defined by individuals, not companies, markets, or publics. It’s a GUT FEELING because people are emotional, intuitive beings.
  • 17. IT’S NOT WHAT YOU SAY IT IS.
  • 18. IT’S WHAT THEY SAY IT IS.
  • 19. WHY IS BRANDING SO HOT? 1 People have too many choices and too little time 2 Most offerings have similar quality and features 3 We tend to base our buying choices on trust
  • 20. THERE ARE 1,349 CAMERAS ON THE MARKET. HOW DO YOU DECIDE WHICH ONE TO BUY?
  • 21. TRUST
  • 22. T=r+d TRUST RELIABILITY DELIGHT Trust comes from meeting and beating customer expectations.
  • 23. $ Does a brand have a dollar value?
  • 25. THIS SELECTION FROM INTERBRAND’S TOP 100 LIST SHOWS WHY BRANDS ARE WORTH PROTECTING: 2001 % CHANGE BRAND VALUE BRAND BRAND VALUE BRAND VS. AS % OF NAME ($MM) PREVIOUS YEAR MARKET CAP COCA-COLA 68,945 -5% 61% MICROSOFT 65,068 -7% 17% IBM 52,752 -1% 27% FORD 30,092 -17% 66% MERCEDES 21,728 +3% 48% HONDA 14,638 -4% 33% BMW 13,858 +7% 62% KODAK 10,801 -9% 82% GAP 8,746 -6% 35% NIKE 7,589 -5% 66% PEPSI 6,214 -6% 9% XEROX 6,019 -38% 93% APPLE 5,464 -17% 66% STARBUCKS 1,757 +32% 21%
  • 26. COKE’S MARKET CAP, INCLUDING BRAND VALUE: $120 BILLION WITHOUT THE BRAND, COKE’S GLASS WOULD BE HALF EMPTY. COKE’S MARKET CAP, NOT INCLUDING BRAND VALUE: $50 BILLION
  • 27. PREDICTION BRAND WILL BECOME THE MOST POWERFUL STRATEGIC TOOL SINCE THE SPREADSHEET.
  • 28. PROBLEM In most companies, STRATEGY is separated from CREATIVITY by a wide gap.
  • 29. On one side of the gap On the other side are are STRATEGIC THINKERS CREATIVE THINKERS ANALYTICAL INTUITIVE LOGICAL EMOTIONAL LINEAR SPATIAL NUMERICAL VISUAL VERBAL PHYSICAL
  • 30. DOES THE LEFT BRAIN KNOW WHAT THE RIGHT BRAIN IS DOING?
  • 31. When both sides work together, you can build a charismatic brand.
  • 32. A CHARISMATIC BRAND is any product, service, or organization for which people believe there’s no substitute.
  • 33. QUIZ : Which of these brands are charismatic? AMAZON HITACHI OXO GOODGRIPS APPLE HOME DEPOT PEPSI-COLA BURGER KING IKEA PRELL COLDWATER CREEK KMART RCA DASANI KRISPY KREME REEBOK DISNEY LEVI’S RUBBERMAID DK BOOKS LONGS DRUGS SAFEWAY EVEREADY MACY’S SAMSUNG FORD MINI COOPER SEARS GENERAL ELECTRIC NEWSWEEK SOUTHWEST AIRLINES GOOGLE NISSAN UNITED ARTISTS HANES NORDSTROM VIRGIN
  • 34. QUIZ : Which of these brands are charismatic? AMAZON HITACHI OXO GOODGRIPS APPLE HOME DEPOT PEPSI-COLA BURGER KING IKEA PRELL COLDWATER CREEK KMART RCA DASANI KRISPY KREME REEBOK DISNEY LEVI’S RUBBERMAID DK BOOKS LONGS DRUGS SAFEWAY EVEREADY MACY’S SAMSUNG FORD MINI COOPER SEARS GENERAL ELECTRIC NEWSWEEK SOUTHWEST AIRLINES GOOGLE NISSAN UNITED ARTISTS HANES NORDSTROM VIRGIN
  • 35. Any brand can be charismatic.
  • 37. But first, you have to master the FIVE DISCIPLINES OF BRAND-BUILDING .
  • 39. FACT: Our brains act as filters to protect us from too much information.
  • 40. WE’RE HARDWIRED TO NOTICE ONLY WHAT’S DIFFERENT.
  • 42. FEATURES BENEFITS EXPERIENCE IDENTIFICATION “What it is” “What it does” “What you feel” “Who you are” 1900 1925 1950 2000 Marketing today is about creating tribes.
  • 43. People join different tribes for different activities. DRIVING VOLKSWAGEN READING AMAZON COMPUTING DELL SPORTS NIKE COOKING WILLIAMS-SONOMA BANKING CITIBANK TRAVEL ORBITZ
  • 44. ON SUNDAYS THEY WORSHIP HARLEY, GOD OF THE OPEN ROAD.
  • 45. The three most important words in differentiating your brand:
  • 46. 1 FOCUS
  • 47. 2 FOCUS
  • 48. 3 FOCUS
  • 49. IS THIS HOW YOUR CUSTOMERS SEE YOU?
  • 50. THE FOCUS TEST: 1 Who are you? 2 What do you do? 3 Why does it matter?
  • 51. Unless you have compelling answers to these questions, you need more focus.
  • 52. The most common reason for loss of focus is ILL-CONSIDERED BRAND EXTENSIONS.
  • 53. EXAMPLE: FOCUSED PORSHE = SPORTS CARS UNFOCUSED PORSHE = SPORTS CARS + SUVS
  • 54. BAD BRAND EXTENSIONS are those that chase short-term profits at the expense of long-term brand value. GOOD BRAND EXTENSIONS grow the value of a brand by reinforcing its focus.
  • 55. EXAMPLE: THE GOOD GRIPS BRAND HAS GROWN STRONGER WITH EVERY BRAND EXTENSION.
  • 57. LIKE BUILDING A CATHEDRAL, BUILDING A BRAND IS A COLLABORATIVE PROJECT.
  • 58. It takes a village to build a brand.
  • 59. THERE ARE THREE BASIC MODELS FOR ORGANIZING BRAND COLLABORATION:
  • 60. The ONE-STOP SHOP contains the resources C R E AT I V E SERVICES A DV E RT I S I N G to develop and DIRECT RESPONSE steward the brand. RESEARCH POP D I S P L AY S EXHIBITS PUBLIC IDENTITY R E L AT I O N S SUPPLIERS EVENTS PRODUCT DESIGN PROMOTIONS P U B L I C AT I O N S BRAND ST R AT E G Y WEB DESIGN NAMING PA C K A G I N G ANNUAL REPORTS C O M PA N Y
  • 61. ONE-STOP SHOP SCORECARD Easy to manage Little choice of teams Promise of consistency Little ownership of brand
  • 62. The BRAND AGENCY POP D I S P L AY S hires best-of-breed C R E AT I V E SERVICES firms to help develop IDENTITY RESEARCH DIRECT and steward the brand. RESPONSE A DV E RT I S I N G ANNUAL REPORTS SUPPLIERS EVENTS BRAND AGENCY PROMOTIONS NAMING BRAND S T R AT E G Y PA C K A G I N G P U B L I C AT I O N S PRODUCT WEB DESIGN DESIGN PUBLIC R E L AT I O N S EXHIBITS C O M PA N Y
  • 63. BRAND AGENCY SCORECARD Choice of teams Little ownership of brand Promise of consistency
  • 64. The INTEGRATED MARKETING TEAM is managed internally with open collaboration among C R E AT I V E S E RV I C E S A DV E RT I S I N G best-of-breed specialists. RESEARCH DIRECT RESPONSE ANNUAL IDENTITY REPORTS EVENTS POP D I S P L AY S EXHIBITS C O M PA N Y SUPPLIERS PUBLIC R E L AT I O N S PROMOTIONS WEB DESIGN PA C K A G I N G BRAND P U B L I C AT I O N S S T R AT E G Y NAMING PRODUCT DESIGN
  • 65. INTEGRATED MARKETING TEAM SCORECARD Choice of teams Difficult to manage Promise of consistency Ownership of brand
  • 66. IN REALITY, COLLABORATIVE NETWORKS AREN’T THAT SIMPLE.
  • 69. A successful model has existed for years.
  • 71. Like building a cathedral, making a movie takes hundreds of collaborators.
  • 72. JOEL DARTMOUTH Smoocher Boy KELLY MARIN Agent Sims TREVOR CARMICHAEL Agent Townsend JOHN T. LANDON Agent Kruzic SHARON BONDLY Dijon PAUL DERAIN Jean-Michel JACQUES SOUVERAIN Keynes MICHAEL BRAND Corelli STEVEN GOLDSTEIN Johnston TRENT LOCKART Billie JACKSON BARNES Guards JOSEPH AKIO TERENCE BRADLEY MO DERENI ROBERT UNDERHILL KEN SILVER Librarian HILARY PROPRIATO Field Officer MICHAEL O. KELL Bus Driver HECTOR ABONDAS Night Guard NORMAN BRIER Meter Maid STACY BRECKSTEIN First Detective JOE KALEY Second Detective BRIAN BELSEN Beat Cop ABRAHAM LENDER Parking Cop T. T. MCBRIDE Helicopter Pilot VAN DERICKE First Old Man JOHN R. CARLSON Second Old Man VICTOR AMOS Tax Collector SEAN O' KENNA Stunt Coordinator JEFFREY ROCKEN Assistant Stunt Coordinator DARREL TOM Stunt DoublesCarlos GEOFF WRIGHT MARK CONTADINA Mariana SUE SKENNIAN Ajax CHARLIE MARQUETTE Sgt. Santos VICTOR BANERAS Carter F. C. CAMERON Smoocher Boy TELLIE PANOPOULIS Agent Sims MARTIN AIRES Agent Townsend STEFAN C. KAISER Dijon BILL MOORE Stunts STEVE ADRIAN BENJAMIN BARKELEY TONY BEAUJOLAIS BOB CARTER GORDON COLERIDGE IVAN DEVERSON MICKEY DISANTIS JILLIAN DRUCKER JOE EVANS MIKE FLANAGAN BILL GEORGE JULIA HARRISON GEOFF IPSWICH MICHAEL KANTER KENNETH KITTRIDGE BARRIE LAWRENCE TERRY LEVINSON TED MARSTEN JACKIE MACDOUGAL GREG NEVILSON BOB OSBORNE JAMES PETRICKE PETE POLSON RAY TELSON MARY STAUFFACHER FREDDIE STEEN CAB UPTON CORNELIA THERRIEN JEREMY TRICKETT PETER YOUNG RAUL VALERIA RONALD DEAVER-WEBB ROBERT G. RUNYAN Hong Kong Kung Fu Team YUAN Tiger CHU CHEN Dragon SEN
  • 73. Manners and Modes Supervisor FRANCIE MAS Storyboard Artists CAREN THOMASON MIGUEL TRASERO FRANCES CHU PEDRO BOGANILLO Art Department Researcher NUALA CORIAN Art Department Coordinator TRACY COLLISTON Conceptual Designer SERGIO MOLO Graphics BENJAMIN HIRASUNA Illustrator STEPHANIE RAND Set Designers GERI DEMONDE STELLAN GRETZKE MADELINE BARR LANCE DUNSTABLE MARCO DIPAOLO DEN MCENERY Set Decorators LISA BARHAM DRU LEE MANNING CARRIE DUNE Script Supervisor MARIE BELLEAU Camera Operator PAUL POLITO Steadycam Operator ROCK HANDLER 1st Assistant Camera GORDON ALBRIGHT 2nd Assistant Camera CRIS MORTEN Still Photographer BARRIE M. HORST Sound Recordist JACOB TREIB Boom Operators HORACE STEIN THOM CARRABINE Video Operator ART KELLEHER LUCIANO PROPRIO Props DAVID BELL Property Master ZUZU MANHEIM KAREN CAROLUS J. D. WHEATLY Action Vehicle Coordinators WILLIAM TREVANT Gaffer STU JEFFERSON Best Boy JOSH KNIPPLE Rigged Gaffers COLIN FARRINGDON PETER STANISLOV KIT GOINES BENNIE JAMESON RICK DEMIS STANLEY FREY G. G. NEWMAN Key Grip DAVID WEINBERG Head Grip RICKY MONROE Dolly Grips WILLI STRASBURG STAN BENTON CHARLES CRIVORN NORM LOFGREN VIC DOLAN GIORGIO VIVATO Rigging Grip TEL STEPHENOPOLIS Make-up Artists TRINI GONZALEZ MARCI STEIN BELINDA MCNAIR CARI DUNN MICHELLE TONAS ROBERTO BELLINI
  • 74. Dig Composite Supv TIM CURRIE DONALD VERES Digital Compositors DAVID HUSSEIN BRIDGET QUESTED Background Artists FRANCESCA ROTI GREG STONE CGI Lead Animators WILL SUTTON INGE JOHANSSON CGI Animators DREW CRAIN URSULA BIERSCH VISUAL LOGIC, LLC VFX Supervisor JARED BAGMAN Programmer KAROL CONST System Admin RANDY HARDWICK Production Admin MAL GERICKE Production Aide CASS MONAHAN Producer PATRICE ARNEM Scene Graphics PEDRO CARILLO CGI Artist Coord SANDY PRIESTLY CGI Artists JOHN LANGORF BRENDA CALE CGI Designer MARK THOMAS KYLE M. SULLIVAN Compositors PATRICK MAHONEY STAV PROMIDES MARGRIET BILL TANIA SHAUB BENNET JURIAN I/O Supervisor CHUCK TRALIK Assorted Visual Effects PENNY GARCIA Color Toner GRAYSON TRUE Negative Cutter SLIM DELGADO Titles Designed by BATOUTAHELL, INC Opticals by PACIFIC DREAMS, LLC Soundtrack Album on ARTISTIC RECORDS, INC. Microscopic Cinematography by JAY FLAMMER `The Producers Wish to Thank the Following NASA CITY OF NEW YORK THE MARITIME CENTER OF SYDNEY LOS ANGELES POLICE THE CITY OF BEND, OREGON SULTAN OF BRUNEI Filmed on Location in CAPE KENNEDY NEW YORK CITY SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA BEND, OREGON Filmed with OMNIVISON Cameras and Lenses Color by COLORLAB, INC. Prints by VISTACHROME
  • 75. IN THE 1990s, CREATIVE COLLABORATION SPREAD TO BRAND-BUILDING.
  • 76. EXAMPLE: The Netscape brand was built on the Hollywood model.
  • 79. WHY?
  • 80. Because the mathematics of collaboration is nothing less than MAGIC.
  • 82. Execution— not strategy—is where the rubber meets the road.
  • 83. CREATIVITY IS WHAT GIVES BRANDS THEIR TRACTION IN THE MARKETPLACE.
  • 84. Why do companies have so much trouble with creativity? Because creativity is right-brained, and strategy is left-brained.
  • 85. V Z D Q CREATIVE THINKING
  • 86. A B C D STRATEGIC THINKING
  • 87. MANTRA FOR INNOVATORS: Zig when others zag.
  • 88. THE REASON THE BEATLES WERE WILDLY SUCCESSFUL IS BECAUSE “THEY NEVER DID THE SAME THING ONCE.”
  • 89. QUESTION: How do you know when an idea is innovative?
  • 90. ANSWER: WHEN IT SCARES THE HELL OUT OF EVERYBODY.
  • 91. To begin with, the brand needs a stand-out name.
  • 92. The seven criteria of a stand-out name: 1 DISTINCTIVENESS 2 BREVITY 3 APPROPRIATENESS 4 EASY SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION 5 LIKABILITY 6 EXTENDABILITY 7 PROTECTABILITY
  • 93. A GREAT NAME deserves GREAT GRAPHICS .
  • 94. NEWS LOGOS ARE DEAD. LONG LIVE ICONS AND AVATARS! FLASH!
  • 95. An ICON is a name and visual symbol that suggests a market position.
  • 96. EXAMPLE: CBS. The network for “eye-popping” television.
  • 97. An AVATAR is a brand icon that can move, change, and operate freely in various media.
  • 98. EXAMPLE: CINGULAR : The “self-expression” cellular service.
  • 99. For products that sell at retail, the package is often the best and last chance to make a sale.
  • 100. The hardest-working packages follow a natural reading sequence. THE SHOPPER : 1 Notices the package 2 Asks “What is it?” 3 Wonders “Why should I care?” 4 Wants to be persuaded 5 Needs proof
  • 101. By presenting information to match this sequence, a package can sell the product more effectively.
  • 102. If you communicate with your customers ONLINE , your website needs to follow a SIMILAR reading sequence, one that supplies users with ONLY the information they need, instead of trying to squeeze EVERYTHING onto the home page LIKE THIS and making your users do ALL the work, which will undoubtedly cause them to LEAVE, when all you really have to do is ask yourself this SIMPLE QUESTION :
  • 103. Does our website look fat in this dress?
  • 104. Too many websites are bloated with irrelevant information.
  • 105. WHY?
  • 106. 1 TURFISMO (Every department wants to be on the home page)
  • 107. 2 FEATURITIS (Inexperienced communicators believe more is better)
  • 108. 3 TECHNOPHOBIA (Experienced communicators resist new media)
  • 109. QUIZ: Which of these sites looks easier to use?
  • 113. VALIDATION means bringing the audience into the creative process.
  • 114. SENDER SENDER MESSAGE MESSAGE RECEIVER RECEIVER THE OLD COMMUNICATION MODEL WAS A MONOLOGUE.
  • 115. SENDER SENDER MESSAGE MESSAGE RECEIVER RECEIVER THE NEW COMMUNICATION MODEL IS A DIALOGUE.
  • 116. QUESTION: How can you test your most creative ideas BEFORE they get to market?
  • 117. HINT: Not with large quantitative studies or focus groups.
  • 118. QUANTITATIVE STUDIES BURY THE PROBLEM IN HEAPS OF UNHELPFUL DATA.
  • 119. FOCUS GROUPS WERE INVENTED TO FOCUS THE RESEARCH, NOT BE THE RESEARCH.
  • 120. THE BEST TESTS ARE CHEAP, QUICK, AND DIRTY.
  • 121. Better a rough answer to the right question than a detailed answer to the wrong question.
  • 122. CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 1: The SWAP TEST is a proof for trademarks.
  • 123. If the names and graphics of two trademarks are better when swapped, then neither is optimal.
  • 126. CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 2: The HAND TEST is a proof for a distinctive voice.
  • 127. If you can’t tell who’s talking when the trademark is covered, then the brand’s voice is not distinctive.
  • 129. CHEAP-QUICK-DIRTY TEST 3: The FIELD TEST is a proof for any concept that can be prototyped.
  • 130. If your audience can’t verbalize your concept, you’ve failed to communicate it.
  • 131. SHOPPERS CHARACTERIZED THE PACKAGE CONCEPT ON THE MIDDLE-RIGHT SHELF AS “A FASTER PENCIL.” BINGO.
  • 132. Field tests measure five things: 1 DISTINCTIVENESS 2 RELEVANCE 3 MEMORABILITY 4 EXTENDABILITY 5 DEPTH OF MEANING
  • 133. TESTING MIGHT HAVE SAVED SOME OF THESE COMPANIES FROM THE GREAT SWOOSH EPIDEMIC.
  • 134. HAS THE GLOBE BECOME THE NEW SWOOSH?
  • 136. Business is a process, not an entity.
  • 137. A living brand is a pattern of behavior, not a stylistic veneer.
  • 138. Brands are like people.
  • 139. C. D. E. IF PEOPLE CAN CHANGE THEIR CLOTHES WITHOUT CHANGING THEIR CHARACTERS…
  • 141. OLD PARADIGM: Control the LOOK AND FEEL of a brand.
  • 142. NEW PARADIGM: Influence the CHARACTER of a brand.
  • 143. IF A BRAND LOOKS LIKE A DUCK AND SWIMS LIKE A DOG, PEOPLE WILL DISTRUST IT.
  • 144. So let’s say you’ve DIFFERENTIATED, COLLABORATED, INNOVATED, AND VALIDATED.
  • 145. + YOU’VE ADDED THE LEFT BRAIN TO THE RIGHT BRAIN.
  • 146. You’ve zigged when the competition has zagged.
  • 147. + + YOU’VE USED TESTING TO BANISH THE FEAR OF STUPID.
  • 148. Your brand is now NUMBER ONE in it’s category.
  • 150. PASS OUT THE COMPASSES.
  • 152. A continuing brand education program.
  • 153. BRAND ORIENTATION BRAND SEMINARS POSITIONING WORKSHOPS BRAND AUDITS STATEGY SUMMITS CREATIVE COUNCILS QUARTERLY CRITIQUES GROUP BRAINSTORMING TEAMWORK TRAINING INNOVATION CLINICS DESIGN AUDITS BRAND MANUALS BRAND PUBLICATIONS
  • 154. The more D I S T R I B U T E D a brand becomes, the stronger its management needs to be.
  • 155. What your company needs is a CBO, or CHIEF BRANDING OFFICER .
  • 156. THE CBO FORMS A HUMAN BRIDGE BETWEEN LOGIC AND MAGIC, STRATEGY AND DESIGN.
  • 157. C U LT I V AT I O N D I F F E R E N T I AT I O N V A L I D AT I O N C O L L A B O R AT I O N I N N O V AT I O N BY MASTERING THE FIVE DISCIPLINES OF BRANDING, THE COMPANY CREATES A VIRTUOUS CIRCLE.
  • 158. WITH EVERY TURN AROUND THE CIRCLE, THE VALUE OF THE BRAND SPIRALS HIGHER.
  • 161. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Marty Neumeier is president of a San Francisco-based brand consultancy, Neutron LLC. Neutron supplies the “glue” that holds brands together: brand education programs, seminars, workshops, creative audits, process planning, and more. Visit www.neutronllc.com.
  • 162. Need books for your branding team? Bulk discounts on the THE BRAND GAP are available for educational and corporate groups. Contact STEPHANIE.WALL@NEWRIDERS.COM.