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“Like human beings,
 all brands are born equal.
 The trick is to prove
 one isn’t. Branding is the
 art and science of
 identifying and fulfilling
 human physical
 and emotional needs by
 capturing attention,
 imagination and emotion
 long enough to make
 money from it.”
– Idris Mootee




1                             2
Copyright © 2003, 2005, 2008, 2009
Idris Mootee

All rights reserved. Published by
Idea Couture Inc. No part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photo-
copying, scanning, or otherwise, except as
permitted under Section 107, 108 of the
1976 United States Copyright Act, without
either the prior written permission of
the Publisher. Request to the Publisher
for permission should be addressed
to the Permission Department at
permission@ideacouture.com.
  Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty:
While the publisher and author have
used their best efforts in preparing this
book, they make no representations
or warranties with respect to the accuracy
or completeness of the contents of this
book and specifically disclaim any implied
warranties of merchantability or fitness
for a particular purpose. The advice and
strategies contained herein may not
be suitable for your situation. You should
consult with a professional where
appropriate. Neither the publisher nor
author shall be liable for any loss of
profit or any commercial damages, including
but not limited to special, incidental,
consequential, or other damages.
  A number of brand names and trademarks
are mentioned and used in this book
are protected under copyright laws and
international treaty provisions. All
trademarks, services marks, trade names,
logos and icons are proprietary to their
respective owner. Their inclusion in this
book is for the purpose of criticism
and illustration only.

60-Minute Brand Strategist –
Limited Edition

Book and cover design:
Sali Tabacchi




3                                               1
Contents:

Introduction 4
All About Brands 7
Branding in a Postmodern Culture 39
Strategic Perspectives of Branding 49
Managing Brand Meaning 79
Brand Leadership 119
Luxury Brand Marketing 133




2                                       3
IntroductIon
This book is about only one thing: brands,
branding and the only sustainable form of
leadership in an economy ruled by ideas –
brand innovation and leadership.
  Its been 8 years since 60-minute Brand
Strategist was first published as a book.
Adapted from slides I used in my Advanced
Branding Seminar, the first edition was
translated and published in several languages,
including Japanese, Chinese and German.
Dr. Morgan Gerard collaborates with me to
develop this limited edition, updated
and abridged version by popular demand.
We decided to select a few of the book’s
chapters that deliver the essence of the
concepts. These concepts and techniques
are used by the world’s most successful
and valuable brands. But you’ll rarely, if ever,
read much about these concepts in
business magazines. Why? Simply put,
they’re trade secrets. Well-wielded
branding tools and techniques are powerful,
competitive weapons used to win the
hearts and minds of customers. Time and
again, they help defeat the competition.
Consider what follows a battle plan designed
to inspire, act as a reminder, function as
a tool kit and be drawn upon as a reference
that should sit on every marketing and
brand executive’s desk.

Idris Mootee, CEO
Idea Couture Inc.




4                                                  5
all about
    brands




6               7
LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU



What Is a brand?
                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
In a world where brands rule, products         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU
are no longer bundles of functional
characteristics but rather means to provide
and enhance customer experiences.
Thanks to the internet and wireless tech-        I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
nologies, information is so abundant
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU
that consumers are overloaded. They have
more information than they can digest,
use, need or even want.
  Product proliferation creates so many
                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
choices that it diminishes our ability to      LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
differentiate or choose what we truly value.   YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU
Brands help us choose. They are invaluable
tools that help us break through clutter to
make choices based on our experience of
                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
and satisfaction with products or services.
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU




                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
                                               YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU        YOU
8                                                                                                                           9


                                                 I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I          I
                                               LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE       LOVE
VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I    YOU      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU     ME    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU




I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
OU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU         YOU
      10                                                                                                                                                      11


I            I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I           I
 VE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE        LOVE
VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




                                                                                                                  There will be a
                                                                                                              “
I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE

                                                                                                                  time using a
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU



                                                                                                                  logo will be the
                  “In technocratic and colorless

                                                                                                                  worst thing
I                                                    I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
                   times, brands bring warmth,
         YOU
 VE                                                LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
       LOVE ME,    familiarity and trust.”
OU                                                 YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU
         TOO

                                                                                                                  in the world.”
                  – Peter Brabeck, Nestle


I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
                                                                                                                  – Bill Bernbach,
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
                                                                                                                    Founder DDB
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU



                                                                                                                  We’re a long long way from that day.
                                                                                                                  The truth is that people like brands. They
I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE          not only simplify choices and guarantee
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU
                                                                                                                  quality, but they also add fun and interest,
                                                                                                                  provide aspirations and dreams. Some
                                                                                                                  people love them like children, which might
                                                                                                                  explain why I personally know of a 4-year
I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
                                                                                                                  old boy named Nike, an 8-year old named
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
                                                                                                                  Ferrari and a 12-year old girl named Hermès.
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




                                                                                                           LOGO
I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU




I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
OU         YOU        YOU              YOU         YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU    YOU
      12                                                                                                                                                    13


I            I          I                I           I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I
 VE        LOVE       LOVE             LOVE        LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE   LOVE
a brand Is not…                                                                    a brand Is…
A TRADE MARk                                                                       POINT OF VIEW
(These are legal properties.)                                                      Branding is a strategic point of view, not
                                                                                   a select set of marketing activities.
A MISSION STATEMENT
(This is a reminder.)                                                              CUSTOMER VALUE
                                                                                   Branding is central to creating customer
A LOGO OR SLOGAN                                                                   value, not just sound bites and images.
(These are your signatures.)
                                                                                   COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
A PRODUCT OR SERVICE                                                               Branding is a key tool for creating and
(These are just the tangibles.)                                                    sustaining competitive advantages.

ADVERTISING                                                                        ENGINEERED
(They deliver your messages.)                                                      Brand strategies must be “engineered” into
                                                                                   the strategic planning process.

                                                                                   ALIVE
                                                                                   Brands get their identity from meanings.
                                                                                   Products and services are the blood
                                                                                   of a brand. Your organizational culture and
                                                                                   standards for action are the heartbeat.

                                                                                   LOGIC AND EMOTION
                                                                                   Branding is part science and part art.




                                  ITEM WORkING    ITEM WORkING
                                   IN ISOLATION    IN ISOLATION




                                                                     A BRAND
                                                                  IS MORE THAN
                                                                     THE SUM
                                                                   OF ITS PARTS.




                                  ITEM WORkING    ITEM WORkING
                                   IN ISOLATION    IN ISOLATION




14                                                                                                                              15
BRANDS
HAVE ALMOST
BECOME
IDEOLOGIES.




16            17
“The art of marketing
      is the art of brand
      building. If you are not
      a brand, you are a
      commodity. Then price
      is everything and
      the low-cost producer
      is the only winner.”
      – Philip kotler,
        kellogg




18                           19
To plan for one year,
What Is a brand?

                                                                                                                                     grow sales.
“A brand is the ‘personification of a product,
 service, or even entire company.’
    Like any person, a brand has a physical

                                                                                                                                     To plan for three years,
‘body’: in P&G’s case, the products and/or
 services it provides. Also, like a person, a
 brand has a name, a personality, character
                                                                                                                                     grow channel.
 and a reputation.
    Like a person, you can respect, like
 and even love a brand. You can think of it
                                                                                                                                     To plan for decades,
 as a deep personal friend, or merely an
 acquaintance. You can view it as dependable

                                                                                                                                     grow a brand.
 or undependable; principled or
 opportunistic; caring or capricious. Just as
 you like to be around certain people and
 not others, so also do you like to be with
 certain brands and not others.
    Also, like a person, a brand must mature
 and change its product over time. But
 its character, and core beliefs shouldn’t
 change. Neither should its fundamental
 personality and outlook on life.
    People have character…so do brands.
 A person's character flows from his/her
 integrity: the ability to deliver under pressure,
 the willingness to do what is right rather
 than what is expedient. You judge a person’s
 character by his/her past performance
 and the way he/she thinks and acts in both
 good times, and especially bad.
    The same are true of brands.”

– Robert Blanchard,
  former P&G executive




                                                                                                                                     BRAND

                                                                                     CHANNEL




                                                                 SALES
                                                     VALUE




                                                             0   1       2   3   4   5   6     7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27
                                                             YEARS

20                                                                                                                                                                                    21
1.               2.                                      the customer
                                                         satIsfactIon
What is the      What is our core                        treadmIll

deep need that   competence?                             Daniel kahneman of Princeton describes
                                                         the Customer Satisfaction Treadmill.

we satisfy?      What are we
                                                         The more we make, the more we spend,
                                                         the more we want. The faster we get it,
                                                         the faster we want it. The more convenient
What is our      really good at?                         it becomes, the more we realize just
                                                         how convenient it could be. The more
raison d’être?                                           our unreasonable demands are met,
                                                         the more unreasonable they become.




                                    METAPHYSICAL NEEDS




                                    EXPERIENTAL NEEDS




                                     SYMBOLIC NEEDS




                                    FUNCTIONAL NEEDS




22                                                                                                23
brand                                                                    In a world predisposed to sameness, there
                                                                         are few things in life more satisfying than
taxonomIes
                                                                         building brands that disrupt predisposition.
                                                                         Brands move market share. Brands move
                                                                         advertising award judges. Brands move
                                                                         culture. Some do all.
                                                                           Brand has meaning beyond functionality
                                                                         that exists in people's minds. Part art,
                                                                         part science, brand is the difference between
                                                                         a bottle of soda and a bottle of Coke, a
                                                                         computer and an iMac, a cup of coffee and
                                                                         a cup of Starbucks, a car and a Mercedes,
                                                                         a designer’s hand bag and a Hermès Birkin.
                                                                         Brand is the intangible yet visceral impact
                                                                         of a person's subjective experience with the
                                                                         product, the personal memories and cultural
                                                                         associations that orbit around it. Brands
                                                                         are also about messages – strong, exciting,
                                                                         distinct, authentic messages that tell
                                                                         people who you are, what you think and
                                                                         why you do what you do.




                                BRANDS THAT
                          FOCUS ON THEIR MEANINGS
                                 AND VALUES
                           RATHER THAN FUNCTIONS.




                                                        BRANDS THAT
      BRANDS THAT
                                                    HAVE ALMOST BECOME
 ARE TIGHTLY IDENTIFIED
                                                                                     PRODUCT
                                                          PRODUCT-
   WITH THE PRODUCT
                                                        INDEPENDENT
 OR RANGE OF PRODUCTS




                            BRANDS THAT FOCUS
                                LARGELY ON
                           THEIR CORE FUNCTIONS
                               AND PURPOSES
24                                                                                                                 25
too much                                                                          the most common
advertIsIng WIth too                                                              Issues WIth brandIng
lIttle meanIng?




                                             Cannot justify
                                             the cost for brand
                                             re-positioning.
                                             Where’s the ROI?                     Management does
CUSTOMER VALUE                                                                    not understand
                                                                                  why we need to have
BRAND MEANING                                                                     a brand strategy.

BRAND ADVERTISING




CUSTOMER VALUE


BRAND MEANING


BRAND ADVERTISING




                       Management thinks
                       branding is just
                       another logo with a                                                      Sales and marketing
                       new tag line.                                                            aren’t reading the
                                                                                                same book, let alone
                                                                                                the same page.




                                                             Brand vision and
                                                             company reality do
                                                             not match.

26                                                                                                                     27
Why brands are In                                                                                                What Is a brand?
trouble?
                                                                                                                 Don’t make the mistake of letting
                                                                                                                 brand image take over and become brand
                                                                                                                 identity. It’s only part of the equation,
                                                                                                                 not the answer.




      BRANDS ARE BEING             BRANDS STRUGGLE
       MASS-PRODUCED                 TO FIND THEIR
     IN BRAND FACTORIES             OWN IDENTITIES
   There’s a movement of          Too many me-too
      conservatism in              brands and too
  brand investment. Many       much me-too advertising.
have gone from inspirational        Many brands
  and daring to cautionary       have lost their souls.
                                                                            CORPORATE                         INTERNAL
      and risk averse.
                                                                             STRATEGY                         BRANDING
   Everyone is looking for
      a save formula.




                                                                                            brand strategy




                                                             BRAND
                                                             IMAGE            BRAND                           CUSTOMER
                                                                             IDENTITY                        ENGAGEMENT
     BRANDS HAVE LOST              BRANDS ARE WORN
      THEIR MYSTIqUE                FROM OVERUSE
  Consumers understand           As brand manuals gets
   how marketing works             thicker and heavier,
 and they are brand savvy.     you know you’re in trouble.
                                                                 BRAND
     Be careful not to            Instructional menus          ATTRIBUTES
   over-market a brand.           replace imagination.
                                                                                BRAND
                                                                             ASSOCIATIONS


28                                                                                                                                                       29
What is a Brand?                                                                                                                                                        What Is a brand?
                                                                                                                                                                        The trust-based, value-producing
                                                   Today you may have a name and a
A brand is an intangible asset that resides in
                                                                                                                                                                        relationship called a brand is proof that the
                                                 trademark, but it will take time (and much
people’s hearts and minds. It’s defined by
                                                                                                                                                                        company is organizationally aligned to
                                                 more) before you have a brand. Brand
the expectations people have about tangible
                                                                                                                                                                        repeat the process and sustain the values.
                                                 building is the creation and management of
and intangible benefits that are developed
                                                                                                                                                                          Find and establish your niche. Clarify your
                                                 inward cash flow with brand equity as the
over time by communications and, more
                                                                                                                                                                        distinct ability to make an impact.
                                                 savings account. Managing brand is about
importantly, by actions! To build a successful
                                                                                                                                                                          Determine the desired relationship
                                                 how marketers and consumers collaborate
brand means doing the following four things:
                                                                                                                                                                        between your customers/prospects and
                                                 to create meanings. Brand building is not an
1. MAkIng A proMIse                                                                                                                                                     your product.
                                                 option. roI is only relevant when considering
2. CoMMunICATIng your proMIse                                                                                                                                             Create intangible, emotional bonds
                                                 alternative marketing programs. Brand
3. keepIng your proMIse
                                                                                                                                                                        through every customer interaction.
                                                 equity is a big elephant: looking at financial
4. sTrengThenIng your proMIse
                                                                                                                                                                          Like people, brand requires a name, a
                                                 returns alone is unacceptable. you must
                                                                                                                                                                        personality, a character and a reputation.
                                                 understand the whole beast.
The tangible aspect of your brand is a
                                                                                                                                                                          Brand management is a crucial element
promise. What do you do best? What’s the
                                                                                                                                                                        of corporate strategy rather than solely
payoff? What can your consumer count
                                                                                                                                                                        a marketing function. It helps a company
on? This promise becomes an intrinsic part
                                                                                                                                                                        break away from the pack in creating
of your marketing message. In order
                                                                                                                                                                        shareholder value. Brand strategy is the
for you to own it, you must communicate
                                                                                                                                                                        viable expression of business strategy.
strategically and creatively across a
broad media mix. Both your internal and
external audiences must be true believers
of the promise. And the only way to
make them truly believe is to be true about
the promise.




                                                                                                  1. MAkING A PROMISE




                                                                                                  2. COMMUNICATING YOUR PROMISE




                                                                                                                                  BRAND STRATEGY   CORPORATE STRATEGY
                                                                                                  3. kEEPING YOUR PROMISE




                                                                                                  4. STRENGTHENING YOUR PROMISE




30                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31
mInd over matter                                               Advantages built on emotional values and
                                                               brand meanings (e.g. Levis, Nike, Starbucks,
                                                               Coca-Cola, Harley-Davison, Apple, Sony)
Psychological differences may seem
                                                               are often the most durable.
insubstantial, but in terms of sustainability,
they are often more resilient than
functional differences.
  Intangible emotional associations are
difficult to copy:


Once an emotional territory
is occupied by a well known
brand, it is more difficult
to displace than a brand with
a functional claim.




                                                 PERSONALITY           TRUST




                                                 TIMELESS             UNIqUE




32                                                                                                       33
products vs.
brands




                   A product is built
                                             A brand is built of trust
                     in a factory.
                                                and relationships
                A product is an object.
                                            A brand is a personality.
                 A product is sold by
                                              A brand is bought by
                     a merchant.
                                                  a customer.
               A product is easily copied
                                               A brand is unique.
                    by a competitor.
                                            A great brand is timeless.
                  A product is quickly
                       outdated.




34                                                                       35
mInd over matter                                                                                    buIldIng strong
                                                                                                    brands
Without the brand, Apple would have
been dead. The power of the brand kept                                                              Branding is often confused with an
them alive during the mid-1990s when                                                                advertising campaign or a corporate identity.
their products were lackluster. The brand                                                           Companies are still turning to branding
bought them time until they came out                                                                as a panacea. Equally problematic are the
with the next runaway hit – the iMac.                                                               self-proclaimed branding experts happy
  For Apple, the brand is always bigger than                                                        to sell you pricey snake oil. In novice hands,
the product. It is an ideology, a value set.                                                        branding becomes a way to obfuscate
Apple is about imagination, innovation and                                                          relative sameness or make promises that
individualism.                                                                                      can’t be fulfilled, instead of communicating
  It’s not just about advertising or visual                                                         relevant uniqueness and building trust
identity. Brands must be built 360 degrees.                                                         and credibility.
Branding means that collateral information,
meaning, association and value has been
spiced into the very DNA of the brand. This
has two core components: label and fable.
Label refers to all visual elements, packaging
and taglines. Fables are the extrinsic aspect
of branding attached from the outside
and most often from customer experiences,
advertising, corporate trust and customer
relationships. The brand is the totality of what
the customer experiences: the look and
feel of your office, your community reputation,
your awning and signage, your sales and
customer service people, the way you handle
business conflicts and customer complaints.




                                                   INNOVATION


                                                                   Three key requirements for
                                                                   building strong brands:
                 IMAGINATION

                                                                   1. Trust between brand and
                                                                      consumer
                                                                   2. Common identity between
                                                                      brand and consumer
                                                                   3. Point of difference between
                                                                      brands in a set
                                                   INDIVIDUALISM




36                                                                                                                                             37
brandIng
     In a
     postmodern
     culture




38            39
brandIng In the age                                                                                                                                                                                  transformatIon
of brand                                                                                                                                                                                             Is a process,
transformatIon                                                                                                                                                                                       a performance
Brands are transforming themselves.                 As content is increasingly delivered via                                                                                                         To make the story of a brand complete
Beyond mere ads and products, they are            personalized and self-scheduled social webs,                                                                                                       and meaningful, it requires that all of
finding new ways to get inside your               viewers – not broadcasters – will decide                                                                                                           the actors – customers and companies alike
home and be a part of your life as branded        when, how, why and what is consumed.                                                                                                               – successfully complete transitions from
content, branded entertainment, branded           And they will dictate who they share that                                                                                                          scene to scene and stage to stage. In today’s
utilities and branded space. L’Equipe, the        consumption with.                                                                                                                                  script, those transitions read like this:
Parisian based daily sports newspaper,              The question is, What role should brand
invented the Tour de France for one simple        play in this age of transformation?
reason: to sell more newspapers, branded
content with a pinch of engagement.
   But customers are transforming brands,
too. New cultural modes of performance
are emerging from new network-based social
behaviors and conversations. With over
50 million people able to share ideas, opinions
and experiences in a single online space
– and generate billions of web page
impressions every month – these behaviors
                                                                                                 Interruption is the stage    Intrusion is the stage               Engagement is the curtain call of this
and conversations are creating a seismic
                                                                                                 where old scripts get        between what was and what            performance. A celebration of the
shift in the traditional balance of power that
                                                                                                 shredded, rules get tossed   will be. A wild zone of new          new reality and the ideas and rituals
once existed between customers and
                                                                                                 out the window and the       ideas and new rituals, it is alive   that brought it to life, brands that
companies.
                                                                                                 paradigms we lived by        with uncertainty, excitement         will occupy centre stage are those
                                                                                                 are revealed as obsolete.    and expectation. This gestative      that contribute the new ideas, help
                                                                                                                                                                   facilitate the new rituals, meet the new
                                                                                                 The Internet is our Inter-   space where customers and
                                                                                                                                                                   needs and, ultimately, tell the best
                                                                                                 ruption. It has forever      companies create and explore
                                                                                                                                                                   stories. Those who ignore this new
                                                                                                 ruptured the old system      brand futures is where we
                                                                                                                                                                   reality do so at their own peril.
                                                                                                 of brand control and         are right now.
                                                                                                 communication.




                                                                                                    INTERRUPTION                INTRUSION                             ENGAGEMENT




40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             41
dIstrIbutIon Is nothIng                                   content Is everythIng
When distribution is trivial, unlimited and               Great content – the kind that truly engages
available to all, marketing to a captive                  – helps customers tell a story, perform
audience sitting on a couch in front of a box             a part of their life, communicate meaning to
is a thing of the past. In fact, this kind of             others and be all that they can be. It is,
old-world marketing has become adversarial                quite simply, cultural.
to customers. Having adapted to the                          In the past, the clearest demonstration of
media-fragmented and always-on new                        content (and brands) as cultural was in
reality, they seek value by searching,                    the subculture. Punks, mods, ravers, skaters,
discovering and sharing their very personal               church-goers, artists, bikers and others
brand caches with peers – not waiting                     made commodities come to life through
for you to interrupt them with unwanted                   performances like no other consumers
messaging.                                                on earth. Today, because of the scope and
   Broadcasting is in trouble, and user-                  reach of social media, we are in an age of
generated videos are just the beginning.                  the post-subcultural. The Hipster, a mash-up
The social-casting of YouTube will                        of subcultural traditions, has become the
evolve and, in the process, so too will                   emblem of insider-ness made accessible to
consumer behavior. Instead of passivity,                  all with the Internet.
the experience flow of tomorrow will                         Just as subculturalists were the creative
be characterized by immediacy, flexibility,               class of brand dissemination, modification,
portability, permeability, fluidity,                      alteration and transformation, so now are
interactivity, mashability and ownerability.              the millions of people around the world who,
   With the emergence and convergence                     through social media, have access to insider
of the mobile phone, the Internet and                     knowledges, practices, experiences,
location-based-systems, consumers also                    performances and collaborative communities.
have immediate access to co-workers,                         This occurs through YouTube, Flickr,
friends and family members. Between                       Twitter, Facebook and the thousands of online




                                                CONTENT
getting used to and being born into                       advice, support, co-creation and retail
a connected age, they are naturally and                   portals. The relentless virtualization of social
increasingly drawing on participation                     life, the marketing of niche-interactions,
in various networks for information,                      the sharing of experiences and the out-
assistance, support and recommendations.                  sourcing of work means that less and less of
   Creating great products, services and                  our daily lives are produced and consumed
content is paramount. Content? Yes,                       at home. Rather, we are performing
content. An integral part of any product or               ourselves more in public, more collabor-
service and their related experiences,                    atively and more than every through
customers will consume only what’s relevant               the kinds of very social networks that once
to them, what best serves them, and what                  existed solely in subcultures.
truly entertains them – not what is marketed
to them by you through repetition. Engaging
them will require branded experiences
rich in content that strengthen contextual
involvement and consumer connection.
Within such experiences, the density and
intensity of polysemic, multi-origin,
co-created and fragmented communication
will make Baudrillard’s hyper-reality seem
as antiquated as TV.




42                                                                                                     43
the personal brand                                                                                                                              What Is the problem?

                                                                         “We spent eight
In the age of the Personal Brand,                                                                                                               Many companies are simply not ready to
                                                                                                             “We hired a brand consultant
commoditization is permeating every aspect                                                                                                      deal with or anticipate identity obsolescence
                                                                                                              and developed a great
of daily life. Style, taste, identity and                                                                                                       like they anticipate the obsolescence of
                                                                          months and a
                                                                                                              brand strategy. Our ad
individuality have become central to what                                                                                                       products or business models. Despite the
                                                                                                              agency went on to create
we expect from our experiences in                                                                                                               best efforts of management teams, many
                                                                                                              and produce an ad
                                                                          lot of money on
health care, learning, dating, news, clothing,                                                                                                  can’t adapt to shifts in the competitive
                                                                                                              campaign that far exceeded
food, travel, home furnishings, com-                                                                                                            environment because the required brand-
                                                                                                              our capability to deliver
                                                                          a brand strategy
munication, sports, entertainment, sexuality,                                                                                                   driven adaptive response is inconsistent
                                                                                                              the brand promise. We
spirituality, birth, marriage, babies and                                                                                                       with the company’s core identity. Any brand
                                                                                                              ended up with disappointed

                                                                          and all that’s
burials. Twenty years ago, in the social                                                                                                        exercise will only widen the gap between
                                                                                                              customers, internal
mainstream, this wasn’t the case. Sub-                                                                                                          the brand and the corporate core identity.
                                                                                                              conflicts and brand credibility

                                                                          changed is the
culturalists were particularly picky about                                                                    erosion.”
their purchases, but the average
                                                                                                             – CEO, Telco

                                                                          logo and tagline.”
consumer had a less refined sense of
assembling their self through products
and services.
   Today, instant communication has
                                                                         – CEO, Financial Services Company
blown the doors clear off of the old-world
media and advertising industry. Taste
gurus, micro-brands, blogs, chatters,
Friends, Tweeters, citizen journalists and
the searchability of style have forever
changed the how, what, where, when
and why of consumption. In the new
free-for-all of ideas, opinions, reviews and
experiences, individuals with greater
access to information strive to define and
display their Personal Brand, niche is
the norm, cool is hyper-commoditized and
branding becomes as much a bottom-up
phenomenon for customers as a top-down
priority for companies

                                                        Brands
   One result is that we have become
desperate to socialize the profane. Distracted
by the pace of change, unfulfilled in our
personal lives and feeling disempowered by
our work, many of us turn to celebrities,
rock stars, designers and brands to cultivate
more meaning in life. But when work is
empowering and life is meaningful, interest
and engagement in high-consumption
lifestyles will wane. De-marketing will happen.

                                                  “I want to be cool.”
Until then, a brand’s role is to help to
create meanings in everyday life through
commodities.




                                                      Consumers




44                                                                                                                                                                                        45
savIng your                                                                                      can socIal medIa
                                                Many B-school case studies have chronicled
                                                brands brought back from the dead. But
ZombIe brands                                                                                    save the
                                                for every success, there are hundreds of
                                                                                                 ZombIe brands?
                                                failures: companies that tried to revitalize
Zombie Brands, Dinosaurs Brands, Ghost
                                                old brands by hiring new agencies and
Brands or Graveyard Brands are what                                                              The Social Media Generation has
                                                throwing endless amounts of money into
people used to call brands that customers                                                        phenomenal influence over the fate of
                                                advertising in hopes of rebuilding, even
have either completely abandoned or                                                              brands. Active, mobile and vocal,
                                                when there wasn't a relevant product, service
that are simply hanging on by a thread,                                                          they share the joys, angers and frustrations
                                                or sound strategy behind the initial move.
usually at a Dollar Store or at Costco                                                           of their daily experiences with anybody
                                                How bad is your situation? Here are the three
in a totally unrelated product category.                                                         and everybody. In doing so, their digital
                                                most common scenarios:
Some have gone through unsuccessful                                                              connectivity becomes the web that weaves
revitalization efforts, others exist only in                                                     Brand Communities. Separated by
emerging markets, a few have simply                                                              their geography but bound by their love
                                                My brand is sick.
lost relevance in their core market place                                                        of a particular brand, citizens of these
(Xerox, Oldsmobile) to be used casually                                                          communities can be identified by four
on products totally outside their product                                                        core markers:
                                                Market changes direction and the brand
category (Teac, RCA, Polaroid etc.).            become irrelevant. Everyone (advertising,
                                                                                                 • Shared intereStS
                                                product design, promotions) used to              • Shared valueS
If you happen to own a Zombie Brand,            understand what the brand means and they         • Shared ritualS
what can you do?                                all stick to it, believing it connects to        • Shared purpoSeS
                                                something larger and more enduring. But
1. INVEST AND ATTEMPT TO REVITALIZE IT
                                                one day they woke up and realized there          The commercial, mass‐mediated ethos in
2. MILk IT
                                                was a big disconnect. Your brand is stuck in     which Brand Communities are situated
3. POSITION IT FOR THE EMERGING MARkET
                                                the past. YOUR BRAND IS IRREVELANT.              affects their character and structure and
4. SELL IT FOR WHATEVER IT’S WORTH
5. DUMP IT                                                                                       gives rise to their particularities. From a
                                                                                                 brand and marketing perspective, this is the

                                                My brand is
Consumers with special relationships to                                                          most disruptive trend. It means that
Zombie Brands often have sentimental                                                             Social Media, not advertising, has become

                                                dying.
reasons for continuing to make purchases                                                         the conduit for communication and that
or for giving them a second chance. But                                                          customers are the collective source of truth
the cost and risk of bringing a brand back                                                       for brands. Given the right new content,
to life is enormous. If this is your choice,    The brand is becoming boring. It doesn’t         the Brand Community is a possible cure for
make sure the decision to do so is based        create excitement for customers or even          the Zombie Brand.
on sound logic. If you run a large portfolio,   employees anymore. Younger consumers
the questions will be: Which brands are         think of it as their parents’ brand. This
worth the revitalization effort? And Why?       is common with brands that have been
                                                successful and achieved market leadership.
                                                In fact, it’s often the result of being too
                                                successful. Your successful past has made
                                                you lazy. YOUR BRAND LACkS CUSTOMER
                                                ENGAGEMENT.




                                                My Brand Has
                                                No Vital Signs.
                                                You’ve ignore your brand for too long
                                                or simply let it ride to expiry. Every drop of
                                                energy and goodwill has been squeezed
                                                out. It has lost its power to capture your
                                                customers' (or even your own) imagination.
                                                Your brand is a shell of existence.
                                                IT HAS BEEN REDUCED TO NOTHING MORE
                                                THAN A LOGO.




46                                                                                                                                          47
strategIc
     perspectIves
     of
     brandIng




48              49
“We have a surplus                          “We also have a surplus                                                                                 The average consumer is exposed to as
                                                                                                                                                    many as 30,000 messages per day, of

 of similar companies,                       of similar brands,
                                                                                                                                                    which more than 3,000 are branded. Many
                                                                                                                                                    studies indicate that less than 10%
                                                                                                                                                    of prime time ads have clear positioning.
 employing similar                           having similar attributes,                                                                             Between 1999 and 2000, the number
                                                                                                                                                    of new packaged goods introduced
 people, with similar                        with similar marketing                                                                                 increased by more than 20%, the largest
                                                                                                                                                    increase in a decade. Most of these

 educational back-                           messages and                                                                                           were “me-too” products destined to
                                                                                                                                                    be lost in the crowd and to reduce some

 grounds, working                            slogans, coming up                                                                                     brands to a near-commodity status.
                                                                                                                                                      In a world where brands abound,

 in similar jobs, coming                     with similar brand
                                                                                                                                                    competition is increasingly intense and the
                                                                                                                                                    speed of competitive responses is ever
                                                                                                                                                    shorter. The race is on to rise above the
 up with similar ideas,                      claims, with similar                                                                                   throng of brands and secure customer
                                                                                                                                                    loyalty. But all too often, companies fall into
 producing similar                           quality, selling at similar                                                                            the trap of thinking short-term, being
                                                                                                                                                    overly ambitious or lacking a brand strategy.

 things, with similar                        prices. Welcome to
 prices and similar                          the Surplus Economy!”
 quality.”                                   – Idris Mootee

– kjell Nordstrom and Jonas Ridderstrale,
  Funky Business




                                                                                       +                             +                                  =?
                                                                                                                                       ENTERPRISE
                                                                             BEST                 STRATEGIC
                                                                                                                                       RESOURCE
                                                                           PRACTICES             OUTSOURCING
                                                                                                                                      MANAGEMENT




                                                                                           NOT ONLY ARE BRANDS SIMILAR, EVEN THE COMPANIES ARE
                                                                                             NOW MORE OR LESS THE SAME OR NEARLY IDENTICAL




50                                                                                                                                                                                                51
brandIng and                                                                                                                                                                            economIc evolutIon
mcdonaldIZatIon
                                                                                                                                                                                        In the Surplus Economy, the marketing
                                                                                                                                                                                        battle is a battle of the brands – a
                                                 technology is often oriented towards
McDonaldization is everywhere. Individualism
                                                                                                                                                                                        competition for brand dominance.
                                                 greater control and more consistent quality.
and diversity are replaced by efficiency
                                                                                                                                                                                        Companies will recognize that brands are
                                                 The great source of uncertainty and
and social control. It is the process by which
                                                                                                                                                                                        a company’s most valuable assets
                                                 unpredictability in a rationalizing system is
the principles of the fast food restaurant
                                                                                                                                                                                        and recognize that it is more important
                                                 people — either the people who work
dominate more and more sectors of our
                                                                                                                                                                                        to own markets than factories.
                                                 within those systems or the people who are
society throughout the world.
                                                                                                                                                                                          The only way to own markets is to own
                                                 served. Branding advertising is used to
  McDonald’s has 30,000 restaurants in
                                                                                                                                                                                        market-dominant brands. The brand
                                                 put the human elements back. The warm
121 countries, 60% of which are outside the
                                                                                                                                                                                        battlefields expand beyond advertising
                                                 and smiling faces in TV commercials
USA. Shopping centers are everywhere
                                                                                                                                                                                        media and be fought on many grounds.
                                                 are intended to convince customers about
and the shops and merchandize are mostly
                                                 “calculability” over “individuality”.
the same. This trend is visible in many
other businesses from toys, auto-repair,
                                                 “(calculability) involves an emphasis on things that can
convenient stores, consumer electronics to       be calculated, counted, quantified. quantification refers to
books and general merchandize. The               a tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality.
                                                 This leads to a sense that quality is equal to a certain, usually
“control” and “system” components are key.       (but not always) large quantity of things.”
Replacement of human by non-human




                                                                                                                                       The Battle of Brands




                                                                                                                                                                                        SURPLUS
                                                                                                                                                                                        ECONOMY




                                                                                                                                                                          INFORMATION
                                                                                                                                                                          ECONOMY




                                                                                                                                                                SERVICE
                                                                                                                                                                ECONOMY




                                                                                                                                                   INDUSTRIAL
                                                                                                                                                   ECONOMY




                                                                                                                                    AGRICULTURAL
                                                                                                                                    ECONOMY




                                                                                                                     VALUE
                                                                                                                             TIME



52                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 53
customer                                                         fournIer’s                                                         customer
relatIonshIps                                                    approach:                                                          relatIonshIps
Most businesses have a relationship with their customers         Meet with consumers (hundreds of people over several               Managing Customer Relationships has
that is based solely on price. That is why so many               years) to listen to their life stories, discover their interests   become Managing Software Vendor
companies are having difficulties maintaining their margins.     and goals, and hear about the ups & downs of their                 Relationships. So, what went wrong?
The challenge is to figure out how to extend those               daily lives. Then ask each person to describe his/her              Shouldn’t companies be putting their money
transaction-based relationships to emotional-based               “brand portfolio” and to explain why they choose the               back into developing the “R” of “CRM”?
relationships. Professor Susan Fournier at Harvard               products they do.                                                  Marketers and “CRM” vendors set
Business School has classified the relationships consumers         Fournier drew out seven essential attributes of good             unrealistically high expectations when they
have with their brands into fifteen types ranging across         brand relationship quality:                                        talk about “relationships”. Should
the whole spectrum. They include:                                                                                                   they be using a different word instead?



                                                                                                                                    “Traditionally, tactical marketing decisions –
                                                                                                                                     regarding packaging and advertising, for
COMMITTED PARTNERSHIP            ENSLAVEMENT                     INTERDEPENDENCE                     LOVE AND PASSION
                                                                                                                                     instance – are made by different people or
Usually long-term and            Involuntary relationship        Brand is inextricably               Consumers feel affection/
                                                                                                                                     departments. A holistic understanding
voluntary relationship: a        governed exclusively by the     woven into consumers’               passion for the products
                                                                                                                                     of the relationship that consumers have with
man is so involved with          partner’s wishes or desires:    daily life and routine.             and may experience
                                                                                                                                     a brand can give direction to a company’s
his brand of bicycle that he     a consumer is unhappy with                                          separation anxiety if it’s
                                                                                                                                     marketing activities and result in a stronger
becomes an advocate              the local cable provider but                                        not available.
                                                                                                                                     bond between consumer and brand”
of it, singing its praises to    has no alternative source for
his friends.                     the service.                                                                                       – Susan Fournier
                                                                                                                                      Harvard Business School


                                                                 COMMITMENT                          SELF-CONCEPT CONNECTION
                                                                                                                                    “A good relationship is an asset. We can
                                                                 Consumers stick with                Using the brand helps
                                                                                                                                     invest in relationships, and we can borrow
                                                                 the product through good            consumers address a
                                                                                                                                     from them. We all do it but almost never
                                                                 or bad times either in              life issue, such as a need
                                                                                                                                     manage it. Yet a company’s most precious
                                                                 his or her life style or in the     to belong or a fear of
                                                                                                                                     asset is its relationship with customers.”
                                                                 product’s life cycle.               growing old.
                                                                                                                                    – Theodore Levitt
                                                                                                                                      Harvard Business School



                                                                 INTIMACY                            PARTNER qUALITY
                                                                 Consumers describe a                Consumers seek certain
                                                                 sense of deep familiarity           positive traits in the brand
                                                                 with the product and                such as dependability,
                                                                 an understanding of its             trust, worthiness, and
                                                                 attributes.                         accountability – the same
                                                                                                     qualities as one would
                                                                                                     look for in a best friend.




                                                                 NOSTALGIC ATTACHMENT
                                                                 brand brings back
                                                                 memories either because
                                                                 it was used at an earlier
                                                                 time in life or because it was
                                                                 associated with loved ones




54                                                                                                                                                                             55
rIse and rIse
of the brand
The very technologies that make it faster,
easier and cheaper to innovate also
help us to imitate. The game switched from
innovation to imitation. The increasing
difficulty in differentiating between products,
services and the speed with which
competitors take up innovations will only
assist in the rise and rise of the brand.
Many of our dreams and desires for a better
world are no longer articulated by John
kennedys or Martin Luther kings, nor
generated through personal epiphanies –
they are now the intellectual currency of
brands. When brands connect to inspiration
and epiphany – personal, collective or
conjured by leaders – they enter into a realm
immune to imitation.




56                                                57
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.
60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.

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60 Minute Brand Strategist: Extended and updated hard cover NOW available.

  • 1. “Like human beings, all brands are born equal. The trick is to prove one isn’t. Branding is the art and science of identifying and fulfilling human physical and emotional needs by capturing attention, imagination and emotion long enough to make money from it.” – Idris Mootee 1 2
  • 2. Copyright © 2003, 2005, 2008, 2009 Idris Mootee All rights reserved. Published by Idea Couture Inc. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo- copying, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107, 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher. Request to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permission Department at permission@ideacouture.com. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. A number of brand names and trademarks are mentioned and used in this book are protected under copyright laws and international treaty provisions. All trademarks, services marks, trade names, logos and icons are proprietary to their respective owner. Their inclusion in this book is for the purpose of criticism and illustration only. 60-Minute Brand Strategist – Limited Edition Book and cover design: Sali Tabacchi 3 1
  • 3. Contents: Introduction 4 All About Brands 7 Branding in a Postmodern Culture 39 Strategic Perspectives of Branding 49 Managing Brand Meaning 79 Brand Leadership 119 Luxury Brand Marketing 133 2 3
  • 4. IntroductIon This book is about only one thing: brands, branding and the only sustainable form of leadership in an economy ruled by ideas – brand innovation and leadership. Its been 8 years since 60-minute Brand Strategist was first published as a book. Adapted from slides I used in my Advanced Branding Seminar, the first edition was translated and published in several languages, including Japanese, Chinese and German. Dr. Morgan Gerard collaborates with me to develop this limited edition, updated and abridged version by popular demand. We decided to select a few of the book’s chapters that deliver the essence of the concepts. These concepts and techniques are used by the world’s most successful and valuable brands. But you’ll rarely, if ever, read much about these concepts in business magazines. Why? Simply put, they’re trade secrets. Well-wielded branding tools and techniques are powerful, competitive weapons used to win the hearts and minds of customers. Time and again, they help defeat the competition. Consider what follows a battle plan designed to inspire, act as a reminder, function as a tool kit and be drawn upon as a reference that should sit on every marketing and brand executive’s desk. Idris Mootee, CEO Idea Couture Inc. 4 5
  • 5. all about brands 6 7
  • 6. LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU What Is a brand? I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE In a world where brands rule, products YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU are no longer bundles of functional characteristics but rather means to provide and enhance customer experiences. Thanks to the internet and wireless tech- I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE nologies, information is so abundant YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU that consumers are overloaded. They have more information than they can digest, use, need or even want. Product proliferation creates so many I I I I I I I I I I I I choices that it diminishes our ability to LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE differentiate or choose what we truly value. YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU Brands help us choose. They are invaluable tools that help us break through clutter to make choices based on our experience of I I I I I I I I I I I I and satisfaction with products or services. LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU 8 9 I I I I I I I I I I I I LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  • 7. VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I YOU I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU ME YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU 10 11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  • 8. VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU There will be a “ I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE time using a OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU logo will be the “In technocratic and colorless worst thing I I I I I I I I I times, brands bring warmth, YOU VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE ME, familiarity and trust.” OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU TOO in the world.” – Peter Brabeck, Nestle I I I I I I I I I I I I – Bill Bernbach, VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE Founder DDB OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU We’re a long long way from that day. The truth is that people like brands. They I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE not only simplify choices and guarantee OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU quality, but they also add fun and interest, provide aspirations and dreams. Some people love them like children, which might explain why I personally know of a 4-year I I I I I I I I I I I I old boy named Nike, an 8-year old named VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE Ferrari and a 12-year old girl named Hermès. OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU LOGO I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE OU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU YOU 12 13 I I I I I I I I I I I I VE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE LOVE
  • 9. a brand Is not… a brand Is… A TRADE MARk POINT OF VIEW (These are legal properties.) Branding is a strategic point of view, not a select set of marketing activities. A MISSION STATEMENT (This is a reminder.) CUSTOMER VALUE Branding is central to creating customer A LOGO OR SLOGAN value, not just sound bites and images. (These are your signatures.) COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE A PRODUCT OR SERVICE Branding is a key tool for creating and (These are just the tangibles.) sustaining competitive advantages. ADVERTISING ENGINEERED (They deliver your messages.) Brand strategies must be “engineered” into the strategic planning process. ALIVE Brands get their identity from meanings. Products and services are the blood of a brand. Your organizational culture and standards for action are the heartbeat. LOGIC AND EMOTION Branding is part science and part art. ITEM WORkING ITEM WORkING IN ISOLATION IN ISOLATION A BRAND IS MORE THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS. ITEM WORkING ITEM WORkING IN ISOLATION IN ISOLATION 14 15
  • 11. “The art of marketing is the art of brand building. If you are not a brand, you are a commodity. Then price is everything and the low-cost producer is the only winner.” – Philip kotler, kellogg 18 19
  • 12. To plan for one year, What Is a brand? grow sales. “A brand is the ‘personification of a product, service, or even entire company.’ Like any person, a brand has a physical To plan for three years, ‘body’: in P&G’s case, the products and/or services it provides. Also, like a person, a brand has a name, a personality, character grow channel. and a reputation. Like a person, you can respect, like and even love a brand. You can think of it To plan for decades, as a deep personal friend, or merely an acquaintance. You can view it as dependable grow a brand. or undependable; principled or opportunistic; caring or capricious. Just as you like to be around certain people and not others, so also do you like to be with certain brands and not others. Also, like a person, a brand must mature and change its product over time. But its character, and core beliefs shouldn’t change. Neither should its fundamental personality and outlook on life. People have character…so do brands. A person's character flows from his/her integrity: the ability to deliver under pressure, the willingness to do what is right rather than what is expedient. You judge a person’s character by his/her past performance and the way he/she thinks and acts in both good times, and especially bad. The same are true of brands.” – Robert Blanchard, former P&G executive BRAND CHANNEL SALES VALUE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 YEARS 20 21
  • 13. 1. 2. the customer satIsfactIon What is the What is our core treadmIll deep need that competence? Daniel kahneman of Princeton describes the Customer Satisfaction Treadmill. we satisfy? What are we The more we make, the more we spend, the more we want. The faster we get it, the faster we want it. The more convenient What is our really good at? it becomes, the more we realize just how convenient it could be. The more raison d’être? our unreasonable demands are met, the more unreasonable they become. METAPHYSICAL NEEDS EXPERIENTAL NEEDS SYMBOLIC NEEDS FUNCTIONAL NEEDS 22 23
  • 14. brand In a world predisposed to sameness, there are few things in life more satisfying than taxonomIes building brands that disrupt predisposition. Brands move market share. Brands move advertising award judges. Brands move culture. Some do all. Brand has meaning beyond functionality that exists in people's minds. Part art, part science, brand is the difference between a bottle of soda and a bottle of Coke, a computer and an iMac, a cup of coffee and a cup of Starbucks, a car and a Mercedes, a designer’s hand bag and a Hermès Birkin. Brand is the intangible yet visceral impact of a person's subjective experience with the product, the personal memories and cultural associations that orbit around it. Brands are also about messages – strong, exciting, distinct, authentic messages that tell people who you are, what you think and why you do what you do. BRANDS THAT FOCUS ON THEIR MEANINGS AND VALUES RATHER THAN FUNCTIONS. BRANDS THAT BRANDS THAT HAVE ALMOST BECOME ARE TIGHTLY IDENTIFIED PRODUCT PRODUCT- WITH THE PRODUCT INDEPENDENT OR RANGE OF PRODUCTS BRANDS THAT FOCUS LARGELY ON THEIR CORE FUNCTIONS AND PURPOSES 24 25
  • 15. too much the most common advertIsIng WIth too Issues WIth brandIng lIttle meanIng? Cannot justify the cost for brand re-positioning. Where’s the ROI? Management does CUSTOMER VALUE not understand why we need to have BRAND MEANING a brand strategy. BRAND ADVERTISING CUSTOMER VALUE BRAND MEANING BRAND ADVERTISING Management thinks branding is just another logo with a Sales and marketing new tag line. aren’t reading the same book, let alone the same page. Brand vision and company reality do not match. 26 27
  • 16. Why brands are In What Is a brand? trouble? Don’t make the mistake of letting brand image take over and become brand identity. It’s only part of the equation, not the answer. BRANDS ARE BEING BRANDS STRUGGLE MASS-PRODUCED TO FIND THEIR IN BRAND FACTORIES OWN IDENTITIES There’s a movement of Too many me-too conservatism in brands and too brand investment. Many much me-too advertising. have gone from inspirational Many brands and daring to cautionary have lost their souls. CORPORATE INTERNAL and risk averse. STRATEGY BRANDING Everyone is looking for a save formula. brand strategy BRAND IMAGE BRAND CUSTOMER IDENTITY ENGAGEMENT BRANDS HAVE LOST BRANDS ARE WORN THEIR MYSTIqUE FROM OVERUSE Consumers understand As brand manuals gets how marketing works thicker and heavier, and they are brand savvy. you know you’re in trouble. BRAND Be careful not to Instructional menus ATTRIBUTES over-market a brand. replace imagination. BRAND ASSOCIATIONS 28 29
  • 17. What is a Brand? What Is a brand? The trust-based, value-producing Today you may have a name and a A brand is an intangible asset that resides in relationship called a brand is proof that the trademark, but it will take time (and much people’s hearts and minds. It’s defined by company is organizationally aligned to more) before you have a brand. Brand the expectations people have about tangible repeat the process and sustain the values. building is the creation and management of and intangible benefits that are developed Find and establish your niche. Clarify your inward cash flow with brand equity as the over time by communications and, more distinct ability to make an impact. savings account. Managing brand is about importantly, by actions! To build a successful Determine the desired relationship how marketers and consumers collaborate brand means doing the following four things: between your customers/prospects and to create meanings. Brand building is not an 1. MAkIng A proMIse your product. option. roI is only relevant when considering 2. CoMMunICATIng your proMIse Create intangible, emotional bonds alternative marketing programs. Brand 3. keepIng your proMIse through every customer interaction. equity is a big elephant: looking at financial 4. sTrengThenIng your proMIse Like people, brand requires a name, a returns alone is unacceptable. you must personality, a character and a reputation. understand the whole beast. The tangible aspect of your brand is a Brand management is a crucial element promise. What do you do best? What’s the of corporate strategy rather than solely payoff? What can your consumer count a marketing function. It helps a company on? This promise becomes an intrinsic part break away from the pack in creating of your marketing message. In order shareholder value. Brand strategy is the for you to own it, you must communicate viable expression of business strategy. strategically and creatively across a broad media mix. Both your internal and external audiences must be true believers of the promise. And the only way to make them truly believe is to be true about the promise. 1. MAkING A PROMISE 2. COMMUNICATING YOUR PROMISE BRAND STRATEGY CORPORATE STRATEGY 3. kEEPING YOUR PROMISE 4. STRENGTHENING YOUR PROMISE 30 31
  • 18. mInd over matter Advantages built on emotional values and brand meanings (e.g. Levis, Nike, Starbucks, Coca-Cola, Harley-Davison, Apple, Sony) Psychological differences may seem are often the most durable. insubstantial, but in terms of sustainability, they are often more resilient than functional differences. Intangible emotional associations are difficult to copy: Once an emotional territory is occupied by a well known brand, it is more difficult to displace than a brand with a functional claim. PERSONALITY TRUST TIMELESS UNIqUE 32 33
  • 19. products vs. brands A product is built A brand is built of trust in a factory. and relationships A product is an object. A brand is a personality. A product is sold by A brand is bought by a merchant. a customer. A product is easily copied A brand is unique. by a competitor. A great brand is timeless. A product is quickly outdated. 34 35
  • 20. mInd over matter buIldIng strong brands Without the brand, Apple would have been dead. The power of the brand kept Branding is often confused with an them alive during the mid-1990s when advertising campaign or a corporate identity. their products were lackluster. The brand Companies are still turning to branding bought them time until they came out as a panacea. Equally problematic are the with the next runaway hit – the iMac. self-proclaimed branding experts happy For Apple, the brand is always bigger than to sell you pricey snake oil. In novice hands, the product. It is an ideology, a value set. branding becomes a way to obfuscate Apple is about imagination, innovation and relative sameness or make promises that individualism. can’t be fulfilled, instead of communicating It’s not just about advertising or visual relevant uniqueness and building trust identity. Brands must be built 360 degrees. and credibility. Branding means that collateral information, meaning, association and value has been spiced into the very DNA of the brand. This has two core components: label and fable. Label refers to all visual elements, packaging and taglines. Fables are the extrinsic aspect of branding attached from the outside and most often from customer experiences, advertising, corporate trust and customer relationships. The brand is the totality of what the customer experiences: the look and feel of your office, your community reputation, your awning and signage, your sales and customer service people, the way you handle business conflicts and customer complaints. INNOVATION Three key requirements for building strong brands: IMAGINATION 1. Trust between brand and consumer 2. Common identity between brand and consumer 3. Point of difference between brands in a set INDIVIDUALISM 36 37
  • 21. brandIng In a postmodern culture 38 39
  • 22. brandIng In the age transformatIon of brand Is a process, transformatIon a performance Brands are transforming themselves. As content is increasingly delivered via To make the story of a brand complete Beyond mere ads and products, they are personalized and self-scheduled social webs, and meaningful, it requires that all of finding new ways to get inside your viewers – not broadcasters – will decide the actors – customers and companies alike home and be a part of your life as branded when, how, why and what is consumed. – successfully complete transitions from content, branded entertainment, branded And they will dictate who they share that scene to scene and stage to stage. In today’s utilities and branded space. L’Equipe, the consumption with. script, those transitions read like this: Parisian based daily sports newspaper, The question is, What role should brand invented the Tour de France for one simple play in this age of transformation? reason: to sell more newspapers, branded content with a pinch of engagement. But customers are transforming brands, too. New cultural modes of performance are emerging from new network-based social behaviors and conversations. With over 50 million people able to share ideas, opinions and experiences in a single online space – and generate billions of web page impressions every month – these behaviors Interruption is the stage Intrusion is the stage Engagement is the curtain call of this and conversations are creating a seismic where old scripts get between what was and what performance. A celebration of the shift in the traditional balance of power that shredded, rules get tossed will be. A wild zone of new new reality and the ideas and rituals once existed between customers and out the window and the ideas and new rituals, it is alive that brought it to life, brands that companies. paradigms we lived by with uncertainty, excitement will occupy centre stage are those are revealed as obsolete. and expectation. This gestative that contribute the new ideas, help facilitate the new rituals, meet the new The Internet is our Inter- space where customers and needs and, ultimately, tell the best ruption. It has forever companies create and explore stories. Those who ignore this new ruptured the old system brand futures is where we reality do so at their own peril. of brand control and are right now. communication. INTERRUPTION INTRUSION ENGAGEMENT 40 41
  • 23. dIstrIbutIon Is nothIng content Is everythIng When distribution is trivial, unlimited and Great content – the kind that truly engages available to all, marketing to a captive – helps customers tell a story, perform audience sitting on a couch in front of a box a part of their life, communicate meaning to is a thing of the past. In fact, this kind of others and be all that they can be. It is, old-world marketing has become adversarial quite simply, cultural. to customers. Having adapted to the In the past, the clearest demonstration of media-fragmented and always-on new content (and brands) as cultural was in reality, they seek value by searching, the subculture. Punks, mods, ravers, skaters, discovering and sharing their very personal church-goers, artists, bikers and others brand caches with peers – not waiting made commodities come to life through for you to interrupt them with unwanted performances like no other consumers messaging. on earth. Today, because of the scope and Broadcasting is in trouble, and user- reach of social media, we are in an age of generated videos are just the beginning. the post-subcultural. The Hipster, a mash-up The social-casting of YouTube will of subcultural traditions, has become the evolve and, in the process, so too will emblem of insider-ness made accessible to consumer behavior. Instead of passivity, all with the Internet. the experience flow of tomorrow will Just as subculturalists were the creative be characterized by immediacy, flexibility, class of brand dissemination, modification, portability, permeability, fluidity, alteration and transformation, so now are interactivity, mashability and ownerability. the millions of people around the world who, With the emergence and convergence through social media, have access to insider of the mobile phone, the Internet and knowledges, practices, experiences, location-based-systems, consumers also performances and collaborative communities. have immediate access to co-workers, This occurs through YouTube, Flickr, friends and family members. Between Twitter, Facebook and the thousands of online CONTENT getting used to and being born into advice, support, co-creation and retail a connected age, they are naturally and portals. The relentless virtualization of social increasingly drawing on participation life, the marketing of niche-interactions, in various networks for information, the sharing of experiences and the out- assistance, support and recommendations. sourcing of work means that less and less of Creating great products, services and our daily lives are produced and consumed content is paramount. Content? Yes, at home. Rather, we are performing content. An integral part of any product or ourselves more in public, more collabor- service and their related experiences, atively and more than every through customers will consume only what’s relevant the kinds of very social networks that once to them, what best serves them, and what existed solely in subcultures. truly entertains them – not what is marketed to them by you through repetition. Engaging them will require branded experiences rich in content that strengthen contextual involvement and consumer connection. Within such experiences, the density and intensity of polysemic, multi-origin, co-created and fragmented communication will make Baudrillard’s hyper-reality seem as antiquated as TV. 42 43
  • 24. the personal brand What Is the problem? “We spent eight In the age of the Personal Brand, Many companies are simply not ready to “We hired a brand consultant commoditization is permeating every aspect deal with or anticipate identity obsolescence and developed a great of daily life. Style, taste, identity and like they anticipate the obsolescence of months and a brand strategy. Our ad individuality have become central to what products or business models. Despite the agency went on to create we expect from our experiences in best efforts of management teams, many and produce an ad lot of money on health care, learning, dating, news, clothing, can’t adapt to shifts in the competitive campaign that far exceeded food, travel, home furnishings, com- environment because the required brand- our capability to deliver a brand strategy munication, sports, entertainment, sexuality, driven adaptive response is inconsistent the brand promise. We spirituality, birth, marriage, babies and with the company’s core identity. Any brand ended up with disappointed and all that’s burials. Twenty years ago, in the social exercise will only widen the gap between customers, internal mainstream, this wasn’t the case. Sub- the brand and the corporate core identity. conflicts and brand credibility changed is the culturalists were particularly picky about erosion.” their purchases, but the average – CEO, Telco logo and tagline.” consumer had a less refined sense of assembling their self through products and services. Today, instant communication has – CEO, Financial Services Company blown the doors clear off of the old-world media and advertising industry. Taste gurus, micro-brands, blogs, chatters, Friends, Tweeters, citizen journalists and the searchability of style have forever changed the how, what, where, when and why of consumption. In the new free-for-all of ideas, opinions, reviews and experiences, individuals with greater access to information strive to define and display their Personal Brand, niche is the norm, cool is hyper-commoditized and branding becomes as much a bottom-up phenomenon for customers as a top-down priority for companies Brands One result is that we have become desperate to socialize the profane. Distracted by the pace of change, unfulfilled in our personal lives and feeling disempowered by our work, many of us turn to celebrities, rock stars, designers and brands to cultivate more meaning in life. But when work is empowering and life is meaningful, interest and engagement in high-consumption lifestyles will wane. De-marketing will happen. “I want to be cool.” Until then, a brand’s role is to help to create meanings in everyday life through commodities. Consumers 44 45
  • 25. savIng your can socIal medIa Many B-school case studies have chronicled brands brought back from the dead. But ZombIe brands save the for every success, there are hundreds of ZombIe brands? failures: companies that tried to revitalize Zombie Brands, Dinosaurs Brands, Ghost old brands by hiring new agencies and Brands or Graveyard Brands are what The Social Media Generation has throwing endless amounts of money into people used to call brands that customers phenomenal influence over the fate of advertising in hopes of rebuilding, even have either completely abandoned or brands. Active, mobile and vocal, when there wasn't a relevant product, service that are simply hanging on by a thread, they share the joys, angers and frustrations or sound strategy behind the initial move. usually at a Dollar Store or at Costco of their daily experiences with anybody How bad is your situation? Here are the three in a totally unrelated product category. and everybody. In doing so, their digital most common scenarios: Some have gone through unsuccessful connectivity becomes the web that weaves revitalization efforts, others exist only in Brand Communities. Separated by emerging markets, a few have simply their geography but bound by their love My brand is sick. lost relevance in their core market place of a particular brand, citizens of these (Xerox, Oldsmobile) to be used casually communities can be identified by four on products totally outside their product core markers: Market changes direction and the brand category (Teac, RCA, Polaroid etc.). become irrelevant. Everyone (advertising, • Shared intereStS product design, promotions) used to • Shared valueS If you happen to own a Zombie Brand, understand what the brand means and they • Shared ritualS what can you do? all stick to it, believing it connects to • Shared purpoSeS something larger and more enduring. But 1. INVEST AND ATTEMPT TO REVITALIZE IT one day they woke up and realized there The commercial, mass‐mediated ethos in 2. MILk IT was a big disconnect. Your brand is stuck in which Brand Communities are situated 3. POSITION IT FOR THE EMERGING MARkET the past. YOUR BRAND IS IRREVELANT. affects their character and structure and 4. SELL IT FOR WHATEVER IT’S WORTH 5. DUMP IT gives rise to their particularities. From a brand and marketing perspective, this is the My brand is Consumers with special relationships to most disruptive trend. It means that Zombie Brands often have sentimental Social Media, not advertising, has become dying. reasons for continuing to make purchases the conduit for communication and that or for giving them a second chance. But customers are the collective source of truth the cost and risk of bringing a brand back for brands. Given the right new content, to life is enormous. If this is your choice, The brand is becoming boring. It doesn’t the Brand Community is a possible cure for make sure the decision to do so is based create excitement for customers or even the Zombie Brand. on sound logic. If you run a large portfolio, employees anymore. Younger consumers the questions will be: Which brands are think of it as their parents’ brand. This worth the revitalization effort? And Why? is common with brands that have been successful and achieved market leadership. In fact, it’s often the result of being too successful. Your successful past has made you lazy. YOUR BRAND LACkS CUSTOMER ENGAGEMENT. My Brand Has No Vital Signs. You’ve ignore your brand for too long or simply let it ride to expiry. Every drop of energy and goodwill has been squeezed out. It has lost its power to capture your customers' (or even your own) imagination. Your brand is a shell of existence. IT HAS BEEN REDUCED TO NOTHING MORE THAN A LOGO. 46 47
  • 26. strategIc perspectIves of brandIng 48 49
  • 27. “We have a surplus “We also have a surplus The average consumer is exposed to as many as 30,000 messages per day, of of similar companies, of similar brands, which more than 3,000 are branded. Many studies indicate that less than 10% of prime time ads have clear positioning. employing similar having similar attributes, Between 1999 and 2000, the number of new packaged goods introduced people, with similar with similar marketing increased by more than 20%, the largest increase in a decade. Most of these educational back- messages and were “me-too” products destined to be lost in the crowd and to reduce some grounds, working slogans, coming up brands to a near-commodity status. In a world where brands abound, in similar jobs, coming with similar brand competition is increasingly intense and the speed of competitive responses is ever shorter. The race is on to rise above the up with similar ideas, claims, with similar throng of brands and secure customer loyalty. But all too often, companies fall into producing similar quality, selling at similar the trap of thinking short-term, being overly ambitious or lacking a brand strategy. things, with similar prices. Welcome to prices and similar the Surplus Economy!” quality.” – Idris Mootee – kjell Nordstrom and Jonas Ridderstrale, Funky Business + + =? ENTERPRISE BEST STRATEGIC RESOURCE PRACTICES OUTSOURCING MANAGEMENT NOT ONLY ARE BRANDS SIMILAR, EVEN THE COMPANIES ARE NOW MORE OR LESS THE SAME OR NEARLY IDENTICAL 50 51
  • 28. brandIng and economIc evolutIon mcdonaldIZatIon In the Surplus Economy, the marketing battle is a battle of the brands – a technology is often oriented towards McDonaldization is everywhere. Individualism competition for brand dominance. greater control and more consistent quality. and diversity are replaced by efficiency Companies will recognize that brands are The great source of uncertainty and and social control. It is the process by which a company’s most valuable assets unpredictability in a rationalizing system is the principles of the fast food restaurant and recognize that it is more important people — either the people who work dominate more and more sectors of our to own markets than factories. within those systems or the people who are society throughout the world. The only way to own markets is to own served. Branding advertising is used to McDonald’s has 30,000 restaurants in market-dominant brands. The brand put the human elements back. The warm 121 countries, 60% of which are outside the battlefields expand beyond advertising and smiling faces in TV commercials USA. Shopping centers are everywhere media and be fought on many grounds. are intended to convince customers about and the shops and merchandize are mostly “calculability” over “individuality”. the same. This trend is visible in many other businesses from toys, auto-repair, “(calculability) involves an emphasis on things that can convenient stores, consumer electronics to be calculated, counted, quantified. quantification refers to books and general merchandize. The a tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality. This leads to a sense that quality is equal to a certain, usually “control” and “system” components are key. (but not always) large quantity of things.” Replacement of human by non-human The Battle of Brands SURPLUS ECONOMY INFORMATION ECONOMY SERVICE ECONOMY INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY VALUE TIME 52 53
  • 29. customer fournIer’s customer relatIonshIps approach: relatIonshIps Most businesses have a relationship with their customers Meet with consumers (hundreds of people over several Managing Customer Relationships has that is based solely on price. That is why so many years) to listen to their life stories, discover their interests become Managing Software Vendor companies are having difficulties maintaining their margins. and goals, and hear about the ups & downs of their Relationships. So, what went wrong? The challenge is to figure out how to extend those daily lives. Then ask each person to describe his/her Shouldn’t companies be putting their money transaction-based relationships to emotional-based “brand portfolio” and to explain why they choose the back into developing the “R” of “CRM”? relationships. Professor Susan Fournier at Harvard products they do. Marketers and “CRM” vendors set Business School has classified the relationships consumers Fournier drew out seven essential attributes of good unrealistically high expectations when they have with their brands into fifteen types ranging across brand relationship quality: talk about “relationships”. Should the whole spectrum. They include: they be using a different word instead? “Traditionally, tactical marketing decisions – regarding packaging and advertising, for COMMITTED PARTNERSHIP ENSLAVEMENT INTERDEPENDENCE LOVE AND PASSION instance – are made by different people or Usually long-term and Involuntary relationship Brand is inextricably Consumers feel affection/ departments. A holistic understanding voluntary relationship: a governed exclusively by the woven into consumers’ passion for the products of the relationship that consumers have with man is so involved with partner’s wishes or desires: daily life and routine. and may experience a brand can give direction to a company’s his brand of bicycle that he a consumer is unhappy with separation anxiety if it’s marketing activities and result in a stronger becomes an advocate the local cable provider but not available. bond between consumer and brand” of it, singing its praises to has no alternative source for his friends. the service. – Susan Fournier Harvard Business School COMMITMENT SELF-CONCEPT CONNECTION “A good relationship is an asset. We can Consumers stick with Using the brand helps invest in relationships, and we can borrow the product through good consumers address a from them. We all do it but almost never or bad times either in life issue, such as a need manage it. Yet a company’s most precious his or her life style or in the to belong or a fear of asset is its relationship with customers.” product’s life cycle. growing old. – Theodore Levitt Harvard Business School INTIMACY PARTNER qUALITY Consumers describe a Consumers seek certain sense of deep familiarity positive traits in the brand with the product and such as dependability, an understanding of its trust, worthiness, and attributes. accountability – the same qualities as one would look for in a best friend. NOSTALGIC ATTACHMENT brand brings back memories either because it was used at an earlier time in life or because it was associated with loved ones 54 55
  • 30. rIse and rIse of the brand The very technologies that make it faster, easier and cheaper to innovate also help us to imitate. The game switched from innovation to imitation. The increasing difficulty in differentiating between products, services and the speed with which competitors take up innovations will only assist in the rise and rise of the brand. Many of our dreams and desires for a better world are no longer articulated by John kennedys or Martin Luther kings, nor generated through personal epiphanies – they are now the intellectual currency of brands. When brands connect to inspiration and epiphany – personal, collective or conjured by leaders – they enter into a realm immune to imitation. 56 57